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ANNALS 



O F 



AGRICULTURE, 

AND 

OTHER USEFUL. ARTS. 

COLLECTED AND PUBLISHED BY 

ARTHUR YOUNG, Esq^F.R.S. 

Honorary Member of the Societies of Dublin, Bath, York, 
Salford, and Odiham } the Philofophical and Literary 
Society of Manchester; the CEconomical Society of 
Berne; thePhyfical Society of Zurich; the Palatine 
Academy of Agriculture at Man HEiM 5 the Imperial 
CEconomical Society eftablifhed atPETERSBURGH j 
And correfponding Member of the Royal 
Society of Agriculture at Paris j of 
the Royal Academy of Agricul- 
ture at Florence; and 
of the Patriotic Society 
at Mi L a N. 



VOL. I. 



BURY ST. EDMUND'S: 
printed for the EDITOR, by j. rackham, 

AND SOtD BY W, RICHARDSON, ROYAL-EXCHANGE, LONDON, 
MDCCXC. 







U-^ 



Library of bavid King. 
Leavitt & Co. Mav 21 1884 



57253 



ANNALS 

O F 

AGRICULTURE, 

AND 

OTHER USEFUL ARTS, 

Number I. 
INTRODUCTORY. 



CONTAINING 



An Inquiry into the Situation 
of the Kingdom on the Con- 
clufion to the late Treaty ; 
and 



Into the furefl Means of adding 
to the National Refources by 
a proper Application of the 
Arts of Peace. 



Quand il eft queflion d'eftimer la puiffance publique le bel-efprit vifite 
les palais da prince, fes ports, fes trojpe*, fes arfenaux, fes villes ; le 
vrai politique parcourt les tcrres & va dans la chaumiere du laboureur. 
Le premier voit cc qu'on a fait & le fccond cc qu'on peut faire. 

ROUSSSAV. 

BY THE EDI TOR, 



/' 



PREFACE. 



THE idea of a periodical publicailon as a g^ 
neral channel for information relative to 
Agriculture is at lead a century old* Houghton, 
in King James the Second's reign, publifhed a 
paper for this purpofe twice a week, and continued 
it with little interruption to the beginning of Queen 
Anne's. In the prefent age we have feen an at- 
tempt made upon a much lefs refpeftable plan. 
The Mufasum Ruflicum had as long a duration 
as it merited j it was fuccefiively imitated in other 
papers, under the titles De Re Rustica and 
Foreign Essays, but all being anonymous, they 
dropped into obfcurity almoft as foon as they flarted 
for public favour. The very ingenious and refpec- 
table Dr. Hunter publifhed the four volumes of 
his elegant Georgical EfTays at different periods, 
to fupply the want of fuch a channel : the ability 
with which he furnifhed the moft confiderable por- 
tion of the work, and the refpeftablc correfpondents 

A 2 that 



6 PREFACE. 

that gave him their afliftance, fecured fuccefs to 
the performance ; and it is very much to be re- 
gretted that the Do(5lor*s other avocations would 
not permit him to continue it. 

About the time of the Georgical Eflays being 
dropped, I propofed a periodical publication to 
fome rc'fpeftable bookfellersa in union with the late 
very ingenious Mr. John Whyn Baker, the Dub- 
lin Society's experimenter in Hufbandry, My 
idea was to admit no communicacions without the 
names and places of abode of the authors, and to 
publifh no given quantity, in order to avoid all 
pretence of (welling the papers with views of pri- 
vate profit. In order to induce them to come into 
the plan upon liberal principles Mr. Baker pro- 
mifed confiderable information without any grati- 
fication, and I offered to engage for the whole 
trouble and bufinefs of the Editorlhip free of every 
expeftation of reward or gratutiy, whatever fuccefs 
might attend the work. The bookfellers were 
very ready to publifh it upon the plan of a regular 
monthly number at a ftated price, but would not 
engage upon that liberal fyftem of offering no 
more to the public than our correfpondence with 
aflual cultivators would enable us to give, with 
credit to ourfelves and advantage to our readers. 
In confequence of which the fcheme never took 
place. 



PREFACE. 7 

The American war fucceeded, and not only in 
its confequences circumfcribed in very narrow 
bounds the purchafers of all except political and 
party publications, but turned afide the attention 
of mankind fo much from the quiet purfuits of 
peace, as to leave very little hope of any fuch plan 
reviving in that period of public diftradion and 
private diftrefs. 

The return of peace, which every friend to art, 
and induftry, and fcience, muft wifli to be perma- 
nent, it will, it is hoped, recall the attention of the 
people to objeds of a domeftic and economical na- 
ture. It is only by this means that the wade of 
war can be repaired. No friend to his country 
but muft now wifh to fee a general attention given 
to agriculture, in order that the future dependence 
of the ftate may fettle more on the bafis of inter- 
nal refources than on fuch as experience has proved 
to be infecure. To forward and promote this 
new and happier policy as much as can be in the 
power of fo inconfiderable an individual, I have, 
uninterefted* in the publication further than wifhes 
to be ufeful, fet this work on foot, and animated 

* Should the publication prove more fuccefsful than is ex- 
pefted, I mean to procure the die of a medal, in order that thofe 
who furnifti within the year the bed experimental information, may 
receiye an honorary tribute of applaufe adjudged by the majority 
of correfpondents, or in any other way that fhall on future conC- 
deration be found more advifeable. 

A 4 ^y 



8 PREFACE. 

by no other motive than the public good. If the 
friends of agriculture will correfpond on the occa- 
fion, I (hall pay due attention to fuch communi- 
cations as I am permitted to ufe with the name 
and abode of the author. 

My intention is to publifti a number as often as 
my own experiments and the communications I am 
favoured with will permit j if they are numerous 
enough for a monthly publication it fhall appear 
regularly ; if not, with a longer period intervening. 
The bulk of the pamphlet will be various, and 
the price proportioned. Correfpondents arc re- 
quefted to direct to me, at Bradfield-Hall, near 
Bury, Suffolk. 

ARTHUR YOUNG. 



ANNALS 



O F 



AGRICULTURE. 



THE parties of one country and the debility 
of another having at laft extinguiflied the 
torch ofdifcord, other arts than thofe of bloodfhed 
may now be attended to. If all future wars were 
out of the queftion, and we had only to confider 
the means of drawing from peace the full amount 
of the bleffings belonging to it, we ought certainly 
to render them the objeds of legiflation, and dire<5t 
our domeftic policy to the great end of making a 
flourifhing community, fupported by the happinefs 
of individuals — reiieft its profperity back to them. 
But unfortunately this country, happy as it un- 
doubtedly is, muft have views more extended than 
the limits of its domeftic bleflings. War returns 
aimofl periodically. — The ambition and folly of 
kings, united with the narrow views of half-in- 
formed minifters and ftatefmen, will prove a peren- 
nial fource of thofe evils which fpring from national 

quartclsi 



lo ANNALSOF 

quarrels. We muH: in the very enjoyments of 
peace, be preparing for war, under the confidence 
that the art to keep at a diftance the baleful influ- 
ences flowing from difcord, is to be prepared to 
meet her. 

The profpe£ls of this country at prefent are 
complicated and doubtful. If we had any certainty 
of fupporting ourfelves in our prefent fituation, 
there would be no abfulute neceflity to look into fu- 
turity j but a war that has, to fpeak the mildeft, fliook 
our power to the foundation — that leaves us under 
'a debt of above two hundred millions; clofed tri- 
umphantly by our enemy, who, for the firft time 
in his annals, makes peace with a great and fiourilh- 
ing marine in his ports. — Thefe are fpedlacles new 
in themfelves, and unexplored in their confequences. 
f Whatever may be thofe confequences, of this we 
I can entertain no doubt, that they call for the com- 
A bined exertion of all the wifdom and talents in the 
: iiation to draw into activity every latent refburce, 
and to create new ones equal to the new burthens 
that are experienced in the prefent period, and 
dreaded in the future. Some obfervations on the 
readieft means of doing this may be excufed by 
the public, though not deduced with the regularity 
of a formal compofition ; the ideas of improve- 
ment which animate me to the attempt, Ihould 
they ever be adopted, may be ufeful to the kingdom. 
The filence of indifference, or the referve of pride, 
may flow from the want oi feeling'—the agitation 

of 



AGRICULTURE. ii 

of the prefent momenr, which involves in a rapid 
circulation of events the fate of Britain, ought not 
to permit a voice to be filent that was ever heard 
on public topics. 

Annerica is \o^ ! Mufl we fall beneath the blow ? 
Or have we refources that may repair the mifchiefs 
of the late unfortunate conteft ? What are thofc 
refources ? Should they be fought in diftant regions 
held by a precarious tenure, or fliall we feek thco^ 
at home in the exertions of a new policy ? 

Here in few words is flcetched the fubjecl of thriv- 
papers. The fituation of the kingdom is novel — 
the policy that is to govern it m.uft be novel like- 
wife, or neither adapted to the real evils of the pre- 
fent moment, nor the dreaded ones of the future. 

Let us confider what has been the fyftem of this 
country, and what ought to be the change which 
new circumftances fhould teach us to adopt. 

For a century pad the colonial fcheme has been 
that which guided the adminifiration of the Britifh 
government. It was a fadl known to all mankind, 
and illuftrated by a thoufand writers, that from 
every country there always exifts an aftive emigra- 
tion of unfettled, difcontented, or unfortunate 
people, v/ho, failing in their endeavours to live at 
home, feek for better luck where there is more em- 
ployment fuitabie to their poverty. The eftablifh- 
ment of colonies in America might probably in- 
creafe the number of this clafs, but did not create 
jti in times anterior to that great fpeculation, Po- 
land 



12 ANNALS OF 

land contained 10,000 Scotch pedlars j if, as is 
probably the cafe, it has not for thirty years paft 
contained an hundred, it is becaufe America 
offered a more advantageous afylum. 

A people fpread over an immenfe tradl of fertile 
land, induftrious becauie free, and rich becaufe irir 
duftrious, prefently became a great market to the 
manufaftures and commerce of the mother country. 
An importance was foon generated, which from its 
origin to the late conflift was mifchievous to Bri- 
tain, becaufe it created an expenfe of blood and 
trcafure worth more at this inftant, if it could be 
at our command, than all that ever we received 
from America. The wars of 1744, of 1756 and 
1775, were all entered into, becauie the beggars, 
fanatics, felons, and madmen of the kingdom, had 
been encouraged in their fpeculations of fettling 
in the wilds of North America. And writers, 
vvhofe eloquence, talents, and brilliancy of ideas 
have enabled them to deceive us with the fame 
errors that miflead themfelves, have exhaufted all 
the powers of their ingenuity in attempting to 
prove that we have^r<?w« great, becaufe they did 
not continue little. And would perfuade us that 
the current of freedom, of animated efforts, and 
fuccefsfui induftry, would have vfanted a field of 
exertion had Columbus never been born. — Thefe 
are ideas which while we poffeffed America 
were fafhionable, becaufe we had parties whofe in- 
S-creft it was to reprgfenE the importance of thofe 

terrirories 



AGRICULTURE. 13 

territories in an aggravated light j and I fuppofc 
they will ftill have cheir advocates, as we can never' 
want that agreeable application of ingenuity which 
exerts itfelf in the rtcoUedion of our misfortunes, 
at lead while a fingle perfon remains to whole 
door thofe misfortunes can in any way be laid. 

My 'opinion was always ditferentj and long bc-n 
fore a fingle mufket was fired in that ill fated quar4 
rel, I publicly attempted to fhow that thofe com4 
monly called the Northern colonies, that is north 
of tobacco, fo far from being pojfcjfions valuable 
to us, were in reality our very luccefsful rivals in 
two articles of as much confequence as any colonies 
in the world could be, the carrying freight trade, 
and the Newfoundland fifiiery. I calculated that 
while (1770) the fugar colonies added above three 
millions a year to the wealth of Britain ; the rice 
colonies near a million, and the tobacco ones al- 
moft as much, that thofe more to the north, fo far 
from adding any thing to our wealth as colonies^ 
were trading, fifhing, farming countries, that rival- 
led us in many branches of our induftry, and had 
actually deprived us of no inconfidcrable Ihare of 
the w&alth we reaped by means of the others. I 
ftate thefe opinions, founded on a great variety of 
fafbs, not only as my ideas are fi:ill the fame, en- 
larged as every attentive man's nccefl^arily muft be 
by the accumulation of thirteen years information 
and experience, but more particularly as the con- 
clufions I ihail draw from this general view of our 

from 



14 ANNALSOF 

former policy will lead me Immediately to what 
ought to be our policy in future. 

I do not however touch upon the comparative 
view of our former territories in America with any 
idea of leflening the confequence of a future friend- 
Ihip and connexion with them ; on the contrary, 
I am clear that we fhall reap more advantages from 
their trade as friends than ever we could derive 
from them as colonies, I am inclined io believe that 
we aflually did gain more by them while they were 
in rebellion, and the common open connedion cut 
off, than when they were in obedience to the crown; 
the Newfoundland filhery taken into the account, 
there is little doubt of it *, 

But 

* If the fubjeft Is confidered with attention this will not be 
thought a paradoxical affertion : 

I' 

In 1763 Exports to North America 2,617,987 

Jn 1774 ditto — — — — 3>34-Ij4I3 

In 1775 ditto — — — 99S»25i 

In 1776 ditto — — — — j,334.,76o 

In 1777 ditto — — ■' 2,103,291 

In 1778 ditto — — — — • 1,247,718 

In 1779 ditto iiSS(>yS°7 

In 1780 ditto ' ■ ' ■ " ■ 11969,657 

It appears from hence that rebellion, hatred, revenge, and war, 

had not coUe6\ed, the power of putting a (lop to our trade to that 

country; and that the difference between peace and war, under 

fuch circuraftances, was much lefs than might have been imagined. 

But reafons are not v/anting that may perhaps convince us the 

foialler was better than the larger export. Firft, it was paid for 

■without thofe long credits that had ruine.l many •.tour merchants 

before. Second, it was not paid for by raeanJ of ti.eir fifhcries, 

v/hicli 



AGRICULTURE. 15 

But all retrorpe(5l into the pad Oiould be in refer- 
ence to the future. The late peace has preferved 
Canada and Nova Scotia to us; colonies circum- 
flanced exactly like thofe which experience has 
proved mod amply cannot anfwer one fingle colo- 
nial idea, but may be rivals in many. I have no 
lights to guide me in laying blame on negociators 
and ftatefmen. A better peace might not be in 
our power to gain j but let not the poffeffion of 
thefe countries deceive us into an idea that they 
can be worth colonizing. If they continue poor | 
they will be no markets. If rich they will revolt; 
and that perhaps is the bell thing they can do for 
our intereft. 

If from North America we pafs to the Weft 
Indies, the profpefb is much more brilliant, for the 
lofles we have fuffered by the war (Tobago) arc 
very inconfiderable. We have there a territory of 
which the value is perfectly known ; but a queftioni 
remains to be decided, how far we fhould pufh ad- 
vantages there ? We have thrown back into our 
hands iflands not a tenth part cultivated. Should 
wc encourage emigrations to them ? Will greac 
exertions in improving thofe Indian wades prove 

which v'tre in our own hands. Third, it was not paid for by 
the produds o( our Weft-India iflands, as uniformly the cafe dur- 
ing peace, but by what they made from foreign fugar iflands. 
Thus the lefs export was enjoyed by us with all the collateral profit 
of the Newfoundland fifliery, and the Weft-Indies, which in peace 
were partiy in the hands of thefe northern cplonies, and formed 
the paytoent for th^t greater export. 

bene- 



16 A N N A L S O r 

beneficial to the kingdom ? This leads me atoilcc 
to the great feature of my defign. 

Statefmen of no common abilities have, through 
the courfe of the American war, declared that we 
could not hold the Weft Indies without North 
America : meaning, doubtlefs, that if a naval power 
arofe there, and that force fhould ever be exerted 
againft us, thofe iflands muft fall to it. The fubjedt 
admits of no demonftration, but there are proba- 
bilities in the idea that ought to make us refleft 
very ferioufly. The trade, navigation, and naval 
power of the United States, muft, in the ordinary 
courfe of eventSj have a rapid progrefs. They may 
unite with France j and in fuch a cafe, to fay the 
leaft of it, we ftiall find our ftake in the Weft Indies 
not quite fo fecure as an Englilh county. The 
obfcrvation has little reference to plantations already 
in culture, and fpecplations of which the ruin is 
paft, and the profit only to come, but it moft efTen- 
tially concerns all new undertakings; and feems 
to prohibit every public encouragement that can 
in any ftiape be given to the inveftment of new 
capitals on fo precarious a bottom : prdvided (of 
which m.ore hereafter) other fields for fuch exertions 
are placed within the reach of private induftry, 
equally produ6live and more fecure. 

FromtheWefternletus turn to the more fplendid 
territory of the Eaftern Indies. There we receive 
a vaft revenue — immenfc remittances — and plurider 
in all jhe thoufand ftiapcs that a:ftive knavery can 

invent, 



AGRICULTURE. 17 

invent, to difguife the enormity of its amount. The 
value of the territorial poffefTion we have acquired 
is great indeed, and much exceeds whatever we 
made by the North American colonies that arc 
juft become High and Mighty States. But let us 
not be dazzled by the appearance of fo flattering 
an exterior. Within is nothing but danger, hollow- 
nefs and deception. Thofe pofTcITions have been 
and will continue to be precarious. It is impofll- 
ble to hold countries that we treat as we have done 
our Indian dominions. A people plundered with- 
out fhame or refiraintj in order to give us every 
two or three years the detefl:able exhibition of men 
grown great by their flagitious extortions, is but 
the repetition of a memento of our future ruin. This 
fellow — and this — and this — are come home to 
awaken the nation from its Indian dream, and with 
their golden flappers to beat into our fliupid intel- 
ledls the forefight of an event we fliall have little 
courage to look in the face — the lofe of India ! 
That day fnuji come. — It ought to come. — If 
there is a ruling Providence that overfees the con- 
duct of nations, and that ever yet punilhed them 
for their iniquities, we must be driven out of India 
with abhorence and contempt, and all the people 
of the globe would rejoice at the event. It is not 
that this country produces men, in this mild age of 
enlightened reafon and improved humanity, whofe 
hearts are more unrelenting and their feelings harder 
than the refl: of mankind — but that the loofe and 
VoL.I. No. J. B relaxed 



i8 ANNALS OF 

relaxed policy of the kingdom, with a minifter for 
ever at the head of it ftruggling for fupport, gives 
an intereft in protefling thofe who in return can 
become moft powerful fupporters of him. The 
fituation with impunity forms the charadler *. The 
Houfe of Commons, on the evident lofs of America, 
revolting from all the trammels with which mini- 
fterial fmiles could entangle individuals, put an end 
to it by a fingle vote. Do they not perceive that 
the inevitable lofs of our dominions, after perhaps 
a war in its defence as expenfive as that that had 
America for its objed, will follow theproteflion that 
is given to every Verres that returns from thence ? 
The Eaft and Weft Indies are conceived to be 
the great commerical fupports of the empire j as 
to the Newfoundland fifhery, time muft tell us what 
fhare we fhall referve of it. But there is one ob- 
fervation which is applicable to all three: they de- 
pend on very diftant territorial pofleffions, which 
we have little or no hope of retaining from their 
internal ftrength — We can keep them only by 

* Undiftinguifhing cenfure is unjuft, and once was near proving 
fo in the famous attack on Lord Clive, a man whofe great aftions 
— fplendid genius— and capacious mind fliould have exempted him 
even from fufpicion. The wealth he made was no more than the 
overflowings of what his talents gave to the public. He grew rich 
by conqueftj not by the petty arts of the bureau.— We owe India 
to his great exertions, and had we liftened to him, he would have 
taught us how to govern it. He had doubtlefs his faults, but 
ihey were hid in the radiance which his glory threw around them ; 
and his name will be that of a benefaflor to his country, long after 
the Engliih power (hall be heard of no more in Bengal. 

means 



AGRICULTURE. 19 

means of a fuperior navy. If our nnarine force finks 
— or if in confequence of wars, debts, and taxes, 
we fhould in future find ourfelves fo debilitated as 
to be involved in a new war, without the means 
of carrying it on with vigour, in thefe cafes, all 
fuch diftant poflefTions mud fall let them be as va- 
luable as their warmed panegyrifls contend. 

From this flight review of our moft important 
dependencies, it evidently appears, that they are 
not the proper theatres on which to exert that ncw^^j 
policy which can alone be the prefervation of the 
Britifh power and confequence. The more im- 
portant they are already, the lefs are they fit inftru- 
ments in that work. That they are infecure no 
man can be hardy enough to deny : to add there- 
fore to their value by exertions of policy that fhall 
have the effe6l of diredting any ftream of capital, 
induftry, or population into thofe channels, would 
be to add to a difproportion already an evil. The 
more we are convinced of the vaft importance of 
thofe territories, the more we mufl: feel the infecurity 
of our power. If they were of fuch a magnitude 
as to be effential to our political exiftence, it would 
be no paradox to afierr, that the misfortune would 
be yet greater. Our view therefore ought not to ■ 
be increaje but preservation. 

If we come nearer home and confider the date of 
Ireland, formerly one of the dependencies of the Bri- 
tilh monarchy, we can rank it in no other clafs, 
than that of a neighbour with whom v/e trade to 

B 2 advantage. 



20 ANNALSOF 

advantage. The political connexion between the 
two kingdoms is in a (late of uncertainty, perhaps 
of perplexity. At prefent Ireland is governed by 
a military democracy, and no political fyflem is 
eftablifhed between the two countries. The event 
of the moment has brought its regulation : it may 
probably continue in the lame fituation till the affb- 
ciated corps, having laid down their arms, leave to 
the parliament of the kingdom fomething more 
than the fhadow of power. The moft carelefs eye 
may difcern, in every circumftance of that imper- 
fe<5t connexion which fubfifts at prefent between 
the two iflands, uncertainty, doubt, anxiety and fuf- 
pence j rights not yet afcertained, pretenfions not 
yet avowed, contingencies unprovided for, and cafes 
unexplained. Whether this novel fituation will in 
future events prove a material obftacle to the necef- 
fary efforts of Great Britain, time only can deter- 
mine. We are however juftified from the general 
obfcurity that involves the fubje6t, in confidering 
Ireland as no more than a neighbour with whom 
we trade. 

The confequences of the late revolution in that 
kingdom are very little underftood, or indeed 
thought of among thofe people in England with 
■whom I have converfed on the fubjed. Two in- 
dependent nations, with no other bond of alliance 
than obeying the fame king (the new fituation) can 
in no great latitude of expreffion be termed limbs 
of the fame empire, In cafe of fome future war, 

entered 



AGRICULTURE. 21 

entered into by England for the defence of Anneri- 
can or Afiatic territorries, will Ireland engage in 
it to the certain detriment of her commerce, manu- 
fadlures, and induftry ? Will (he fee the Dutch 
(fuppofmg them at peace) growing rich by neutra* 
lity, and not defire the fame fituation ? Will flie en- 
gage in wars in which the benefits of vidlory are to 
be ours, the lofTes only hers? If fhe will nor, then 
we know the fpedlacle we are to behold j the fame 
perfon is as king of England to be at war with the 
king of France; but as king of Ireland he is 
to be his very good friend and ally. If neutral Ire- 
land fupplies Breft with naval ftores while we are 
at war with France, her fituation will give her 
powers of doing that and more, which Holland 
never poflefled. I but touch on the idea j cafes 
might be multiplied to infinity, in relation to war, 
colonies, commerce, treaties, $zc. &:c. The news 
of the hour is the fpeculation of an Eaft India and 
(by parity of reafoning) many other trading com- 
panies : — new duties on Englifli fabrics, in order 
to feed thofe Irifh manufadurers that were to have 
grown fat on a free trade, which I foretold at the 
time * would for many years prove moonlhinc. Is 
it pofTible that my Englifh readers can have well 
confidered the tendency of all this ! The Englilh 
flag and ftandard, fortrefles and fettlements, main- 
tained at the expenfe of more than twice the whole 
revenue of Ireland, are to proted and cherifh the 

* Irifii Tour, td Edit, 

B 3 efforts 



22 ANNALS OF 

efforts of an armed friend, whofe fuccefs may lead 
to enmiry — certainly to rivalfhip. If a flag with 
four Itnpes is to be hoiried, is it like that of thirteen 
at prefent lo make its own way on the ocean ; or 
muft Britain, at the expenfe of millions, fmooth 
the path that may be trodden to her own deftruc- 
tion ! The converfation of the moment on thefe 
topics is, I am forry to find, full of caution and 
referve. There is none in Ireland. They are 
open and explicit j and we, in the true fpirit of a 
narrow policy, deceive ourfelves in the idea of ar- 
ranging interefts that have no connection, and ba- 
lancing parties that have no common center. I 
have no referves, and will freely declare, that inde- 
pendent Ireland, fhould The ever be eithfrr aftiveor 
quiefcent unconnedted with Britain, would be a 
monfter in politics: governed by a parliament, as 
conftituted of old, (he may cafl her anchor on the 
fafe coafl ; but let the madnefs of legiflative inno- 
vation drive her from her true courfe — let her feek 
fecurity in the pilotage of a Price or a Jebb — and 
with the laft marvellous politician feek that liberty 
from the bayonet * which Parliaments have failed 

to 

* There is no exaggeration in this; for if the delegates of mili- 
tary aflbciations, are to di£tate, not petition parliament for altera- 
tions in the conftitiition, under the notion of improvement*, from 
that inftant it is the fword that governs ; and the country is no 
more free, than it would be under a council of officers, Vvho might 
have the impudence to call themfelves a parliament. A change 
in the reprefentation of t^ie people, that flxould have the effeft of 

fillin?: 



AGRICULTURE. 2:; 

to giv*^ ; Ihe may meet, under the baleful influence 
of fuch a fpecific, fucceflive hurricanes and calms, 
but not that repofe on her arms which no laurels 
but thofe of freedom can ever beftow. — The prin- 
ciples of liberty have triumphed doubly in the late 
eventful war. America revolted againft what flie 
conceived to be oppreflion, — and Ireland has fhook 
off all dependence on this country, by means ot an 
armed multitude. Thefe principles therefore fteio 
to lead to the divifion, not the aggrandizement of 
a ftate. In the prefent cafe, they have torn a 
great empire into fhivers. Had the fpeculations of 
private men been attended to, neither of thefe mar- 
vellous events had taken place, A union with 
Ireland has been called for long ago. And Sir 
Jofiah Child, in the laft century, declared that 
planting colonies in climates that produced fimilar 
commodities with the mother country, could 
lead only to rivalry and independence. But when 
the blunder was made and eftablifhed — the fan)e 
policy that demanded a union with Ireland, called 
alfo for one with thefe colonies. The very ftatef- 

filling the Houfe of Commons, with the officers of the affociated 
corps without property, would end in this. So monltrous a ftate 
of things could not laft ; a military defpotifm would follow. For 
the fword to emancipate their country, from the commercial flavery 
of others, and the religious flavery of themfelves, was right and 
noble; but not to fheath it, when that bufinefs was fully effefted 
—bat for foldiers to turn legiflators, and di<5late a new conftitu- 
tion — what has been the confequence of this, in every century and 
age of the world, but anarchy in the firft; inftance, and defpotifm 
in the endi 

B 4 mcHj 



24 ANNALSOF 

men, who ridiculed both ideas, lived to lee the 
ruin that followed their own lyftcms. 

*' I would not, fays a political writer, fuggeft fo 
diftant a thought, as that any of our colonies^ when 
they grow ftronger, fhould ever attempt to wean 
themfelves from us; however, I think too much 
care cannot be taken to prevent it, and to preferve 
their dependence on their mother country. It is not 
to be hoped, that any nation will be fubjeft co ano- 
ther, any longer than it finds its own account in it, 
and cannot help itfelf. Nor will any country con- 
tinue their fubjeftion to another, only becaufe their 
great- grandmothers were acquainted. — This is the 
courfe of human affairs; and all wife ftates will al- 
ways have it before their eyes, and will well confi- 
der therefore how to preferve the advantages arifirg 
from colonies, and avoid the evils. And I conceive, 
there can be but two ways in nature, to hinder 
them from throwing off their dependence : the one 
to keep it out of their power, and the other out of 
their will. The firft muft be by force j and the latter 
by ufing them well. Force can never be ufed 
efFtdually, to anfvver this end, without deftroying 
the colonies themfelves." &c. &c. A ColleSfion of 
Cato's Letters in the Britijh Journal, No. i. 8vo. 
1723. p. 53, How well the colonies were go- 
verned, with a view co fuch a policy, events have 
told us. ;, 

We mud fini.Oi this tour of the empire, in our 
gwn iOand 3 for very plain it is, that beyond the 

limits 



AGRICULTURE. 25 

limits of it, whatever we poiltfs depends on contin- 
gencies of a precarious nature, and on events, of 
which we can forcfce little. One great linnb, the 
fugar-iflands, declared by the greateft politicians of 
the age, to be untenable, with North America in- 
dependent. — Another the Indian territory governed 
upon principles of weaknefs, feparation, and revolt 
—Ireland independent, and all future conneftion 
with her, unknown and uncertain. What then re- 
mains for yielding us refources, that may in a fu- 
ture ftorm enable us to meet an enemy with confi- 
dence, but the dominion of this little ifland ? There 
are men who will doubtlefs think this a moft grie- 
vous confinement, a wretched fpot that yields no 
elbow room. 

CEJluat infelix angujla iimite mimdi 

Ut Gyari claiifus Jcopulis parvaque Seripho. 

Let no one imagine that I have drawn, a pidlure 
of our diftant territories, little favourable in order 
to deprefs the minds of the people, and encourage 
a defpondency, that can lead to nothing but weak- 
nefs, and really creates the evils which it dreads. 
This has never been the bufinefs of my publications. 
An able, fleady, fyftem of governing what remains 
of the empire, lam convinced may avert every 
evil that can be innagined. It fhall be my tafk, 
and a pleafant one, to Ihew that the refources of 
this country, arc very far from being exhaufled j 
and, that we have it in our power, by a wife em- 
ployment 



26 ANNALSOF 

ployment of the peace, to give an extent and ftabi- 
lity to ihem, that (hall leave us few apprchenfions 
of the future. The qucftion is, what ought to be 
the field, for the exertion of that policy ? I have 
fliewn, that there already hangs an importance fully 
great enough, upon our diflant territories, in the 
ftate there are at prefent — to preferve, is the great 
objed of policy relative to them. And it v/ill not 
be difficult, to prove that the furefl:, wifcft, and 
readietl way of effedling that prefervation,^will be 
by eftablifhing the wealth, and power of this ifiand, 
on as large and foldid a bafis as pofllble. Her 
wealth mufh build the fbips, her navigation muft 
man the fleets, her population recruit the armies, 
her refources fupply the funds that are to hold to- 
gether thofe diftant and disjointed territories, from 
whence we are to receive the increment of our 
commercial wealth. 

But before I ftate what ouQ-ht to be our domeftic 

o 

policy, it may be necellary to fhew that we have 
yet the means of exerting any policy at all. An 
idea has pofTeffed many people, owing not a little 
to the political writings of Dr. Price, the Earl of 
Stair, and fome others of the fame fchool, that this 
country is fo crufhed by her expenfes, and her 
debts, that it is incapable of all exertion : while 
the war lafted, the language was, we muft have 
feace\ we are ruined if the war continues. It will 
appear from fadls, that there was little foundation 
for this mode of thinking and writing j and that we 

are 



AGRICULTURE. 27 

are at prefent a much more flourifhing people, than 
thefe gentlemen are willing to allow. Let us, 
therefore, haftily run over a few outlines of the na- 
tional fituation, which will afllfl: very much in dif- 
covering the nature and extent of this fuppofed de- 
clenfion and ruin. 

One of the circumflances, not the mofl favour- 
able that can be laid before the reader, I fnall be- 
gin with, which is the revenue of cuftoms. 

This revenue could not but be afftdted by two 
circumflances j firft the decline of the tobacco duties, 
not to mention other articles of American produce; 
iindjecond the increafe of fmuggling from the rife 
of duties : that pradlice f^ows from high taxes, and 
mufl rife with them. It was afTerted in parliament 
in 178 1, that the cufloms had declined one million 
and an half comparing the three years ending 1775, 
with the three ending 1778, which wasture in fa6t, 
and falfe in argument. Becaufe the grofs produd 
of the cufloms, drawbacks notdedufled, do not in- 
flrutl us in the real flate of that revenue, as has 
been already explained to the public *. Bur che 
nett produdl of this revenue, though it fhews fome 
declenfion, yet does noc juftify the affercions of 
thofe whofe bufinefs it is to depreciate the public 
refources. 



• Mr. Eden's 5th letter to Lerd Carlifle. p. 24. 

CUSTOMS. 



28 A N N A L S O F 

CUSTOMS. 

I' 

Annual Produtfls from 1761, to 1765 2,076,735 

Ditto for 8 years, ending 1772 - 2,535,723 
Ditto from 1772 to 1 ; 75 - 2,503,353 

Ditto for 4 years, ending 1779 - 2,313,424 

For the year 1779 - - 2,412,993 

the new duty, of 5 per cent. dedu6ted. 

This account will not pennit us to think, that 
the part of our commerce, which is indicated by 
thele duties has declined confiderably. That war 
is not fo favourable as peace to trade, is a pofiiion 
that nobody will deny, and from which fimply 
taken, no ufeful conclufion is to be drawn : Had 
there appeared a great fall, it would have gone but 
a little way in proving any national declenfion. 

EXPORTS. 

I. 

Total exports from Great Britain on 

the books of the Infpe6tor General 
on the average of ten years, from 
1760101769. - - i5j733>oi6 

Dittoof II years, from 1770,101780. 15,398,233 

Though fhort periods in thefe accounts are al- 
ways liable to errors, flill I fliall infert the years of 
the American war, becaufe they fhew the immedi- 
ate decline, owing to the interruption of our trade, 
with the number of enemies wc were engaged with. 

31775 



A G 


R I C U 


L T 


U 


P. E. 29 


1/75 


- 


- 




16,326,364 


1776 


- 


- 




i4»755>699 


1777 


- 


- 




13,491,006 


i77§ 


- 


- 




12,253,890 


»779 


- 


- 




i3yS3'^>7<^^ 


1780 


- 


- 




12,624,372* 



This declenfion is the refuk of war, which always 
did, and always will, leffen our exports. It is how- 
ever, a fadl very well explained by the writer juft; 
quoted, that below a certain point of depreflion 
(1778 of the late war) trade has never funk in any 
war, but recovered itfelf, and began to rife before 
the termination of the conflifl. 

TONNAGE. 

The regifter of tonnage (a much better, becaufc 
a more accurate account) does not offer equal figns 
of this declenfion owing to war. 

Average of 6 years -1 ^^„^^^^^^ r.«.f.r. Total, 
or peace rrom>^ ^^ ^ 

1763 to 1768. j632.66o-7i,273--703,967 

Average of 6 years 7 ^ r^- 

from i775to 17801^9^667-101,909-790,243 

Hence v/e find, that the navigation of the king- 
dom was greater in the fix years of our Annerican 
war, united as it was with fo many other wars, than 

• See Mr. Chalmerses Eflimate of the Comparative Strength of Eri- 
tain, p. 37. &c. A work admirably calculated for inrj;iring con- 
fidence in our refources, inftead of animating the gloomy ideas of 
the croakers of the age ; arranged with perfpiculty, and executed 
with an ability that doe? honour to his talents. 

in 



30 ANNALSOF 

in fix of the moft profperous years of peace, this 
country ever faw. 

CONSUMPTION. 

This article is of much more importance than 
any of the reft, becaufe if a people continue to con- 
fume certain commodities as much or more, in one 
period than in another, it is the clearefl: proof im- 
aginable, that their income, wealth, and refources 
cannot be materially touched. I fhall examine 
different articles which may fhew the fituation of 
different claffes of the people, as far as we can judge 
of them, from the excifes their confumption pays. 
But firft let us (late the total produd into the Ex- 
chequer of all permanent taxes whatever, cuftoins, 
excifes, (lamps, &c. exclufive of all thofe laid for 
the late war, being the annual totals, which I have 
added up, in the columns of the account, in the 
report of the committee of which Mr, Thomas 
Pitt was chairman. 

The year ending, Eafter 1775 



1775 ■ 


8,466,110 


1776 


- 7,861,108 


1777 . 


8,003,038 


1778 


- 8,608,383 


1779 . 


7,679,950 


1780 


- 8,071,457 


I7SI . 


8,883,412 


1782 


- 7,278,489 



When it is conndeied, that whatever declenfion here 
appears, is found in the cufloms, and that owing 

very 



AGRICULTURE. 31 

very much to the increafe of fmugglingj — it will 
perhaps be thought extraordinary, that in a war 
more extenfive than any ever yet carried on by this 
country, the revenue did not decline; here is in 
fadt no declenfion at all, for if we take the average 
of the two firft years, and the average of the two 
lad, they are nicely equal. And the whole table 
offers a very unequivocal proaf of the great pro- 
fperity of the kingdom. 



25!. a ton on French wines 

Tea, 24th June 1745, 

Paper, 31ft July 1760, 

Coaches 1747, 

Salt 1759, 

Malt 1760, 

Houfe and windows 1766, 

Soap 1712, 

Hides 17 1 1, 

Candles 17 1 1, 



Average of 


Average of 


75 and "jd. 


Si and 82 


16,291 


14,617 


503,007 


471,485 


28,037 


34,647 


94,531 


95.541 


213,050 


250,785 


328,595 


384,019 


291^3-^Z 


411,886 


160,607 


199,263 


»27,93t 


129,368 


8,7,398 


92,208 



1,952,82012,083,819 



French wines and coaches are merely the con- 
fumption of the higher claffes; but fair, malt, foap, 
hides, and candles, concern the great mafs of the 
people, being upon the necelTaries of life. Had 
any thing like a general poverty been creeping in, 
thefe articles mjuft have felt it, and diminilhcd ; 
they have however, every one, rather increafed than 
fallen off. Thus it feems, we may fafely conclude, 
that whatever declenfion is found in any part of the 

revenue. 



32 ANNALS OF 

revenue, is owing rather to the inevitable efFcds of 
every war throwing impediments on trade, rather 
than to the diilrefs which taxes have hitherto 
brought on any clafs of the people, 

POPULATION 

Forms a confiderable article in the category of 
modern politicians: one inftance, in many, what 
little progrefs is yet made in reducing politics to a 
fcience. If the theorems on which it is founded 
were demonftrated, there would be no occafion, 
after (hewing the wealth and confequent confump- 
tion of a fociety, to enter into any examination of 
its populoufnefs. Employment and induftry create 
population in a modern fociety, not cheapnefs of 
provifions. Thefe are data which ought long ago 
to have been admitted ; and a man of talents and 
penetration ought in this age to be afhamed of 
enquiring what fized farms prevail, what Inclofures 
are going on, what roads are made, what luxury , 
abounds, or what wars carry off, before he will de- 
clare the comparative ftate of population, fince he 
ought to know that thefe circumllancees have little 
or nothing to do in the queftion ; except proving 
ufually favourable, exactly in the degree they are 
fuppofed to be pernicious. I have enlarged fo 
often on thefe ideas, that I fhall not trouble the 
reader with a repetition of them : I Ihall only ob- 
ferve, that while our gloomy race of beings were 
calculating the population of England, fiom fuch 

docu- 



AGRICULTURE. 33 

documents as they chofe to rely on, at four nnillions 
and an half, I, from the minutes of my tour through 
the khigdom, ftated it at eight millions and an half. 
Let the world judge who came neareft to the truth. 
Through curiofity, but by no means to fupport 
myfelf in opinions that were founded in my entire 
conviftion, I examined the regifters of great num- 
bers of country parifhes, not as calculators on this 
"queftion have generally done, taking them as they 
offered, but exprefsly in fearch of depopulation. 
Whenever I heard of a parifh fuppofed to be depo- 
pulated, or in which any remarkable caufe of depo- 
pulation had exifted, I direftly examined the regif- 
ters, and rode many miles upon this employment; 
the refult is too voluminous to infert herej fuffice 
it at prcfcnt to cbferve, that I believe a man may 
ride a very good horfe to death, before he will find 
any number of regiftersin which a rapid increafe of 
the people is not apparent. I have not been able to 
find ahy in which this is not the cafe in the lafl ten 
years, ahd that ..geaerally to a degree nobody will 
believe who does not look accurately into this 
matter; for in truth it is greater than could be 
previoufly txpe£led, from refledling on what has 
be.^n generally called the difafters, declenfion, and 
ruin of the kingdom. War prevents employment 
and impedes induftry, and therefore ought radically 
to depopulate : but fuch is the elaftic fpring, fuch 
the vigour that animates this happy fociety, that for 
thcfe laft five years.of devouring war, population has 
proceeded with more than comnrjon rapidity. 
VoL.I.No.i. C EX- 



34 ANNALSOP 

EXCHANGE. 

The courfe of exchange is no proof of the 
balance of commercial payments, becaufe all pay- 
ments whatever afFedl it ; neither does it give fatis- 
faflory information of the real balance with any 
particular country, as that due to or from one 
kingdom may be paid by drafts on another : the 
only ufe to be made of it is by comparing different 

periods. 

u 

,J3 






C^ 
1> 

CO ^ 

p ^ 

c ^ 

^ s 

t-l 

^1 





oo 


■ HlfJ Ml.) hM t>^ « [» Ml* 

Oi v^co . O -^ 
tJ- '^ '^ ^o CO CO 


vr, CO 

CO CO 




00 


w OS « 1+ "^ >" \n 

" VO OO v^ O fO 

u-i ^^ t}- CO CO 


wtf» 

vo C« 

CO CO 



«5 


CO Vr» r^ <s 


Hi* Hi* 

a\vo 

tS CO 


vo Th 
CO CO 




■" fo « [» - fc « 1+ C^ 1+ «|f» 

- 1- - h 

»- 0\ O ^ « 0\ 
vo ^i- vr>VO CO CO 


CO C« 

CO CO 



s 



:|::|:'^'°'"|: 



O oo oo W-, O ON 
vo -"^ tJ-VO CO CO 






v»S CO 

CO CO 



u 

ON 



SO 



ON 

- T • 

ON ^ '-^ t^ , ' 

W rr? O = <^ 



UOmJQhU I <!U 



vo I.H 



C*7 


1 


vo 


vo 


CO 


fO 


, 


o 


Im 


Ix 


(U Xl 


cti 


F 


b 


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This 



AGRICULTURE. 35 

This table offers no foundation for any melan- 
choly conclufions. It is in our favourj and yet 
it includes the whole operation of the remittance 
of thofe great fums we pay to foreigners for the 
interefl: of money in our funds. There is reafon 
to think from hence, that the balance of trade with 
Europe brings in greatly more than we have to 
pay, on all other accounts to the fame countries 5 
a fuppofition confirmed by the infpedor-general's 
account. And yet let it be remembered, that ic 
is exclufive of fome of the greateft trades we have^ 
viz. the Eaft-Indian, Weft-Indian, &c, 

CIRCULATION. 

Thefe feveral criteria of national profperity being 
upon the whole fo favourable in a time of war, and 
in fonr^e refpe6ls of diftrefs, it may be afked, to 
what then was owing that undoubted, and, in 
fome inftances, deplorable want of money, which 
was felt lately in moft of our counties. Land at 
20 years purchafe, farms untenanted, and the 
three per cents at 58, were figns that appeared to 
be unequivocal. The apparent contradi(5tion is 
very eafily explained and reconciled. It was ow- 
ing to an impeded circulation. The mafs of 
wealth circulating through the mod diftant parts 
of this kingdom, in time of peace, is very great, 
arid at a moderate intereft; but when annual loans, 
to the amount of ten or twelve millions, are nego- 
tiated at the treafury at a much gfeater intereft> 
C 2 who 



36 A N N A L S O F 

who can be found to inveft money in eftates, in 
permanent funds, on fimple contradls, bonds, or 
mortgages, or in any new fpeculations of commerce 
or manufafture ? It neceffariiy follows, that a 
very great proportion of the money ulually circu- 
lating in thefe channels, is drawn from them to 
anfwertreafury dealings. The diftrefs occafioned 
by this deviation of wealth may be very great to 
individuals in certain fituations, but it is in its na- 
ture not lading. It is not wealth annihilated, or 
loft to the nation, it is fimply turned into a new 
channel, to the enriching money-jobbers. To 
this want of circulation was almoft fingly owing 
all the diftrefs we experienced from the war. The 
bankruptcy of Mr. Fordyce, and the events, in 
every one's recolledlion that followed it, were great 
evils at the time, but it has long been generally 
agreed that, in the, event, the)^were beneficial. 

NATIONAL DEBT. 

The Committee of the Houfe of Commons 
appointed to enquire into the ftate of the debt, 
taxes, and expenfes of the war, reported the debt 
to be as follows : 

Principal Int. and Chai*^ 
Funded debt 5th Jan. 1782, 177,052,428 j 6,688,1 86 

UNFUNDED DEBT. 
Exchequer bills 5th Jan. 1782 9,941,988"^ 
Army 5th April ditto 1,092,248 I 5-j m,^^ 

Ordnance3ifl December, 1781 831,5651 J '/j'* 

Navy 31ft December, 1781, 11,328,450 J 

200,246,679 7,319^920 
Some* 



AGRICULTURE. yj. 

Something, however, will be added to both 
principal and intereft upon the expenfe of thepre- 
fent year -, and there will be arrears come in which 
that committee could not get at. Prcbably the 
total will be lo or 12 millions more, and half a 
million more of intereft. 

We may calculate the part of the intereft paid 
to foreigners at £. 1,200,000 ; and in a grofs way, 
that the remainder, paid to natives, amounts to 
;^. 6, 600,000. 

This circumftance is, upon the whole, the moft 
alarming that is to be found in the whole circle of 
our political ftate, not fo much from the amount 
of the burthen as from the vicious and almoft radi- 
cal mifchief it is made to involve in its progreftive 
increafe. If that is to continue, and our ftatefinen 
are ever to look beyond the year for refources for 
its demand, the conclufion of the account may 
cafily be conjeftured: but if, on the contrary, a 
total and eternal ftop was to be put to the funding 
fyftem, in fuch cafe this vaft debt would be found 
in reality as it appears in fpeculation to be, a real 
wealth, income, and refource. Nothing paradoxi- 
cal would be found in this afliertion, if fully exa- 
mined. The combinations are before me.j but to 
perufe them to the fatisfaflion of an inquifitive 
reader, would lead me into details too extenfive 
for fuch a fketch as the prefent. That a payment 
of fix millions and an half annually to ourfelves, 
and fomediing more than one more to foreigners, 
C 3 ihould 



38 ANNALSOF 

ihould be runious to a mafs of income ofconrider- 
ably more than an hundred millions, is a pofition 
big with folly and abfurdity : but the habit, the 
ideas, the vice of continuing the fyftem, and pufh- 
ing the evil to excefs, is quite another affair, and 
carries a countenance truly threatening. — The con- 
du6lof minifters on this point, ought to be the tefl 
of their integrity and of their abilities with the people. 
If they run us more in debt, even in war, they 
^re criminal ; what ought we to think of them if 
they came with unembarrafled countenances to de- 
mand loans for the bufinefs of peace I 

Hence, therefore, the national dsbt may certainly 
be made ruinous : notwithftanding the idea that; 
the imbecility of France, compared v/ith her natural 
flrength, feems to her wifeft and beft informed mini- 
Iters, to be owing very much to her not beirig able 
to imitate the funding fyilem of England, fupport- 
ed by an eftablifhed and perennial credit; and that 
her financial diftrefles have been owing very much 
to her inability to do that, which in England we 
are fo unhappy at having been able to do at all. 

It appears from this general review of all thofe 
circumftances which characflerize the frate of this 
kingdom, that there are no immediate figns of na- 
tional decay ; on the contrary, that we are a pros- 
perous and flourifhing people, and confequently, 
that any fyftem of domefVic policy, which m^y 
demand an expenfe to fupport it, QPght fiQP, on 
ifiat account^ to be rejeded* 

U 



AGRICULTURE. ■ r^g 

It muft however ftrike the reader, that the out- 
line of our fituation, here fketched, is founded on 
the pi-efent ftate of the kingdom, conneded with, 
and in a great meafure dependent on, the Eaft 
and Weft Indies — the friendfhip of Ireland — the 
continuance of peace — the fuccefs of future war ; 
but, above all, upon the ability of lupporting a 
war being fo well known and acknowledged by 
our enemies, that they Ihall not be ready lightly 
to engage in one. Thefe are circumftances deli- 
cate and precarious, of doubt and of difficulty. 
They demand a domeftic policy vigoroufly and 
fteadily bent to the great obje<5l of improving our 
internal, and therefore fecure rcfources. The lines 
of this policy are thofe I (hall in the next place trace. 

The reafon why our im.menfe accumulation of 
debts and taxes Ijaye not hitherto deprefTed the 
national induftry is, that the kingdom has been 
regularly advancing in wealth, income, and po- 
pulation. Our burthens have been enormous in 
their amount, but, meeting with an increafe of 
ftrength to fupport them, the national vigour has 
fhewn no figns of being crufhed under them. So 
great a blow as the lols of thirteen provinces, and 
three millions of fubjeds, has brought neither de- 
ftrudion nor debility, though accompanied with a 
war that coft lOO millions *, But fhould any fu- 
ture 

* The report of the committee, of which Mr. Thomas Pitt was 
ehalrraan, thug ftatfs the expenfe of the war to the 5th of Apiil, 

jc ^ ;rota| 



40 



ANNALS OF 



ture period arrive, in which we fhould receive 
other fimilar blows in the Eaft or Weft-Indies, or 
fhould, though fuccefsful in their defence, fee an- 
other war as expenfive as the late one, the mod 
fanguine and ardent mind muft tremble for the 
confequences, if fuch a ufe is not made of peace 
as fhall prepare an ability to fupport the burthen 
of fuch enormous expenfes. 

I believe it will readily be granted, that the 
weight of debts and taxes is light or heavy in pro- 
portion to the mafs of national wealth and income 
which fupport it. I have fhewn elfewhere, that the 
income of England and Wales, in three articles, is 



Land 

Manufa6lures 

Commerce 



£. 63,000,00© 
20,000,000 
1 7,000,000 



100,000,000 
Scotland, according to Mr. Pukeney, 10,000,000 



1 10,000,000 



Total navy — ■ 

li army - 

Ordnance •— 

Peace eftabliftiment, 
Ejfpenfe of the war 



473075,170 
7,336,726 

103>375>SJ9 

34,500,000 

78,875,519 



It is not an exaggeration to fuppofe, that la|l year, part gf the 
prefent, and the winding up of that long account, will make it {ul\ 

300 mJlHons. 

Anc( 



AGRICULTURE. 41 

And it is proved, that there are in England 
'8,500,000* fouls, to which adding 1^500,000 for 
Scotland, make ten millions in Great Britain, con- 
fequently each head in the kingdom contributes 
i/. 6s. per annum to the public j and thofe branches 
of income, fuppofing there was no other in the king- 
dom, pay 1 2 per cent. Now from hence I conclude, 
that additions to induftiorus population are worth 
26s. per head, per annum j and that all additions 
to income are worth 12 per cent, to the public 
revenue, each feparately taken. The application 
of thefe proportions will not be exadl in every in- 
ftance, but enough fo to reafon upon. If the agri- 
culture of the kingdom was rendered doubly more 
productive, manufactures and commerce would 
probably double with it, and then the prefent taxes 
of 13 millions a year, would be only half as burthen- 
ibme; or, which is the fame thing, the nation 
could pay 16 millions a year with no greater diffi- 
culty than it at prefent pays 13. 

If any fyftem of national improvement could be 
difcovered for adding confiderably to the agricul- 
ture, manufaftures, commerce, filheries, or general 
induftry of Great Britain, it would not only have 
the defirable effed of increafing income, and confe- 
quently the capability of bearing fuch taxes as fu- 
ture necefllty may give birth to, but would at the 
fame time add to the central force of the empire ; 

* See the perfeflly fatisfa^ory encjuiries of Meff, Howlett, 
.Wales, and Chalmers, 

and 



42 ANNALSOF 

and give a much greater certainty of being able 
to prelcrve tliofe diftant limbs, which are of Tuth 
high importance to its profperity. 

The right moment for any undertaking of that 
fort, or for any efforts that have fuch an aim is 
the conclufion of a peace ; for that brings with it, 
the difcharge of near two hundred thoufand fol- 
diers, failors, militia-men, and Ihip- carpenters, 
who if they find advantageous employment or any 
particular inducement, will remain at home, but 
if they meet with neither will mofl afTuredly emi- 
grate. Of this we have had already eminent ex- 
perience. A circumftance that marks the mom.ent 
of peace, as the proper opportunity to carry any 
adtive meafure of domeftic policy into execution 
with the mod efFecSt, and with the leaft difficulty. 
Another reafon, which fhould induce the govern- 
ment to fix upon this period, is the fufpenfion 
which the war has occafioned to the common emi- 
grations, no longer operating, which will neceflarily 
caufe their revival with- renewed adtivity. — This 
is a melancholy fa£l which the nation has to ex- 
pe6t. America offers an afylum, with many more 
advantages, than a country fo nearly cultivated, 
and fo taxed as this. It is moft ferioufly to be 
apprehended that great numbers will quit this 
kingdom, ifmeafuresof much greater efficacy than 
ever yet taken, be not adopted to prevent it. 
]Forceable ones neither ought nor can be thought 
of, but much more efFedtual might be found in the 



AGRICULTURE. 43 

fteady purfuit of domeftic improvemenr, Lee it 
further be confidered, that when the return of peace 
brincrs with it, a renewal of indufiry, a revival 
of trade, and a frelh animation to all the arts of 
peace, and at the fame time a fufpenfion of the 
increafe of taxes, then, more than at any other 
time, the country is able to bear the buithen of 
thofe very little ones, which might be necefiliry to 
carry into execution, plans that have this great 
obje6t for their end. 

When it is confidered, that we have never had 
a period in our hillory, in which very great exer- 
tions were not always making, with this view it 
will not be thought one of thofe novel projc6ts 
which are to be reje6ted, not becaufe ill conceived, 
but fimply becaufe new. The ellablifhment of 
colonies has been in every inftance undertaken at 
a great expenfe, merely upon this account. The 
projedors of thofe expenfcs, endeavoured to con- 
vince us that the expenditure would be produdlive, 
that every man fettled acrofs the Atlantic, would 
employ five in Britain, and that planting American 
waftes, at double the expenfe that would have im- 
proved Englilh ones, was the moil expedient means 
of furthering national indufiry. The nation 
thought fo too, and accordingly the eftablifhment, 
and fupport of the colonies of Nova Scotia, 
Georgia, &c. civil and military, have coft little lefs 
than three millions fterling. 

J^ we hgd not beef) deceived by fuch arguments, 

could 



44 A N N A L S O F 

could it have pofiibiy happened that in two wars, 
one undertaken to defend our colonies, and the 
other to reduce them, that the nation fliould 
fpend no lefs than one hundred and sixty mil- 
lions. A (urn v;hich at the rate of 5I. per acre 
would have improved no lefs than thirty-two mil- 
lions of wafte acres, that is a kingdom as large as 
the cultivated parts of England andWales. Sorry 
I am to cbferve, that there are not much fnort of 
fuch an extent of wafte and unimproved land, in 
this ifland at prcfenc. The money went for Ame- 
nca— The waftes remain. 

Nor is it only fuch diftant fchemes that we en- 
courage at the expenfe of taxes laid on the fub« 
jed. The bounties and drawbacks (which are a 
fpecies of bounty) given exprefsly for the en- 
couragement of coitimerce or manufa6lure, amount 
to near two millions a year in the cuftom- houfe 
account. Bounties alone in fome years to near a 
million. He who cannot fhew a different field as 
well deferving attention of this fort, has viewed the 
Britifii territory with very careiefs eyes indeed. 

From adlual obfervation, or accurate informa- 
tion, I have good reafon to believe that there are 
upwards of eight millions of acres of wafte and 
uncultivated land in England and Wales. 

In a grofs way I ftiould eftimate thefe waftes at 
above ten millions of acres, but in this calculation 
they are taken at the very loweft, in order that im- 
pradicable trads^ and fuch as would be exceed- 
ingly 



AGRICULTURE. 45 

ingly difficult to oultivate at all, might nod be in- 
cluded. It is a very moderate calculation to fup- 
pofe that there are five millions fuch acres alfo in 
Scotland. In the iQand thirteen. millions; includ- 
ing none but fuch as v;ould be ealily brought inta 
cultivation. 

What friend to his country is there whole bof^-?!Ti 
does not revolt at the idea of the policy thqt has 
conducted the affairs of this kingdom ? In which 
every effort has been made, every nerve ftrained 
to fpread cultivation over American waftes, while 
thofe of Britain have been left as if unworthy of 
all attention. Had the efforts of our ftatcfmen 
been direfled to the improvement and population of 
thefe tra(5ls, no wars vi^ould have been necelfary to 
defend, or reduce them ; they might have been 
brought into the higheft ftate of fertility, at fo 
fmall a part of the expenfe our colonies have coH 
us, that the nation would have been no leis than 
one hundred millions in pocket. 

While the American dream lafled, we were told 
that the growing population of that continent 
would create fuch a fyfiem of em.ployment for our 
manufa6lurcrs and failors, that the profperity of 
the mother country would be as boundlefs as the 
waftes of her Tranfadantic dominions j vifions that 
fafcinated and deceived our minifters, our parlia- 
ments, and the nation itfelf. We now fee the lb- 
lidity of fpeculations built on dependencies at the 
diftance of 3000 miles: the empire of the ocean 

once 



46 ANNALSOF 

once Battered us with the idea that our power 
could controul the mod diftant, and conneft the 
moft fcattered regions. That fancy too has proved 
as airy as the reft. Nor have the golden dreams 
of a commercial monopoly of Ireland proved lefs 
vifionary. It feems as if the late war was fated to 
pour into the bofom of every Britain, a torrent of 
experience powerful enough to fweep away every 
fallacy and error, that the infecurity of fuccefs or 
the deception of profperity could plant there. It 
has indeed been lavifh of lelTons of experience, if 
our governors are wife enough to profit by them. 

But if in fpite of the feverity with which events 
have fpoken to us, we ftill look for the refources 
of our power in every region but in that in which 
we can command them. If noxious iilands in an- 
other hemifphere are to be manured with African 
blood that Englifhmen may raife a monument not 
of profit, but of bankruptcy and ruin *. If with 
lefs flattering appearances we are to colonize the 
deferts, marfhes and fnows of Canada and Nova- 
Scotia, that the congrefs of a future period may 
reap the harveft. — If we look to the Ganges tinged 
with the blood which rapine fheds to gain the 
wealth that humanity might gather on the Severn. 
-—If thefe are to be our views — If thefe are ftill 

* If an accurate account could be colleftcd of all the people 
ruined by planting the ceded iilands of the peace of 1 762, it would 
prove a tnemento to the prefent period. The amount of capital 
funk in forming i^ new fi'gar colony would improve half an Eng,- 
lift county, 

to 



AGRICULTU RE. 47 

to be the only objedlsofour hope, our efFortSj and 
our policy, ourprofpe6ts are indeed nnelancholy. — 
Future wars may at no diftant period be looked 
for that will meet us unprepared. We ihall have 
their burthen to fupport without the accumulated 
ftrength which a peace well employed, might 
have given us. In the age of our declenfion we 
fhall have the immaturity of youth and that mafs 
of fatal experience which might have proved our 
inftrudlion and falvation, will butrem.ind us of the 
opportunities we have loft. 

That my readers may be able to form fome idea 
of the comparative advantages of fettling Ameri- 
can and Britidi land, I fhall confider for a mo- 
ment the profit of agriculture in Jamaica, where 
the moll beneficial culture is carried on (that of 
fugar) of all America. The Hiftory of that IHand, 
printed in 1774, by Mr. Long who reiided many 
years there, and who ftrenuoufly contends for the 
policy of improving it to the utmoft, will furnilh 
me with data lufliciently accurate for the purpofe. 

The following is his calculation of an eftate yield- 
ing 300 hhds. of fugar, and 150 puncheons of rum. 

Acres 

TOO grown plants (canes) at 
200 Rattoons 
100 Young plants 

60 Plantain walks 

80 Negroe grounds 

60 Failure 

50 Guinea grafs 
2jio Woodlandj gulliesj roads, &c 

12,650 



I- 


40 
10 


Currency. 
- £' 4000 
2000 




30 
10 


" 


3000 
900 
8oa 




10 
12 


" 


600 
600 


8vc 


3 


" 


750 



48 ANNALS OF 

Currency. 
300 Negroes at ;^. 50* - - i5jOOO 

50 Mules 30 1500^ 

80 Steers 14 1120J. 2,770 

Sheep and Hogs 150 ■* 

30,420 
Buildings - - 8,000 

Implements - - ^5° 



395270 



ANNUAL PRODUCE. 



I' 

100 Acres (plants) at 40 4000 "j Equal to 30ohhds. 

200 Rattoons 10 2000 I fugar at 15/. and 

1150 punch, rum 

6000 J at 10/. , 

Annual charges - 2000 



Profit 4000, 

The eftate yields therefore jufl: 10 per cent. But 
I have been repeatedly afiured by feveral gentle- 
men, owning confiderable plantations in Jamaita, 
refident in England, that they do not clear above 
5 per cent, upon the capitals. Living upon the 
ipot, however, miiftmake a confiderable difference. 

The fanne authority informs us, that there is ex- 
ported fronn the ifland, annually, 

I. Sterling, 

To Great Britain - ,1,214,758 

To North America - 85,446 

To South America - 10,714 



X. 1,835,887 Currency, or - 1,310,918 

* Worth from 50!, to even 6ol, flerling fincc. 

Pro- 



AGRICULTURE. 49 

Produced by the labour of 170,000* African flaves, 
(ofallfertSy and 136,000 mules, horfes, and fleers. 
From thefedata I draw the following conclufions: 
That thecapital of theillandmuft be 13,109,1801, 
myitlddit 10 per cent, the annual fumof 1,3 10,9181, 
That this is a low calculation appears from the 
fl'aves and mules, &c. becaufe 

170,000 flaves at 50I. come to ;f. 8,500,000 
And 136,000 mules, &c. at the aver- 
age price of 15I. flerling, are - 2,040,000 

ILand, buildings, and implements, in the 
proportion of 21,500!, yielding 6000I. a 
year, is 6,423,504 currency, or flerling 4,588,217 

15,128,217 

Hence it appears, that the calculation of 13 mil- 
lions flerling is the lowefl. We are not, however, 
to imagine that the ifland of Jamaica is worth only 
that fum, which marks but the exported produce 
known. The interior confumption, trade, circula- 
tion, cafli, forts, artillery, public buildings, towns, 
fhipping, furniture, &c. make no part of this cal- 
culation, and though, probably, they could not run 
it up to 40 millions, which the value of this ifland 
has been grofsly calculated at, yet they would cer- 
tainly carry it much above twenty. Now let us 
compare the value of 13 millions flerling, imme- 
diate capital, employed in agriculture, in Jamaica, 

* There were above 100,000 in ly^.^.— Letter to a Member of 
Parliament, concerning the Improvement of the Sugar Colonies, iwoi 
174-5, p. 21. 

VoL.I.No. I. D with 



50 ANNALS OF 

with a fimilar capital invefted in the fame purfuit 
in England. 

At 5I. an acre it would flock and improve 
3,277,295 acres, and if thofe acres yielded no morei 
than 40s. each, they would produce £. 6,554,59c) 

Produce of Jamaica - 1,310,91c) 

Superiority - 5,243,680) 

It is true that the one is exported, and the otheir 
grofs produce, which would make a great difference, 
if we were comparing England as one country 
with Jamaica as another, in relation to trade j but 
that would be little to the prefent purpofe. The 
quellion here is, whether a given value produced 
by our own land in the common commodities of 
it, is not as valuable, to all intents and purpofes, 
to the nation, as Weft- India produce of equal 
amount, landed in our markets. That fugar pro- 
duce we confume at homej we can do no more 
with our own j and certainly the confumption of a 
million's worth of corn and cattle is as valuable as 
the amount in fugar and coffee. The nation is 
juft as rich by the corn in a farmer's barn, as by 
the fugar in a merchant's warehoufe. 

I have fhewn, upon another occafien, that a 
grofs produft of 72,826,8271. from the foil of 
England, is raifed by a population immediately 
fupported by it, of 2,847,705 fouls. This is nearly 
the proportion of 40 fouls to loool. produ(5t. 
At that rate, the above-mentioned produce of 



AGRICULTURE. 51 

6,554,590!. would imply a population of 262,183 
fouls added to England — as to what the fugar, &c. 
adds, it will bear no kind of comparifon. To 
fpeak of nnanufaftures, failors, &c. employed in 
the trade dependent, is very fair j but to balance 
it, carry, to the other account, the confumption and 
fimilar employment arifing from that population, 
and the created income of more than fix millions 
a year. Extend this idea to all our fugar iflands, 
and it only proves how much we lofe comparatively, 
by capital being inverted in American agriculture, 
while there is a field for its employment in that of 
Britain. 

• But fecurity of poQeffion ! The French and 

Spaniards are as eager for fugar iflands as we caa 
be. We faw no lefs than feven wrefted from us in 
a war, which, as far as they only were concerned, 
could not, upon the whole, be deemed unfortunate. 
What are we not therefore to expefl, fhould fuccefs 
run much againfl us ? Counts de Vergennes and 
Florida Blanca are as bad calculators as we have 
been, for the whole efforts of the next campaign, 
had it enfued, was an attem.pt at the expenfe of at 
leafl 20 millions flerling to take Jamaica, which, 
had they got it, would have been dearly purchafed. 
Yet the money was fure to be fpcnt for the chance 
of what Monf. d'Eftaing might effed. It would, 
however, have coft us as much to defend it ; {o we 
and our enemies would have wafted 40 millions 
fterling, the one to gain, and the other to fave what 
D 2 is 



52 ANNALSOF 

is really worth but thirteen, or at moft but twenty ! 
Such is the eternal calculation of war: and this 
the innmutable and infinite difference between the 
inveftnnent of a nation's capital at the diftance of a 
thouCmd leagues, or in the bofom of its own ter- 
ricory. 

Let us therefore examine, if this policy, of which 
the late experience has fo fully manifefted the folly, 
cannot be changed — and if the cultivation of thoie 
1 3 millions of acres of wafte land in Great Britain 
cannot be attempted, upon principles highly favour- 
able to every valuable intereft ofthe ftate, and more 
prafticable than the old fyftem of colonizing. 

The waftes which difgrace this country, are many 
of them in our richeft counties, and on the mod 
fertile foils. They are fcattered over the whole 
kingdom, under the name of commons, greens, 
forefts, chaces, moors, bogs, marlhes, &c. Where 
the foil is good, they yield little more benefit to the 
community than the pooreft, for want of being 
cleared of the fpontaneous growth, and drained \ 
and are, befides, fo overflocked with cattle, fo irre- 
gularly and fo improperly, that three-fourths of 
their value is ufuaily reaped by the fiocks of a few 
great farmers adjoining. As to the benefit to the 
poor, it is perfedly contemptible ; where it tempts 
them CO become owners of cattle, or fheep, ufuaily 
ruinous. Some fpeculative writers who have pafled 
their lives by a fire-fide, have attempted to perfuade 
the public, tliat the inclofure of commons ftarved 

the 



AGRICULTURE. 53 

the poor, and was the reafon of the great rile in all 
the produds of land, but tlie depreciated value of 
all thofe articles in 1778, I779> ^"^ 1780, proved 
the folly of their idea more completely than a thou- 
fand arguments could have done. 

To bring into culture all vv-aftes of every deno- 
mination which are now uncultivated, not becaufe 
the foil is bad, but becaufe curled with the rights of 
commonage, I confider as the very greateft object 
of Britifh policy. There may be difficulties in the 
arrano-ement of the bufinefs, but no doubt of its 
propriety. 

With above eight millions of VN^afte acres in Eng- 
land, and five in Scotland, and with from 1 ro 
200,000 able hands difchargt-d by the peace, there 
appears to be ample materials for a ftatefman to 
work with. The enquiry is, how to contrive the 
bufinefs at the leaft national txpenfe, a confiderable 
one is certainly neceflary j and he who objects to 
the plan upon that account, would do well to re- 
collect what we have hitherto fpent on colonies, 
and what is yet actually fpending. 

In all undertakings of this kind, the lefs that is 
done immediately by the execution of government 
the better — as far as private indultry could be made 
the means of carrying into effeft fuch plans, the 
cheaper and more advantageous is ufually the whole 
operation. 

Sir William Ofborne, in Ireland, executed an 

idea that ought to make his name refpc(^ed in his 

P 3 country 



54 ANNALSOF 

country as long as it has an fxiftence. The nnoun- 
talns above Clonmel belong to him. He once 
met a fellow with a wife and feveral children, all in 
rags and miferably poor, that afked charity of him. 
The athletic form of the man feemed to reproach 
him for his bufinefs j but he faid he could get no 
work. A happy thought then ftruck Sir William 
'■^I Juppcfej faid he, you are idle and will ml work 
for ethers i but will you work for your/elf ? "There is 
a traEi of wajle, (pointing to his mountains) if you 
*will fettle on it I will affift you. The plan was no 
fooner fketched than executed. The man went 
up the mountain. Sir William gave him a roof for 
his cabin, (which is 30 or 40 fhiliings) he planted 
his potatoes, and thrived. I viewed fome years 
afterwards his works, he was then a moderate far- 
mer, and furrounded by feveral more, with no other 
encouragement than having land for nothing, (a 
black mountain hid for weeks together in the 
clouds), the roof of a cabin, and fome lime given 
them — from ragged beggars became farmers poffef- 
\ ling good flocks of cattle. — All arifing from the 
\ Tingle principle, one of the moit powerful that ac- 
i tuatCo the human bofbm, that if you give property 
' in land you v/ill create the induftry that fhall im- 
f prove it. It is this only that fpread America with 
. cultivation, and filled her woods with people. 

Sir W^illiam Ofborne had idle beggars, and the 
mountain 3 and he had the genius to combine thofe 
two ideasj and to produce every thing that flows 

from 



AGRICULTURE. 55 

from aflive induftry. England has the wailes and 
the hands, let her alfo combine thein. 

But how? — Not fo impradticable as may at firfl 
blulh be thought. Let us confider, in the firfl 
place, the expenfe. 1 fhould affi^n a dwelling and 
ten acres of land to every fannily : the firfl: is the 
chief article of cofl: ; but the pradice of many of 
the Englifh counties of lodging the pooreft pt-ople 
in houfes of fifty, or fixty, and even eighty pounds 
expenfe, muft be fet afide, being in truth one of the 
greateft obftacks to population. In Ireland the 
whole burthen of the habitation being the roof, 
which is dear from the fcarcity of tiir.ber, the ob- 
je6t of the dwelling is a mere trifle ; nor is it cre- 
dible what an encouragement to population this 
fingle circumllance proves in that kingdom, and 
alfo in America. Poor labourers and foidiers that 
have been ufed to hardlhips, would be comfortable 
in fuch dwellings as could be raifed at a trifling 
expenfe. They might afterwards improve them 
with their own labour. Ten pounds is allowance 
fufficient, and too much cf the mud walls of Ire- 
land (by far the warmed I ever mtt in cottages) 
were to be adopted : I would add forty {hillings for 
the abfolute neceflaries of furniture. The inclofure 
of the field is requifite, the labour would be too 
heavy on the man, for though four lots were thrown 
together, fo that the fences of feparation would ferve 
double purpofes, yet they would amount to 480 
D 4 percha 



56 A N N A L S O F 

perch, or 120 per lot; for this article I fliall allow 
one (hilling a perch, or fix pounds, and ten (hillings 
for a gate. — Live (lock comes next, which a poor 
man could not buy without alTiftance j I would give 
every man a cow with a calf, which may generally 
be bought for fix pounds fix (hillings, and I think 
it might not be amifs to let him have two ewe (heep, 
though in fome fituations a hog would be preferable; 
we may allow i6s. for thefe. Three facks of po- 
tatoes for feed are eflential ; the fuccefs of the un- 
dertaking would depend more on the culture of this 
root (demanding neither plough nor teams) than 
perhaps on any other branch of their induftry. I 
would alfo give him one fack of corn for feed, the 
fort beft adapted to the foil ; if we reckon 30s. 
for thefe two articles, we (hall have raifed the whole 
expenfe to 27 1. 2s. Let us fuppofe it 30I. Many 
more things would be neceffary to eftabiifli a regu- 
lar farm, but we give him that which muft do all 
the reft, encouragement to be indufirious. Sir William 
Ofborne's mountaineers had fcarcely a tenth -part of 
what is here minuted, yet they fucceeded, and out 
of a m.iferable foil formed good farms. But, as a 
ftill further encouragement, they fhould have a leafe 
for three lives, and by aft of parliament be freed 
from all demands of tythe, poor-rates, or any parifli 
charges, being by reciprocity cut off from all right, 
in cafe of misfortunes, of being themfelves or pof- 
terity burthenfome to the parifh. Requiring no 

other 



AGRICULTURE. 57 

other rent-fervice or return than the exertions of 
their induftry, promoting the national interefls by 
advancing their own. One obicrvation, however, 
I mult make on an advantage of another fort which 
might acrue to the (late, and that is encouragement 
in cafeof a war, which might be held out and faith- 
fully performed, that all foldiers and failors who 
ferved through the war, furvived it, and vvere dif- 
charged; fhould thus be provided forj many, 
doubtiefs, of the men who would now be fettled 
would fucceed and thrive greatly, and be a con- 
ftant fpeftacle to others, of the reward that fhould 
attend the fervice of their country. I am miftaken 
if thefe alone might not in time preclude all neccf- 
fity of preffing. 

In the next place, as to the fund from whence 
to fupply the expenfe. 

Lefs than half a million a year thus expended, 
would make the bufinefs of fo long duration, that 
the (late would not feel the efFt6l foon enough to 
prove the vaft advantages that would refult from 
the plan. The fum is large, but it would make 
probably a much better return than any other ex- 
penfe the nation ever yet incurred. That fum 
would thus provide for 16,666 men, eftablifhing 
as many families and farms, and bringing every 
year into cultivation 166,660 wafle acres. At 40 
ihillings an acre (and I could eafily Ihew that it 
would not be lefs) there would be a created pro- 
duce of 333}^2o\, a year increafing income, 

Years, 



Years. 


Acres. 


rP^. 


166,660 


2a, 


333^320 


3^V 


499,980 


4ih, 


666,640 


i'-^h, 


' 833.3'^o 


6th, 


999,960 


7th, 


1,166,620 


8th, 


1-333^280 


9th, 


1,499,940 


loth. 


1,666,600 



58 A N N A L S O F 

Produce. 
000,000 

333^320 

666,640 
999,960 
1,333,280 
1,666,600 
1,999,920 
2,333,240 
2,666,560 
2,999,880 

9,166,300 14,998,400 

By which tirr.e 166,660 men Vv^ould be fetded, and 
at five per houfe, there would be a population of 
833,300 fouls added to the kingdom. Credit might 
be taken perhaps for the whole, for the increafe of 
population in a country where employments are full 
is very fmali and gradual, but depends totally on 
the increaje of demand, employment, and fublift- 
cnce. This eftablifhment would be a new colony, 
where the principles of American population would 
be brought into thefe defert parts of Britain. Fif- 
teen millions of produce would in ten years be crea- 
ted., and an income of 3,333,2001. a year. And all 
this for a lefs fum than it now cofts us to keep Gi- 
braltar^ a barren rock of im^pregnable defence in- 
deed, the poiTeulon of which gives us little more be- 
nefit than refuks from the knowledge of our having 
a pofl which cannot be taken from us, v/hile we can 
find fo gallant a hero as an Elliot to defend it : or 
than Minorca did cofh us, which is taken from us. 
Comparing it with the expence we have been at for 
colonies, it is but a drop of water to the. ocean. 

In 



AGRICULTURE. 59 

In providing for this expence, it would nor, per- 
haps, be improper to take it from the bounties and 
drawbacks paid at tlie Cuftom houfe. It is fuppofcd 
that frauds alone, in thofe articles, amount to hctle 
Ihort of half a million a year; but, without fuppof- 
ing it to arife fimply from a faving of thefe, if fome 
of them are admitted to be neceffary or ufeful, there 
can be little doubt but this fum, rhus diverted from 
a doubtful fervice to the moft beneficial one ever 
yet undertaken, would yield abundantly more to the 
wealth, income, and even comjnerceof the kingdom. 
But, if neither bounties nor drawbacks exifted, the 
plan ought nor, therefore, to be laid aflde; but this 
revenue, raifed by temporary taxes for a purpofe fo 
cff^ntially neceffary in creating thofe refources, by 
means of which alone the nation C:in fupport the 
burthen of future wars. 

It muft not be imagined that the expence is an 
unprodu(5live one, relative even to the public re- 
venue. I before fhewed, that an income from land, 
trade, and manufacture, of fomething more than 
100 millions, pays at prefent in Great Britain taxes 
to the amount of above 13 millions, or about an 
eighth. — It is a very fair conclufion, that all fimilar 
income to be created will alfo pay an eighth; indeed 
it is a fa6t capable of equal proof with mofl of the 
poflulata in the political fcience. Now it is highly 
worthy of attention, that in the 1 3th year of the un- 
dertaking, the public expence would ceafe altoge- 
ther, bccaufc it would, by receiving an eighth in 

taxes. 



6a ANNALSOF 

taxes, draw back the full amount of annual expen- 
diture, or half a million. This is too clear to be 
doubted ; but, if it was 20 years before that entire 
re-adion took place, ft ill it would be a moft com- 
fortable and promifmg refource, to fee the execution 
of fuch a fpiendid projed, at an expence fure to be 
drawn back with ample profit. Some calculators, 
crroneoufly I conceive, think that all taxes fall ulti- 
mately on land alone, or at leaft the income from it 
pays a much greater fliare than from commerce or 
manufactures -, if fo, the nation would draw back 
her expence much fooner, as the proportion of the 
incomiC would be more than an eighth. 

Upon this fyilem, it would take but a fhort period 
to improve the eight millions and upwards of wafte 
acres in England, which would then yield an annual 
produceof fixteen millions, the public revenue would 
be increafed two millions a year, and population re- 
ceive an addition of between 6 and 700,000 fouls, 
in the proportion of 40 to 1000 pounds produ(5t.— 
And all this immenfe refource of wealth and ftrength 
would be created at no greater expence than fix mil- 
lions and an half, expended in thirteen years. 

It may be no impertinence to obferve, that fuch a 
creation of internal produce of 16 millions, paying 
two millions in taxes, would be a much greater 
addition to our wealth, income, population, and 
ftrength, than we now receive from our brilliant 
oriental dominions of Bengal, Bahar, and Orixa, 
though an empire as large as France— and that the 



AGRICULTURE. 6c 

one would be perfecElly fecure, while the other is 
hazaix^ous in proportion to its confequence, is what 
mud ftrike the mofl: caieleis imagination. Would 
any man heficate at the expenceof half a million a. 
year, for 13 years, in order to regain the territory 
of North America ? Yet, moft affuredly, that do- 
minion never paid us in power, wealth, or popula- 
tion, half of what fuch a plan as I have fketchci 
would do. Would any man permit fmall difficulties, 
or objeclions that did not amount to the full proof 
of impra6licability, to be urged againft a fyftera 
that fhouid produce advantages equal to thefe, by 
means of Eaft or Weft Indian, or colonial fc hemes. 
If we were to judge by all our former, and much of 
prefent policy, certainly he would not -, yet, is the 
poffefllon of thefe refources, in the centre of our 
own tefricory, of double the advantage and fecurity 
that could attend them in any diftant region. 

Political calculators abound v;ith idle and vilion- 
ary fchemcs for the payment of the national debt ; 
they would have been better employed in teaching 
the nation the eafieft way to bear it. The true fe- 
cret is to increafe your income, and in proportion to 
the effefting that, you virtually le/fen the debt, if 
32 millions of cultivated .icres, with the manufac- 
tures and commerce attendant, are able to bear 3 
debt of 200 millions : double the cultivation to 64 
millions of acres, and then the debt becomes but as 
100 millions ; or, in other w^ords, you m.ight bear 
cne of 400 with as much eafe as you now fupport 

that 



62 ANNALS OF 

that of 200. This is the plaineft, mod obvious, 
and by much the moft pra6tical method of leiren«» 
ing the debt. 

/ wijh I was a kingy faid a farmer's boy : — Why, 
what would you do if you was a king ? I zvould 
fwing upon the gate, and eat bacon all day long. So 
I alfo may wifli I was a king : if I did, it would be 
for the pleafure of executing fuch a plan as this for 
a perfonal amufement. I would fend a meflage to 
the Houfe of Commons, defining to be invefted 
with a power, on my own perfonal examination in 
any progrefTes I might make through my domi- 
nions, of ordering the neceffary inclofures, build- 
ings, and expenditures for the eftablifhment of farms 
in trafls now wade. And I fhould be very well 
aflured that my faithful Commons would not refufe 
it. They would, on the contrary, be happy in pro- 
moting the royal pleafures, that had for their end the 
cultivation, improvement, and population of the 
kingdom. They would rejoice to fee the prefence 
of their fovereign diffufing induflry ; making barren 
deferts fmile with cultivation— and peopling joylefs 
waftes with the grateful hearts of men, who, through 
thefe efforts, had exchanged the miferies of poverty 
for chearfulnefs, content, and competence; rearing 
the quiet cottage of private happinefs, and the fplen- 
did turrets of public profperity. Thefe fhould be 
my amufemenrs; doubclefs they are fuch as kings 
would look down upon with a contempt equal to 
mine at the fwinging and bacon of a country boy. 

liu: 



AGRICULTURE. 63 

But I fhould feel an enjoyment as refined, perhaps, 
as that which arifes fronn dcfolated though conquer- 
ed provinces, fronn the triumphs that military glory 
ereds on the ruin and fufFerings of humanity.' And 
when I died, my memory would have the honour 
of being forgotten j for i fnould rank with thofe 
kings of ancient days, dignes Jans donte de nos eloges 
fuifque rhifioire ne les a -pas nomes *. 

As every plan in a free country, which afFeds the 
property of any one, muft be prepared in fuch a 
manner as to remove the objedions that may be 
fuppofed to arife, we muft confider the intereft of 
the perfons who at prefent have any fort of pro- 
perty in thefe wades propofed in this manner to be 
cultivated. A conHderable part, the royal foreflfi, 
would be free from all obje6bions, as to the rights of 
landlords. Other tra6ts i.i which thefe have a claim, 
but fubjed to rigats of commonage, are of fo litrie 
real value to the owners, that they would, beyond 
all doubt, be ready to let the public lot them out 
in farms free of rent for three lives, provided they 
reverted back to them at the termination of thofe 
lives, built, inclofed, and cultivated, and free from 
tythe and poor-rates. The great advantage of fuch 
an arrangement to this clafs of men is too obvious 
to need infifting on. Where the rights to the waflc 
were ._.nplex, from the variety of landlords, lords 

* Felicite Publique. The fentiment is more Juft, though not To 
ftrikingly expreffed as that very pretty one of D'AlernbeTt, who, 
praifing Charles V. of France, adds, Quoique moins celebre dans 
i'hiftoire qu'une foule de Rois qui u'ont ete qu'heiireux ou puifians. 

of 



64 ANNALSOF 

of manors, &c. concerned, the reverfionary right to 
the lots fhould be affigned to each, upon the fame 
principles as govern a parliamentary inclofure : with 
this difference, that the obftinacy or folly of indi- 
viduals fhould not be allowed to prevent the ope- 
ration of a plan fo decidedly advantageous to the 
whole community. With regard to the cottagers 
adjoining, who enjoyed a right of commonage, of 
which they made any ufe, relief to them would be 
exceedingly eafy, for they fhould be chofen in pre- 
ference for peopling the new farms, a recompencc 
{o much fuperior to any thing they could before 
pofTefs, as to remove every objection that could 
arife, were they deprived of any rights, or even ad- 
vantages. To opprefs any induftripus poor people 
in a plan, the great feature of which is to encourage 
their efforts, and add to their happinefs, would be 
not only a contradiftion, but a ufclefs one. 

Upon the whole, I fee no objeftions that might 
not be overcome with great eafe. Where there are 
fuch ample materials, with which to fatisfy every 
claimant ; after the duration of the leafes, no one 
concerned could be really apprehenfive of injury. 
No injuries could be inflided without a quadruple 
reftitution. But as to the oppofition that arofe 
through caprice, obftinacy, and the wrong-headed* 
nefs of a few individuals, they fhould be difi egarded 
in the fame manner as they are in inclofures, by 
the common operation of an acl of parliamenc 
Indeed I think fo very few objcdions could arifc 

fi om 



AGRICULTURE. 6s 

from the parties concerned, that it would be pro* 
bably advifeable to begin upon thefe private pro- 
perties which would not preclude the fale or other 
application of the crown lands *. 

As to the method of executing this fcheme, 
many objedions would doubtlefs arife, but by no 
means infuperable. Probably it would be found 
moft advifeable to make the men themfelves the 
principal executors of the work, with this fingle 
caution, not to truft them with money. Returns 
being gained of the computed number of wade 
acres in every parifh of the kingdom from the af- 
feflbrs of the land tax, the men might be diftributed 
proportionably, as near as polTible to the place of 
their legal fettlcmcnt j and billetted on the parilh, 

* Whenever any thing is done with Epping-Foreft, I hope the 
excellent Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufaflureg, 
and'Connmerce, will not be forgotten. Their endeavours to ferve 
the public in the branch of agriculture, are not fo decided as we 
fhould fee them, it they were poflefled of a farm on which to make 
ihofe experiments they have hitherto been forced to form on the 
farms of other people. Three hundred acres afiigned to them 
would be of little burthen to the nation, but the advantage to that 
moft laudable in^itution very great. 

That Society, I am forry to fay, is not very faflilonable. People 
pf no great account in life have been its a£tive lupports, and, ia 
my opinion, have done by far more good with an income under a 
ihoul'and pounds a year, than has been performed by three-fourths 
of the men ot great property in the nation, who have been more in* 
clined to give them their ridicule than affiitance, but knowing little 
more of their tranfaijlions than of a fociety in the moon. It is 
probable, that the kingdom has been benefited a thoufand pounds 
for every guinea thefe men have expended. 

. Vol.. I. No. I. E till 



66 ANNALSOF 

till their cottages were ercfted, and their fences 
made, in the manner prefcribed by the ad of par- 
liannent. Perhaps it would not be innpradicablc 
to truft the execution to the parifh officers *, under 
the controul of two juftices of the peace viewing 
the prcif.ijes. No money to be allowed in re-im- 
burfement, till fatisfa6lory proof was m.ade, that 
it was aftually expended as prefcribed by the aft. 
The men having an intereft for their lives in the 
new farm, they would be very adive in checking 
any finifter defigns againft them. Parifh officers 
are intruded with the expenditure of much larger 
fums, and though certainly not without abufes, 
yet being in accounts vaftly more complex and va- 
rious than could arife from the fimplicity of a few 
articles under a very eafy controul, the execution 
of fuch a plan in their hands, would be much lefs 
liable to abufes than the bufinefs already in it.— It 

♦ I am fenfible of the prejudices exifting againft this body of 
men, moft of which are exceedingly unjuft and truly abfurd. 
Their condu6l, in relation to the poor, flows by neceflity from the 
laws t and, as they tax themfelves to raife money which they ex« 
pend themfelves, not in grofs articles eafily to be checked, but in 
thoufands of trifling fums, no wonder abufes arife. The bufinefs 
which I would oblige them to execute, is very different in every 
refped— not liable to equal abufes — more under controul— and in 
which they themfelves would not have an equal intereft to defraud. 
They fliould execute the works at the expenfe of the parifti, and 
Ilotbere-imburfed till viewed and approved by two juftices. Build- 
ing a hut— ditching— cattle— feed— &c. thefe are articles which 
t-hey could execute cheaper, and with more eafe, than any fet of 
«cn in the kingdom* 

would. 



AGRICULTURE. hf 

Would, however, be proper to give to tne meii 
themfelves the abfolute choice of the fpot in the 
wafte where they were to be fettled, to avoid a very 
obvious motive that might lead to their injury. 

There are, doubtlefs, other modes of executing 
the idea, but perhaps not fo readily, nor at fo fmall 
an expenfe, nor in which the men themfelves would 
have fo much to do — and the more depended on 
them, the better chance for their being well treated. 
The men and the future inhabitants of the houfes, 
being cut off from ever becoming chargeable to the 
parifh, would prevent the eftablifliment from being 
viewed with evil eyes. 

Operations to fo great an extent muft neceflarily 
fpread into all parts of the kingdom, and confe- 
quently could not be put under the direftion of a 
few active and well chofen managers. A very ob- 
vious way of conducting fmaller undertakings of 
this fort, would be to fix fuch a manager in the 
center of a foreft, chace or moor, to build, inclofe, 
and fix the men in their farms, upon the regular, 
and orderly plan of a new colony. Such an efta- 
blifhment in the midfb of the moors of Northum- 
berland, another in Durham, another in Devonfhire, 
&c. would be doing the bufinefsfpeedily, effedually, 
and free from impofuion or abufes j but the fcale 
would be trifling on comparifon with what I have 
propofed. 

The favourite objefl: of my ideal agriculture, 

was.always the improvement of wafte lands. I once 

E 2 {ketchcd 



68 ANNALSOF 

fketched a plan * of conducing a great work of 
this /ort for fpreading cultivation over a wafte in 
the fpeedieft manner poffible. Thofe who have 
not turned their thoughts to fuch fubjefls, would 
fcarcely believe what an extent of country, even to 
the amount of the largefl: forcft, the works under 
one man's diredlion would in a few years cloath. 

I was young enough then to think fome plan of 
that fort might be embraced, and that my enquiries, 
purfuits, and pradtice, united with the adlivity I 
knew myfeif capable of, might have contributed, 
without the inftigation of any mean or unworthy 
motive, to the execution of fuch a defign, I am 
now much older, and I hope too wife to imagine, 
that I have any talents that can ever be of ufe be- 
yond the limits of my own farm. The years of 
retirement in which I have lived, have perfectly 
quieted all fuch expeflations, and convinced me, 
that to think fuch purfuits and employments, as I 
have delighted in, were adapted to public ufe in 
this age and country, were truly amongft the follies 
of my younger days. Throughout thefe papers, 
therefore, I have been fludioufly attentive to pro- 
pofe no plan that would not in its progrefs execute 
itfelf. No managers, no conduftors, no infpe6lors 
are neceflary: one explicit, decided, and vigorous 
ad of parliament, that made the private intereft of 
every one concerned the means of execution, would 
effed the whole. 

» Objervations on tit Prefent State »fth Wafit Lendt, 8vo. 

Let 



AGRICULTURE. 69 

Let us, however, fuppofc, that the idea of diffi- 
culties fhould get the better of all the true vigour 
and fpirit which ought to animate the minds of 
men, when the public benefit is fo nearly and greatly 
concerned. Could no other plan be adopted, that 
would force the improvement of foaie po;tion of 
thefe enormous waftes that are luch a diferace to 
the kingdom ? Much might certainly be done by a 
bounty per acre given for their culiure, upon the 
plan delineated in the following adverrifement of 
the Society of Arts, fuggefled 10 the.n by me. 
For the improvement of the greatefi number of acres 
of wafle moor -land J not lefs than one hundred ■•, a -piece 
of plate of the value ofiool. with a fuitablc infcrip- 
tion. It is required, that the landy before improve- 
ment^ be abfolutely uncultivated^ in a great meafure 
ufelefst not let to any tenant y and without any build- 
ing upon ity except cottages or huts, Ihat^ in its im- 
proved fiate^ it fJoall be inclofedy cultivated, and 
divided into fields of not more than ten acres each, 
with buildings ere^ed thereon fuffcient for the ufe and 
reftdence of a tenant, and let on Itafe to one who oc- 
cupies no other land. 

The words, not let to any other tenant do not in- 
clude rights of commonage, let with the adjoining 
farms. 

Such a plan as this might eafily be adapted to 

the different purport of an aft of parliament. If 

the bounty was 3I. per acre, a right of inclofure, 

and an exemption for ever from tythe and poor- 

E ^ rates^ 



70 ANNALS OF 

rates, 500,000!. would improve 167,000 acres, 
annually. No difficulties in this plan could arife, 
that might not be obviated in a moment. If dif- 
ferent claims or properties interfered in a wafte, 
V they might be fettled by commiffioners chofen by 
the parties j who fhould be obliged to name them, 
though only one declared his intention of claiming 
the bounty, in order that fuch fingle perfon's fhare 
might be fet our, and the owner permitted to exe- 
cute the works prefcribed by the aft. The cotta- 
gers who made ufe of their rights of commonage, 
fhould be recompenfed by fmall lots of land thrown 
to their dwellings, and contiguous to them. The 
execution of fuch an a6b of parliament would be a 
mod decifive meafure, and, if continued, would 
carry a very high degree of cultivation into every 
wafte and negledted corner of the ifland. 

There is a motive for bringing into cultivation 
the wafte lands of the kingdom, v/hich can fcarcely 
fail of making an impreffion. If corn of all forts 
was fo permanently cheap as to keep the markets 
too low, it might be faid that we have enough al- 
ready, and that cultivating great additional tradls 
of land, would be only adding in that refpedl to 
an evilj but fuch is the fuperior increafe of our 
people to the increafe of our culture, that the price 
is generally high — fo high as to occafion clamour 
and complaint. And the regifter of our export and 
import, will fhew that our confumption is fo much 
greater than our growth, that no apprehenfions of 

^ that 



AGRICULTURE. 71 

that fort can reafonably take place. In fhould alfo 
be confidered, that the execution of fuch works as 
are here fkerched, would, by the great increafe of 
employment, yield people to confume fome of the - 
products raifed. 

By that regifter, it appears, that reckoning wheat 
and rye to yield 2 f qrs. per acre, oats 4, and beans 
and peafe 3I, we have, in 1 1 yt-ars, imported the pro- 
duft of 179,084 acres of wheat and rye, 673,177 
acres of oats, and 19,433 acres of peafe and beans, 
in all 871,694 acres, or per annum, 79,-45 acres. 
The imports exceeding our exports in 

Wheat •' 343>682 Qrs. 

Oats - - 2,692,708 

Rye - - 104,028 

Beans and peafe - 68,016 

I am very far from finding fault with importations 
that conne6t nations together, and aflift the mutual 
intercourfe which ought to fubfift between them ; 
but I think the objefl of fuch imports, fhould be 
commodities which other climates yield in prefer- 
ence to our own, rather than fuch as are the com- 
mon produce of our whole territory. This regu- 
lar import of an article which we formerly exported 
to a vaft amount, fhews that the ftate of cultivation 
has not kept a due pace with the increafe of our 
people and confumption. 

But the improvement of our wafte lands, great 
and fuperior as the importance of that part of our 

E 4. domeftic 



72 ANNALSOF 

domefliic policy will always be found, is not the only 
fiej'i to which wifdonn may refort for an increafe of 
the national refources. Other branches of our 
agriculture call for an attention which they have 
ample nneans of paying for. They are not all to 
be effetlcd by the fa'ne meafures I have recom- 
mended for the fuperior obje<5l already examined. 
Public money would not be wanted; or at leafl in 
fums too inconfiderable to raife any apprehenfions 
in the moft fcrupulous guardian of the national 
purfe. 

In the lad: 30 or 40 years, 900 bills of inclofure 
have pafled the Houfe of Commons. Upon a 
moderate calculation they have been the means of 
improving about a million of acres. The greater 
part of land before cultivated, but in the conftraint 
and imperfedtion of the open field fyftem ; in which 
mankind were fo long content to abide by the in- 
conveniencies which the barbarity of their anceftors 
had neither knowledge to difcover, nor government 
to remedy: not lefs abfurd than it would have 
been, had the Tartar policy of the fhepherd-ftate 
been adhered to, and the uninterrupted range of. 
flocks and herds perferred to the appropriation of 
the foil, as the property of individuals. Many of 
thofe improvements were inwaftesj and, if we value 
the medium produce of the whole at 30s. an acre 
before inclofure, it will not probably be under- rated. 
By that fimple regulation, which annexes to pro- 
perty the power of improving it, the produce 

doubles^ 



AGRICULTURE. 73 

doubles, fo that the fame land now yields 3]. from 
which the more Icanty harvefl:s were before reaped 
at a greater expenfe. Hence, therefore, theft mil- 
lion of acres have been m.ade to yield,- at a very 
moderate calculation, a million and a half a year 
more than in their unimproved ftatej and if the 
average period of this wife policy be taken at 20 
years, it has added 30 millions fterling to the na- 
tional wealth. One of the moft aflive and power- 
ful refources the nation has had, and which has en- 
abled it, more than mod other circumftances of 
profperity, to bear with unimpaired ftrength, and 
unrelaxed vigour, the wafte of blood and creafure, 
which our perpetual wars have occafioned. 

To give a frefli and unexperienced animation to 
this wife and fruitful policy, is an objefl which calls 
for the efforts of every enlightened adminiftration. 
The expenfe ofdiftinfl acls of parliament for every 
common field that is inclofed, is a heavy clog upon 
a meafure from which all manner of obftrudionS' 
ought moft feduloufly to be removed. A new, 
more accommodating, and miore aftive fyftem ought 
to be promoted. The power which ignorance, pre- 
judice, or caprice can now exert with fuccefs in op- 
pofing inclofures, fliould be removed, and a much 
greater facility of effc6ling them given to thofewhofe 
private intereft and inclination coincide fo power- 
fully with the general welfare and profperity of the 
ilate. No public money is requifite to produce hn- 
irienfe refources, The exertion of wifdom, know- 
ledge. 



74 A N N A L S O F 

ledge, and adivity is all the bufinefs demands. 
There are probably five nniHions of acres uninclofed 
in the kingdom, which being under fome fort of cul- 
tivation, do not clafs with the waftes I before con- 
lidered. Inclofure would add from 30s. to 40s. an 
acre to their produce, and confequently to the na- 
tional refoiirces from leven to ten millions annually. 
The magnitude of the obje(5l makes negledl in it 
the more mortifying to every bofom that feels for 
the public welfare ; left \o the common fenfe of in- 
dividuals toftruggle againft folly and prejudice, thefe 
remnants of former barbarity, may take a century to 
correft. If the wafle and diffipation of our refources 
moved with no greater celerity, we might wait with 
patience for the remedy ; but the public expence in 
this kingdom demands a provifion that muft be 
founded on more a6live and more fpeedy efforts^ 

The commutation of land, or fome fixed land 
or corn rent for tythes, ought to be efteemed, as it 
really is one of the mod confiderable refources the 
kingdom pofieffes. Many prejudices I know exifls 
againft touching this tax, as it may with truth be 
called. The clergy are full of groundlefs apprehen- 
fions that their intereft would fufler ; and fporcing 
landlords, whofe territories are fmall, had rather fee 
them ill cultivated, than themfelves circumfcribed 
in their views of gamej but both are mere preju- 
dices that operate confiderably againft the public in- 
tereft. That requires fuch a fyftem as fhall beft pro- 
mote the entire cultivation of the foil: but tythes are 

fo 



AGRICULTURE. 7- 

fo powerful an obllacle to all fpirited hufbandry,that 
it can never arife under the extreme burthen of their 
being taken in kind. A high and proportional conn- 
pofition, unlefs fixed for many years, though not 
equally defl:ru6live, is almoft as much fo. It is be- 
yond all the powers of calculation, to conjedure what 
is the amount of the annual lofs fuftained by the 
community in confequence of this moft ill-judged 
fyftem being continued in fuch effeftive force over 
the kingdom, except in that fmall portion of it eman- 
cipated by bills of inclofure. If it operates in full 
power over 1 5 millions of cultivated acres, producing 
at the average of 2I. 5s. 6d.* per acre, 34, 1 25,000!. 
and affe<5ls their culture only to the amount of one 
tenth, it prevents a produ6t of 3,41 2,5001. per ann. 
And that this is but a moderate eftimate, will ap- 
pear to any one who refleds attentively on the fub- 
je(5t. Such a refource is too great to be negleded. 
Burthened as the nation is with debts and taxes, and 
apprehenfive as fhe juftly is of a renewal of thofe 
hoftilities in which an hundred millions fterling feed 
fcarcely a fix years flame, it is to fuch rcfources as 
thefe fhe muft recur for enabling her to look futurity 
in the face. If fhe ufes them, fhe may maintain hef 
ground j if fhe neglefts thim, fhe muft fall. 

Thofe are the moll fruitful refources of a govern- 
ment which flow from the exuberant v/ealth and 
profperity of individuals. Remove an obflacle to 
private induliry, you create a public refources hencd 

* Political Arithmetic, Part II, p. 29. 

the 



76 ANNALS OF 

the advantage of abolifhing tythes ; and, upon the 
lame principle, ihofe laws thac burthen the nation 
with poor rates, ought to be revifed. That tax 
raifes near two miUions a. year: if it contributed 
largely to the welfare and happinefs of the loweft 
clafTes — if it was the means of fmoothing fome of 
the cruel afperities of life — of levelling the inequa- 
lities of fortune, and providing for thofe who were 
unable to fupport themfelves-^not a word fhould 
drop from my pen againft a fyflem that would, in 
fuch a cafe, be itfelf a national refource, by reliev- 
ing indigence, and foftening mifery. But if, on the 
contrary, as experience has fully convinced me, it 
correfls no evil it did not create — relieves no indi- 
gence it did not caufe — banifhes no forrow that did 
not flow from the folly of its own adminiftration, 
and is itfelf the parent of the poverty it afTifts — in 
this cafe a very different conclufion is to be drawn. 
That this is fa6b, without prejudice or exaggeration, 
cannot but appear to thofe who have remarked the 
effefl of induftry among the poor, and who have 
made themfelves fenfible of the infinite difference 
between an early and habitual dependence on la- 
bour, and that fatal one which fo often takes place 
on parochial affiflance. — I am old enough now to 
fee, in various inflances, idlenefs, drunkennefs, and 
difTipation, arrived at maturity in men and women, 
who, when young, have told me, that the parijh mufi 
maintain thsm, if they could not maintain them/elves'-^ 
a knowledge and a fentiment that never took pof- 

fcflion 



AGRICULTURE. 77 

feflion of the bofom of a poor perfon, but it worked 
the efFeft it foretold. 

A great change, however, in an evil becoire io 
radical from long eftabliihment, is not to be looked 
for — and I (hall only contend at prefcrit for a pro- 
hibition of future increafe. No general a6l relative 
to the poor fhould, for any purpofe \^hatever, be 
pafled without a claufe declaring all levies or alTcIT- 
ments illegal, null, and void, that exceed in the 
amount the average of the lad feven years. This 
claufe has a6lually been infcrted in every bill for the 
eftabliiliment of hundred houfes of inJuftry. No 
inconvenience whatever has flowed from it. The 
return of peace might make it pradlicable to render 
thofe houfes univerfal, as money now may be bor- 
rowed for the buildings. The policy of then^i will 
ftand the teft of the fcvereft examination. And, if 
they were univerfal, they would work a change in 
the habits, education, and confequent induftry of the 
poor, which would be truly a refourc^ to the king- 
dom in every future period of its exiftence. — Such a 
general extenfion of them is not, however, to be ex- 
pected at prefent: but the claufe that I have named 
does not depend on them; it is fimple and uncon- 
nected, and would alone, without any other alTifl-ance, 
greatly promote the future induflry of the nation, 

Thefe are meafures which, with many others in 
relation to manufadtures, commerce, and naviga- 
tion, deferve confiderable attention ; they are rtot, 
however, in my line, I therefore only mention them, 

wilhins 



7^ ANNALSOF 

wifhlng they may meet with that of perfons betted 
qualified to do them juftice. 

There is this advantage in furthering to the ut- 
moft exertions in that policy which has the full cul- 
tivation of the foil for its objed, that whatever re- 
fources are thus created and improved, are very little 
dependent on events of war, or negotiations of peace: 
they want no viftories to defend j they dread no de- 
feats that fhall difmember them. Whatever is thus 
gained claims no military or civil eftablifhments, 
and caufes no expence that is not repaid a thoufand 
fold. Such are the charafteriftics of every im- 
provement that takes place in the national agricul- 
ture. They arc of fo unmixed and unfullied a 
luftre, of fuch a (lerling weight in the national fcale, 
that no efforts fhould be omitted to carry them as 
near to pertedion as poffible. 

The plans I have fubmitted to the public, becaufc 
I have confidered them with attention, have defined 
very explicit obje<5ts for their operation ; but the 
advantages that flow from more general and diffufed 
improvements, effe<5led not by ads of parliament, 
or the efforts of public policy, but arifing from the 
Imperceptible endeavours of private exertions, tho^ 
they would be lefs known, are not lefs real. To 
fuch has been owing, in a great meafure, the prof- 
perous ftate to which our agriculture is aheady ar- 
rived. But 4S its further improvement is an objeft 
that will always (land foremoU in the aggregate of 
^lational profperity, the more its importance is gene- 

"ially 



AGRICULTURE. 7^ 

rally Inculcated, and the more the tafte of the higher 
and middling clafTcs of the people is carried towards 
it, the more rapid will be its progrefs ; the more 
abundant our refources. Such a general tafte as 
fhall be ufeful, can only be the refuk of general 
knowledge ; as this again muft fiow from the nature 
of the education that is ufually given to youth. 

I fhould omit an objedl, perhaps eflential to the 
future welfare of the kingdom, in every refpeft I 
have touched upon, if I did not mention the imper- 
fedt inftru6i-ion which is received in our univerfities, 
by young men whofe refidence is to be in the coun- 
try. Upon a moderate calculation, the Colleges of 
return annually into the kingdom, as edu- 
cated, youths. I am much inclined to think, 
confidering the landed property in their hands, that 
it is an objeft of a moft important nature that thef 
Ihould have imbibed fentiments and inllruftion, 
calculated to make them able managers of their 
cftates. That they fhould have received principles 
in thofe feminaries, that have a tendency to give 
them a tafte and relifli for rural purfuits, that par- 
take more of philofophical enquiries than the vul- 
gar pleafures of horfes and hounds j and a genera! 
preference of a country to a town life. That they 
Ihould be enabled, from that part of their education, 
to judge of the agriculture which gives a value to 
their property ; to pradlife it with knowledge, and 
to be rational patterns, inftead of objefts of defer ved 
ridicule for their ignorance of every thing that moil 

materially 



So ANNALS OF 

materially concerns their fituation in life. Thefe 
appear to be objeds of great national confequence. 
Whoever confults the hiftory of Englifli agricul- 
ture, will know the importance of the improve- 
ments to which it owes its prefent degree of prof- 
perity, fuch as clover, turnips, fainfoin, &c. the ad- 
vantages that have refuked from thefe three articles 
are fcarcely credible. The annual produft of tur- 
nips and clover, amounts to 10,666,51 1 *, fainfoin 
cannot make it lefs than 12 millions.— Then re- 
member that by reafon of turnips the barley is 
greater; and, by the preparation of clover, the 
wheat is more produ6i:ive. Confider the change 
from a barren fallow to fo profitable a hufbandry ; 
and the infinite value of improvements in agricul- 
ture muft be acknowledged. In all probability 
we have been benefited by thefe plants to the 
amount of 500 millions fterling. Of what confe- 
quence is it, therefore, to fpi:ead fuch articles of 
culture over the whole kingdom ; and to introduce 
whatever will bear the teft of rational experiment I 
But how is this to be done by gentlemen educated 
for every objedl but this fpecies of utility. 

The advantages of an education that has thefe 
tendencies cannot be difpured. Whether the uni- 
verfities, as conflituted at prefent, are productive of 
them, deferves the ferious confideration of the le- 
giflature. Thus much- 1 have very generally ob- 
ferved, that the men thus educated, do not often 

• Political Arithmetic. Part II. p! e-y. 

feem 



AGRICULTURE. 8i 

feem to derive their eftimable qualities, or ufeful 
acquirements from that fource : claflical literature, 
that ample bafis for fo many ufeful fuperftruflures, 
is not to be placed to the credit of thefe feminarics, 
fince, if a very general information I have received 
be accurate, much the greater part of the young 
men there educated, leave thofe places worfe fcho- 
lars in this refpeft than they come. But where is 
the botanical, chemical, and mineralogical know* 
ledge ? To come more immediately to the point, 
where is the inftruftion in agriculture, and the arts 
immediately conne£ted with, or dependent on it ? 

That there is a deficiency in our univerfity edu- 
cation in thefe refpeds, is a general opinion j other 
deficiencies, errors, and vices, I do not touch upon— 
o( many I have heard — but they do not concern the 
fubjed before us more than all other fubjeds. The 
queftion is, (ball eftablilbments continue untouched, 
fimply becaufe they are ancient ? Shall confiderable 
revenues remain thus mifapplied, without at lead: 
turning a fmall part into a channel that may difperfe 
its flre^ms to the general fruc5lification of the 
kingdom? 

'If three or four colleges in each univerfity were 
united into one fociety, to be totally new modelled, 
a Tnoft important ftep would be taken towards reme- 
dying the deficiency wc complain of. This meafure 
might be united with that of the fale of the crown 
lands. A large traft might be afTigned in the forefts 
-that are neareft the two univerfities, to fuch new 
. eftablifhments ; to which the whole fociety might in 

Vol. I. No. I. F rotation 



^2 A N N A t S O F 

rotation be required to repa»% to fludy thofe branches 
from which public utility pre-eminently flows, A 
new erefted college in the ctnrer, would, on vari- 
litiis account?", be preferable, hoc the expenfe might 
-be rparcd,- at^d yet abundance of good flow from 
the inftittition. Upon this f^llem a ciofer disci- 
pline ought to be enided— It (hoyld not be lefc 
ta boysiiift let loofe fronn fchool, to acquire or nc- 
^left knowledge at will— Na academic honours or 
' degrees fb<yuld be given to youths in fuch new col- 
leges, but in cttnfeqiuence of a iJritil attention and 
fticcefsfu! application to di€ ftudies predominanC 
there. Praiflical agriculture (hould be taught in 
•pefipatetic le<5lures, by a profefibr who conduced 
-a targe and perfe^Iy well conducted farnn, and who 
was able to exp Jain in the management of it, coiv- 
ne^ted with the profeflbrs ofchemidry and botany, 
the dependence of the art on thofe ftudies. The 
experiment would probably in a few years evince its 
iitility fo clearly, that ail ihe, reft of the colleges 
"would unite in making ituniverfal. The execu- 
tion would not materially interfere with the other 
part of education, as condudled at prefent in the 
"univerfity. But it would add to the acquifitions 
which youth made there, materials for the future 
employment of dieir minds applicable to their de- 
ft i nation in life, and of a tendency to render them 
efficient contributors to the welfare, happinefs, and 
profperity of the kingdom. 

When a young man of fortune leaves the uni- 
vcrfity, he completes his education by travelling, 

which. 



AGRICULTURE. H^ 

which, as generally managedj offers ccrjfiJ/rations 
no Itfs lamentable than his acadtmic lorfs of time*. 
Parents fhcw hov/ little they underftand or value 
the proper objeds of travel, by the choice they 
make of the tutors who attend their fons. Whe-, 
ther the appointment of clergymen alone to that 
office is eflentially nece flary, is an enquiry I fhali 
not purfue. But the qualincations of the man that is 
employed are much more to thepurpofe; what thefc 
ought to be, will bed appear from a curfory exami- 
nation into the life and intention of f. reign travel. 

This, in one word, is the acquifition of know. 
ledge — If I travelled with a young man, I would 
take him through all the provinces of a kingdom 
before he vifited the capital; when he was well in- 
ftrufted in every thing of importance, he would be 
prepared for the conveifation of perfons in the court 
and capital, whofe purfuits render their time too va- 
luable to give it to idle boys that come raw into a 
country, and knowing nothing of it, are ignorant of 
the art of afl<;ing queliions. Agriculture pra(5lical 
and political — as it fupports the individual, and be- 
comes the bafis of the (late, ought to be carefully 
examined *. Manufadures traced in all their con- 

• What attention is paid by men of rank and fafbion to agricul- 
ture in their to\ir I can eafiiy coMefl, for the extreme igncraiice 
many have difplayed, when I have made enquiries on the fubjeft. 
But this has not been the cafe with others who have travelled at a 
ijvpre advanced period of life. The longer a man lives, the more 
he is convinced of the real importance of this objeft. Woiild not 
every wife father then wifli, that his fon Ihould have his attention 
<urned towards thofe objefts which, at a niatm«r period, would be 
thofen* 

F 2 ncftions 



»4 ANNALS OF 

neflions — why does this fabric thrive here ? What 
does it derive from national advantages, and what 
from policy ? Is it cheaper or dearer than a fimilar 
one in England ? Why is it fo? Does theconnmerce 
of this port increafe or decline ? To what owing ? 
Rivalled by whom ? Why ? Finances : what are 
the taxes ? Oppreflive ? Why — amount, or the 
mode of levying ? In what manner do they obftrufb 
agriculture, manufactures, or trade ? Do you receive 
information on thefe points ? Afcertain the truth, 
walk the fields of the farmer— enter the workihop 
of the manufadlurer, and the counting-houfe of the 
trader. Is the country populous or thinly inhabited ? 
W^hy ? How far dependent on culture ? How much 
on induftry ? and how obftru(51:ed by government ? 
What is the force of the (late relative to the number 
of the people ? Compare it with other countries, efpe- 
cially your own. When difBculties occur, minute 
them for enquiry ; and when you come to the capi- 
tal, find out men that can explain them. Go 
through Europe on thefe principles, and on your 
return take your feat in the Houfe of Lords, or of 
Commons : you will enter the lifts with others that 
have made the fame tour, and who have drank deep 
of very different knowledge— fkilled in the fine arts 
—critics in women— adepts in all the fafhionable 
inanity that graces the page of a late travelling tu- 
tor — If you do notoutftrip your competitors in th$ 
race of excellence — of importance — of ambition-^ 
of Man— go hang or Ihoot yourfelf— the fooneJ 
you fall the better. 

The 



AGRICULTURE. 85 

The general influence of a wife government in 
encouraging purfuits that have the more ufeful 
branches of natural hiftory for their object, mufl:, 
in every country, be attended with very important 
efFefts. Men will naturally apply to thofe enqui- 
ries that lead to diftinilion and reward. If thefe 
are employed to promote frivolous fi:udies, import- 
ant ones will not be fafhionable *. 

Sorry I am to obferve, that though I have dif- 
charged the duty 1 owe my country, by offering to 
the public the hints which I think might be ufeful, 
yet I muft confefs, that the fpeftacle of the times 
does not yield me any hope of feeing them exe- 
cuted ; for the contentions of our parties, hot, reil- 
iefs, and a6live for their own purpofes j but lazy, 
inert, and dronifh, when the public is concerned ; 
remind one of the contradi(5lons of the favage ftate 
Mir a diverfitate nature cutn iidem homines fic 
ament inertium &' oderirit quiete'in. Thofe con- 
tentions, though undoubted proofs of that perennial 
and unfading liberty which is the birth-right and the 
blefling of Englifhmen, yet do they fo occupy the 
minds of our leaders, that one univerfal fcuffle for 

• It is true, that the rich and the^reSt in *his country give lefs 
attention to thefe fubjefls (of natiuai pbilofophy) than 1 believe 
they were ever known to do fince the tim« of Lord Cacon, and 
much lefs than men of rank apd fortune in. other countries give to 
them. With us politics chiefly engagerr-r-&.c.— — " I' 'S rather 
ft) be regretted, however, that in fuch ^ number of nobility and 
gentry, fo very few fliould kave anytafte foi fcientifical.purfuits^ 
becaufe for many valuable purpofes of fcience,' lutalib gives a deci- 
five advantage,'* Dr. Ptiefllefs Experiments and Objervatiom on 
different Kindt of Mfi Vol, I. Prtf, p, viii. 

power 



86 ANNALS OF 

power forms the bufinefs of all thofe to whom the 
nation might look for fuch meafures. — For that 
power, of which they can only manifeft the abufe ; 
while the kingdom fiourifhes, not froni the attention 
but in fpite of the profiigacy of government—— 
Applied in every particular that has the moft diftant 
relation to thefe partriotic purpofes, in a manner 

tending rather to damn than promote them To 

turn afide the attention of men capable of great exer- 
tions, from the fruitful field of fcience to the barren 

defert of perfonal politics. To employ abilities 

that might be refpeflabk in difguifing beneath the 
varnifii of eloquence, meafures that are pernicious 
to the profperity of the kingdom. — To enlarge and 
cftablifh courts upon ideas that mark foldiers zxidfine 
gentlemen for the only beings that ought to approach 

the perfons of princes. To nourilh a fwarm of 

party pamphleteers, at an expenfe that would fup- 
port an academy of experimental philofophy. — To 
throw the rays of favour on the trifling, the diflipa- 
ted, and the flagitious, while genius ncgleded, flies 
from the competition, and talents feek that in ob- 
fcurity which the world denies *. Such are not 

• Diftant periods may do that juftice which the prefent refufcs. 
flames may dazzle in. one age to which oblivion is the happinefs of 
another. The great luminary of fcience fent to depend in retire- 
ment on the refources of his o-^n fuperior mind, may form a com- 
parifon of this fort. His name will go down in triumph to that 
pofterity in whofe memor'y'no traces may exilt of THE great of 
this age. Well has that Wmitablfe writer obferved, " How trifling 
is the fameof any-ftatefman tbat this country has produced, to that 
of Lord Bacon, of. Newton, or of Boyle ; ajid how much greater 
are our obligations to. fuch men^as tl]ele, than to any other in the 
vhole Biographia Brkannka."-^Pr, PrUfiley's Experiments and Ob' 
Jervmm m different Kindt of A\r, ' VitU Vol, I . p. x vii. 

the 



A G R I C U L T U R E. gj 

the fpedacles that feem propitiou& to-fuch a palicy 
asthefe ftieets have rccoiinnendcd. — Old meafures 
may be purfued, but new events may arrive when 
the refources of the period are unequal to the de- 
mand. — The unadified progrefa of prorperity may 
not always rival the prodigality of ftateHrien. The 
• power of producing che resources I. have dtCcnbcd 
•exifts in the nation^ buL they cannot produce theoi- 
felves. If government pays the marked attention 
due to their magnitude, futurity can bring nothing 
foriTjidable— but if in the old fyftem we truft eter- 
nally, to credit, yet prepare no folid bafis to mak€ 
it permanent, we have every thing to apprehend. 
The political horizon is not without its clouds,— 
May no ftorm arife that Ihall find us a devoted, 
becaufe an unprepared, people — in which loiTes^ 
confufion, bankruptcy, and ruin^ (liall fatally proye 
• to us the immutable difference betv/een wafting the 
precious moments of peace in trifling purfuits-t7'i,n 
the vile contentions of private intereft — or, appjjf- 
ing them to the nobler purpofes which I have- de- 
lineated *, 

The greater outlines of fuch plans, the legiJl^- 
ture only can execute -, but individuals, althoug-li 

• In the King'a fpeech at the beginning of the prefent felTiohs 
was this paffage: " The feafon of peace will call upon you for an 
attention to every thing that can recruit the ttrength of the nation 
after lb long and loexpenfivea war." — Avery good idea, and doubt- 
lefs explained on fame ot the principles which I have dwelt on ;, it 
goes on, *' the lecurity and incrcal'e of the revenue " Juft, fo it is, 
for ever and ever — the old ftory over and over again ! The Spani/h 
ambaOTador, who, when the Venetians fhewed him their famous 
gold chain, looked under the table to fee from what Rqot it fprung, 
{ives the beft commentary on fuch fpeeches. 

they 



8S ANNALSOF 

they cannot rival thefe exertions, can point their 
weaker efforts to the acquifition of ufeful knowledge 

to the pronnotion of enquiries which have the fame 

tendency. — They may not be able to fpread culti- 
vation over chaces and forefts, but they can ftrenu- 
oufly aim at improving the fmaller waftes within 
their power — giving a frefh animation to the cul- 
ture already around them — and, by their afliftance 
in diffufmg the knowledge of the eafier means of 
effedling it, Ihew that they know the fituation of 
the kingdom, and feel the necefiity of every heart 
and hand uniting to promote the public good. The 
work I now offer to the world, if fupported, may 
give no inconfiderable affiftance in fpreading that 
knowledge on which the national intereil materi- 
ally depends. Uninterefted in the event (further 
than wilhes for the profperity of the community of 
which I am fo inconfiderable a part) I make the 
offering of my mite. I wifh to infpire every bofom 
to pu(h our hufbandry to the utmoft. — We have 
the means of noble refources, if we find willing 
minds to ufe them.— -One link in the chain, perhaps 
not the mofl inconfiderable, is a univerfai office of 
intelligence.— Thefe papers may prove fuch :— I 
throw out the hint : — Be it my aim to deferve — 
little as 1 can command fuccefs. 

A. Y. 

BraJfeld-Hall, near 
Burjt Suffolk. 



ANNALS 



O F 



AGRICULTURE. 



EXPERIMENTS ON CLOVER, 

BY THE LATE 

JOHN WYNN BAKER, Esq. F. R. S. 

Dear Sir, 
T AM exceeding glad to hear that you have de- 
-*" termined to undertake the periodical publica- 
tion * upon ihe plan mentioned in your Rm'al 
Oeconomy. — The authenticity which that plan re- 
quires, of every correfpondent being to fubfcribe 
his name and place of abode, under your infpec- 
tion as editor, cannot fail of giving a credit to 
the work, which will make it acceptable to all 
farming readers. 

The difinterefled ground which you move upon 
in this undertaking, fliews fuch a liberality of fen- 
timent, and fuch a zeal for the intereft and hap- 

* This letter was fent me upon occafion of my propofing a 
publicaticn fimilar to the prefent near fifteen years ago, and to 
which I refer in the Preface to this work. 

Vol. I. N°2. G pinefs 



90 ANNALSOF 

pinefs of mankind^ that you will allow me, as one 
individual of the great community of the world, 
to tender you my fincere thanks. 

And as my purfuits are chiefly in the experi- 
mental way, calculated for the infpeftion and in- 
formation of this kingdom, you will now and then, 
perhaps, indulge me with the infertion of fome 
little things of mine; which I fliall endeavour to 
choofe, of the moft important kind for the fup- 
port of man and beaft, and attainable by the 
fimpleft operations; and, might I venture to ha- 
zard a wifh, it would be, that your correfpondents 
would adhere, for a time at leaft, to thofe ideas, 
before we enter into fpeculative matters of an ab- 
ftrufe nature, and infignificant produce, when 
compared with the more noble produ6tions of the 
earth. 

Conformable to thofe ideas, I trouble you with 
the following relation upon clover, &c. not as 
excelling in produce, becaufe I am fure much 
more has been obtained ; but as being accurate in 
the account, and profitable to fuch a degree, as, I 
think, muft be inviting to the farmer, who works 
even upon poor ground. — If you think it worthy 
of a place in your firft number, it is at your 
fervice. 

I am, &:c. 

LaughJet2'sTo'wn,near'\ jOHN WyNN BaKZR. 

Leixlip, in Ireland, V 
Augitji i^thy 1771. J 



Tht 



AGRICULTURE. 



91 



The Value of Clover y in maintaining Cattle^ and 
preparing Land for the Reception of Wheat in- 
dependent of Fallow^ exemplified by Experiments 
in the Kingdom of Ireland. 

By John Wynn Baker ^ F. R. S. 

nP^HE foil of the field devoted to this purpofe 
-*- is of a very ftrong kind, apt to retain the 
falling rains, very full of flones, of ftrong adhe- 
five gravel mixed with large ftofies, and then a 
ftrong quarry of lime-ftone. — One end always 
wet, and the other rifing ground, dry, but an in- 
finity of ftones ; and irregular hollows in the 
middle. — The field contains 13 A. 2 R. 18 P. 
grofs, plantation meafure *. 

In the year 1763, this field was under wheat: 
when I took the farm I bought the crop, and had 
not three barrels upon any one acre t. — 1764 
oats; 1765 fallow, and manured with compoft 
of earth and dung; 1766 under various experi- 
ments; 1767 under wheat ; 1768 under oats, and 
fown with red clover; 1769 clover; 1770 clover; 
and now in 1771 under wheat. 

I had conceived an idea, that clover would be 
more profitable by mowing it, and bringing it 
home to fodder cattle in the yards, and horfes in 
the ftable, than by pafturing in the field; with 
this view, I determined to mow the bulk of this 
field in 1769. 

* Five plantation acres make eight Englifli and 15 Perch, 
f Our Barrel of wheat is 20 done (of 14. pounds.) 

G 2 Two 



92 ANNALS OF 

Two acres of the clover I intended for feed, 
and therefore grazed it with nine horfes, from the 
lOth of May until the 6th of June. 

On the 24th of May, although the clover was 
not fo high as I wifhed, yet I was obliged to begin 
to mow it for the fwine, of which I had at that 
time 83 head. One with another I guefs about 
three quarters of an hundred were they fat. They 
were fed twice a-day with mown clover from this 
field, until the 26th of Auguft. And, on the 6th 
of June, I began to mow the clover for the horn- 
ed cattle, and horfes alfo. 

Of the horned cattle, I had 38 head, viz. 

4 Large plough bullocks. 

3 Milking cows. 

4 Three year old bullocks. 

6 Three year old heifqrs. 

7 Two year old bullocks. 
3 Two year old heifers. 

1 1 Yearling calves. 

38 
and nine horfes. ^ — None of thefe cattle were fuf- 
fered to lie out one night, during the time in which 
the clover flood mowing for them, i. e. from the 
6th of June until the 26th of Auguft. 

About five acres of it were mowed twice. — But 
when it became too fliort for the fythe, I then 
turned in all the flock already mentioned, every 
morning and evening, except the fwine; for them 
I had another refource. The grazing this ftock 
every morning and evening, continued regularly 

without 



AGRICULTURE. 



93 



without any other food, until Michaelmas, the 
whole flock ftill houfed every night ; except four 
plough bullocks, three milking cows, and the nine 
horfes, for the laft month, were left out at nights. 
The running ftock were turned every day upon a 
common adjoining my farm, not for what they 
could gel, but for air and to (tretch their legs, for 
the common is always bare. 

Upon the firft mowing, the ftock already men- 
tioned could not confume all the clover, and 
therefore I mowed a fmall piece which I was 
afraid would get too hard, and it made at leaft 
eight loads of hay *. 

I took this idea of maintaining cattle in the 
yards or houfes, from having frequently heard that 
in Flanders they fcarce ever fufFer their cattle to 
pafture at large, but the farmers all feed them in 
the houfe. I have now purfued it three or four 
years, and have fomuch reafon to be fatisfied with 
it, that I cannot fufficiently recommend it to 
others. — Where the clover is intended for mow- 
ing, it will always be necellary to pick off the 
ftones, as was the cafe in the field before us, 
which abounded with themt. " 

The 

* Our load of hay in Ireland is four Cwt. 

+ It has been an afiertion, that by taking the ftones off feme 
land, it has proved unprofitable, until the llones have been 
reflored. — This I readily believe ; but like many events fron^ 
Iccal caules, this notion I find is diffufed to much greater ex- 
tent, than the like effedl will be found. — I am of opinion this 
efFed can only happen when the fpecies of ftone, from its 

G 3 alkaline 



^4 ANNALSOF 

The Field No. lo, in my prefent Map 

Debtor. 

1 768. To cafh for clover-feed, 2 cvvt. i qr. at 3 1. ^. 6 1 5 o 
To fowing, bufh-harrowirg, and rolling -oil O 

1769. To picking the ftones, and laying them in 

heaps, by talk (too dear) - - - i 13 4 
To drawing them off for d I ains elfewhere - 1 8 ii| 
To a man mowing and drawing home 

clover, 94 days, at 8 d. - - - 3 2 8 

To an horfe chiefly employed in drawing 

home ihe clover, 94 days, at 1 2d. - 4 14 o 

To mowing and miik'ng 8 load of hay, 

ati2d. - - - - -080 

To mowing, ai^d ft'uggli'^g in vain to fave 

two acres of f ed - - -^ - o 1 8 o 
To repair of fences - - - - o 12 o 

To one year's rent, at 18 s. - - - 12 5 Q 
To county fefs*, for this field's proportion 0145 
To drawing out the dung for 60 perches, 

running meafure, of potatoe ground, 

upon the north-eaft headland, for men 

and horfes - - - - - o 1 1 o 

To men for planting the potatoes - -0120 

. To feed potatoes, 30 ftone - - - o 15 o 

To digging the potatoes - - - o 18 o 

To ploughing and harrowing the potatoe- 

ridge to mix the manure - - - o 2 7 
To filling and drawing out the manure upon 

6 acres of this field -r - - -4180 



40 18 ii| 



alkaline quality, has a powerful attraftion of the acid floating 
in the atmofphere ; which, from the imperceptible ebulition 
excited by their union, continually throw fmall incruHations, 
or flakes, cif the ftones. Such a fpecies of flone I would not 
remove. — But I believe they are not common. I once faw this 
ftone upon the verge of Oxfordfhire, not far, I think, from 
Wefl-Wj'comb. 

* County fefs, in Ireland, is a tax laid upon the land-hold- 
ers for making and repairing highways and bridges, levied 

by 



AGRICULTURE. 95 

13 A. 2. 18. plantation meafure. 

Creditor. 
1769. By maintaining 83 head of fwine, 94 days, 

at id. - /. 32 10 2 

By maintaining 9 horfes, from the loth of 

May to the 6th of June, 27 days, at 5 d. 5 1 3 

By maintaining 9 horfes, from the 6th of 
June until the 2d of September, 1 1 5 days, 
at5d. - 21113 

By maintaining 4 plough bullocks, fame 

time, at 3d. - - - - - S ^S ^ 

By maintaining three milking-cows, ditto, 

at 3d. 463 

By maintaining 31 head of running ftock, 
the fame time, which I (hall value at only 
one penny per head, upon an average, 
as they run upon a common in the day 
time - - - - - -14121 

By 8 load of clover hay, at js. - - 200 

By potatoes from the headland, 20 barrels 

(2y cvvt. each) - - - -600 



91 16 o 

by way of prefentment by the grand jurors of the counties, 
certified at the difcreti( n of the judge of affize, under the ap- 
plication and affidavits of the perfoiis applying in behalf of the 
road. — A wife and good ?a\v, were it properly executed. — But 
the tenantry are paying many thoufands a year, for making 
(wenues to gentlemen's houfes, anJ elegant bridges to terminate 
views, I fear fometimes, where little water runs. — A fenfible 
man applied once for a prefentment to bring water to a gentle- 
man's bridge. 

G4 ^769. 



gS ANNALSOF 

Debtor. 
1769. Brought over . - - m'jT.^o 18 ii| 
To fpreading the manure - - -140 
To bufh-harrowing and 1 oiling - -060 

4^ 8 III 
To nett profit in 1769 - <• - 4-9 7 °i 



gt 16 o 



1770. To a boy keeping the fwine, 112 days, 

at 4d. ■ I 17 4 

To a man mowing weeds, 7 days,* at 8d. - o 4 8 
To repair of fences - - - - o 10 o 

To one year's rent - - - -1250 

To couiity fefs this year - - -0131 

- 15 10 I 



To nett profit - - • - - 73 »2 7i 

89 2 8i 



AGRICULTURE. 97 

Creditor. 
^769. Brought over - - - - jT. 91 16 o 



91 16 o 



3770. By profit of 1769 - - - - 49 7 ©I 

By grazing 8 horfes, from the 27th day 
of April to the 13 th of June, being 47 
days, at5d. - - - - -7J68 

By grazing 43 pigs, from the 8th of May 
to the 13th of June, being 36 days, 
at id. - - - - - -690 

By grazing 4 plough bullocks, from the 
9th of May to the 1 3th of June, 3 5 days, 
at 3d. - - - - - - 1 15 • 

By grazing 4 milking-cows, from the i 2th 
of May to the i3ih of June, being 32 
days, at 3d. - - - — - i 12 o 

By grazing 8 horCes, from the 13th of 
July to the 23d of Auguft, being 41 
days, at 5 d. - - - - -6168 

By grazing 4 plough bullocks, from the 
13th of July to the i6th day of Auguft, 
being 34 days, at 3d. - - - i 14 o 

By grazing 43 pigs, from the 13th of July 
to the 27th day of September, being 76 
days, at id. - - - - -13124 

89 2 8| 



The 



gS ANNALSOF 

The total profit upon this field for two years, 
I own furprifes me, and it fhews the value of clo- 
ver in fo flrong a light, that at the fame time I am 
aftonifhed it has not made greater progrefs. I am 
alliamed to own I never had conceived it could do 
any thing like what this account exhibits; and to 
! me, the account confirms, not only the importance 
of clover, but the utility of keeping fuch accounts 
as the one I now offer to your confideration. 

You will doubtlefs obferve, that the charges on 
the debit fide, are very heavy all the way, which 
renders the balance in profit the more inviting to 
the cultivation of clover, particularly when we 
confider that the clover-feed was all loft. 

Perhaps, fome may imagine, that I have valued 
the pafturing of the ftock too high ; but I con- 
ceive j?w pence a piece for horfes, particularly 
fuch as mine are, to be very moderate ; three 
pence for a plough bullock, I apprehend to be 
low enough, and three pence for a milking-cow 
during the fummer months, I apprehend cannot 
be called dear ; but any one who may have ex- 
ceptions to thefe charges, can eafily ftaie the ac- 
count at what price he pleafes, for his own infor- 
mation. — As to the fwine, I am not fo clear about 
them, I think one penny per day is full low; and 
yet, from the value of the fwine, I think the price 
high enough ; for, in putting a value upon the 
pafturing any ftock, if we charge more than the 
improvement of the beaft is worth, we fhould 
certainly charge too much. 

By 



AGRICULTURE. 



99 



By nett profit in the year 1769, - - j^. 49 -7 ©^ 

By nett profit in the year 1770, - - - 24. c 7 

Piolit greater the firfl than the fecond, by - - 2 c i cl 

Nett profit in 1769, per acre, - - - 3 12 5 

Nett profit in 1770, per acre, - - _ i jr ^ 



Profit greater, per acre, the firil: than the fecond 

year, by - - - - - i 16 10 

Thefe flrike me as being important fa61s. The 
arable profit in each year, in my mind, is very 
confiderable, (when we look back at the nature 
and defcription of the land ;) and fuch as I wifh 
all the tillage acres of this kingdom could boaft. 
But the great difference in the two years, opens a 
tempting field for enquiry, as to feveral material 
points, which I fhall not trouble you with at pre- 
fent, 

I propofe, fir, to carry on this field in a con- 
flant fuccefljon of crops, without intermififion, 
and to keep a regular account of the lofs and 
gain.— With that view, the value of clover opens 
to us a new light, (though not altogether a new 
praflicej by its preparation of land for the imme- 
diate reception of wheat. I fiiall therefore here 
give you an account of the procefs and expence 
of putting the crop in ground which the field now 
carries. - 

You will obferve, that on the 29th of Septem- 
ber, 1770, this field ftands clear of all expence^ as 
appears by the account already flated. — And that, 

in 



lOo A N N A L S O F 

in the account, a charge, has been made for mowing 
the weeds, which was to prevent their running to 
feed, to the annoyance of the fucceeding crop. 

I have frequently mentioned to the Dublin 
Society, the vaft expencc it is to the farmer, to 
prepare land, by fallow, for the reception of 
wheat ; and, that clover-lays, ^roj^^;//)' managed*, 
will produce excellent crops of that grain. — Many 
gentlemen and farmers, have frequently heard me 
urge the fame; and to many who vifited me laft 
fummer, I told my intention of fowing the field 
before us with wheat at Michaelmas. Several of 
them retained this declaration upon their minds, 
and have held the fuccefs fo doubtful, that they 
have come this fummer, 1771, to look at the 
wheat, which, I own, I have had great pleafure 
in [hewing, not as what I confider a capital crop, 
but as the beft, in the opinion of ail the old work- 
men, that ever grew upon this field. — Here fol- 
low the expence in fowing the corn. 

Field No. 10. Wheat-feeding on clover-lay 
of the fecond year. 

Debtor . 
1770. Sept. 28 to 0(5lober the 26th. — To 19-? 
piough^, at 4,s. per day, one plough with 
4 horfes, and t'le other 4 bullocks jT. 3 i S o 

To ploughmen, igj days, 3.1 lod - o 16 3 

41+3 

* I beg yon wM obferve, that I do not think mine was, as 
I conceive it better to fow the wheat after /nu.'ce mowing the 
£ti\ year; but I will determine that point by fair comparative 
evperimeiits. 

1770. 



AGRICULTURE. loi 

1770. Brought over, - - - ^.4 14 3 

To 20 harrows, two horfes in each pair, 

at2S. - - - -20-0 

To boys, 20 days driving ditto, - -068 

To the feeds-man for fovving the feed, - o 4 j;| 

To feed-wheat, 5; barrels, i2jllona*, at 

25 s. per barrel, - - " 7 o 7i 

To labourers water-cutting the field, - 1 1 1 j; 

To do. {"hoveling the furrov/s of about ir 

acres at the v/eil end of the field, - o 3 li.j 



+ 16 I 4| 



It, perhaps, may be a matter of furprife, that I 
fliould be from the 28th of September to the 26th 
of 061:ober, fowing this ground ; but it was for a 
reafon which renders tins fowing of wheat parti- 
cularly happy ; for, when rain came, we were ob- 
liged to quit the fallow fowing, and return to this, 
which we could proceed wiih, when we could not, 
or rather mud nor, ftir upon the fallows; fo that 
this field was rather kept as a (landing bufinefs, 
which might go on when the other could not. — ■ 
At the fame time, it will hardly be imagined, that 
even this can be done in a hufband-like manner, 
when very htavy rain fails ; but, what I would be 
underftood to urge^ is, that it can be entered upon 
much fooncr after heavy rain, than fallow can; 
and I have reafcm to believe, from the appearance 
of the corn, will produce, at lead as good, if not 

* One barrel of wheat is 20 ftone, 14 pounds to the ftone. 

+ -It niay not be improper to obferve, that your Britilh flnl- 
ling, with us, paffes for 1 3 d, io that our pound fierling is lefs 
than yours by 2od. 

a better 



102 A N N A L S O F 

a better crop, than fallow, upon ground of equal 
quality. 

In the progrefs of this bufinefs, I made it a point 
to have finifhed every evening what was ploughed 
in the day, within half a ridge or fo ; otherwife, 
heavy rain would have made the ground greafy, 
and thereby have interrupted this fowing, as well 
as that on fallow ; and, therefore, to whoever 
fiiall adopt this culture of wheat, I recommend 
careful attention to that circumflance. — At the 
fame time, they will find, that fome rain will be 
neceffary before they begin to plough up the lay, 
to make the ground kind and mellow ; and, by 
letting the feedfman follow the ploughs, and the 
harrows the feedfman, the ground will harrow 
brittle and kindly, and moft compleatly cover the 
feed. — And, therefore, if the ground be dry, and 
of a ftrong kind, it will be prudent to wait for a 
little rain, otherwife the clods will rife ftrong, and 
confequently not crumble from the plough, which 
(to crumble) is the criterion of fit condition for 
the harrow, and thereby great interftices will be 
left by the fods ftanding too ereft, and the feed 
falling therein will be over covered. — In that 
cafe, one brufli of the harrows fliould precede the 
feedfman. — A few of my ridges were in this way ; 
I purfued that method, and found it prudent and 
ufeful. 

As we finifhed fowing, I caufed one of the 
ploughs to return to the furrows, and to throw up 
one fod out of each, which left all the furrows 

clear. 



AGRICULTURE. 203 

clear, to admit the water to pafs freely into the 
water-cuts, which, by the fum charged for that 
part of the work, you will imagine was done pretty 
fpiritedly. 

In lowing this wheat, I purfued a method 
which I never pra6lifed before, but never fliall de- 
part from it again, fince I find it to be of real mo- 
ment. It was this. I was determined to be very 
accurate in the quantity of feed to be fown in all 
my wheat fields in autumn 1770; and, therefore, 
I took off the length and breadth of each from my 
map, making allowances for ditches and other 
walle ground ; calculated how many perches along 
the headlands would make an acre acrofs the field, 
and gave the feedfinan a tneafure and pegs to lay 
out each acre as he went on ; and in each fack, 
gave him ten ftone of feed, and no more for each 
acre * ; not attending minutely to any little varia- 
tions which the level, or other fmall irregularity of 
the field, might create ; fo that I cannot pro- 
nounce, at prefent, with minute exaftnefs, how 
much of the ground is under corn, but I will have 
it accurately furveyed againft I trouble you with 
further particulars relating to the crop. 

We have feen, that the total expence of getting 
this wheat into the ground, including feed, and 
that at 25 s. a barrel, workmanlhip, and cattle of 
every kind, at i2d. per head, amounts to no more 
than 16I. IS. 4|;d. — If there are 12 acres under 

* Ojr farmers always fo\y a barrel, i, e. 20 ftone to an 

corn. 



104 ANNALS OF 

corn, which I fuppofe to be about the matter, it 
amounts to 1 1. 6 s. g|^d. per acre. 

If you will be fo kind as to turn to the 55th page 
of my Report for the year 1765, you will find the 
expence of cultivating wheat in the ordinary me- 
thod by fallow in this country, to be 5]. ys. per 
acre, including the year's rent for fallow, and the 
year of growth. Let us dedud 18 s. for the latter, 
and the charge of putting the wheat in ground, 
will be 4I. 9s. In that cafe, the twelve acres be- 
fore us would have coft 53 1. 8 s. Let us exa- 
mine the difference. 



To fowing 12 plantation acres of wheat, by the 

fallow preparation, without any manure, £> S3 ^ ° 

To fowing 12 acres of wheat on clover-lay. In the 

manner already defcribed, - - - 16 i 4^ 



Balance againft the fallow preparation, - 37 ^ 7l 

Here we fee that the fallow preparation amounts 
to 37 1. 6 s. jd. more than the clover-lay, upon 
twelve acres of ground. 

This is immenfe to the tillage farmer; but let 
us trace the difference yet farther, which the fub- 
jecl before us clearly admits of. 

By a fallow preparation for, and fowing twelve 
plantation acres with wheat, the fallow farmer in- 
curs an expence of 37 1. 6s. yd. more than the 
other with his clover preparation, and lowing the 
fame quantity of ground. — But that is not all. — 
Whilfl the fallow farmer is preparing his fallow, 
at great labour and application, attended with the 

expence 



AGRICULTURE. ib^ 

expence already ftated, and confuming a whole 
year of his life in doing it, the clover farmer is 
making a profit upon the ground which he in- 
tends for wheat, of (if we take the firft year) 
3I. 12 s. 5d; per acre. If we take the average 
of the two years, of 2 1. 14 s. and if we take the laft 
year, of 1 1. 15 s. 7 d. — Allow me to premife, that 
at prefent, I do conceive it ihe beft way, to fow 
wheat after mowing the clover twice the firft year. 
Now, in order to ftate the comparifon fairly 
between the two preparations, we muft add the 
clover farmer's gain to the fallow farmer's lofs, 
becaufe there is clearly that difference in the ex- 
pence of the two methods. 

Firjl Jlate of the cafe. 

The fallow farmer, in preparing and foiving 12 
plantation acres with wheat, incurs a greater 
expence when his fowing is finifhcd, than the 
clover farmer, by - - - - - £' 37 ^ j\ 

The clover farmer, in preparing his ground for 
wheat, if the firft year, gains upon his 12 
acres, at 3I. 12 s. ^d. an acre - - 43 9 o 

Total difference upon 12 acres - - 80 15 "^ 

Second fate of the cafe. 

The fciUow farmer, in preparing and fowing 
12 acres of land with wheat, incurs a greater 
expence, when his fowing is finifhed, than the 
clover farmer, by - - - - - 37 5 7I 

The clover farmer, in preparing and fowing his 
12 acres with wheat, if we take only t)ie 
average of the two years clover before ftated, 
gains upon his 1 2 acres - - - - 32 8 o 



Total difference upon 1 2 acres - - 69 14 7^ 

Vol* I, N°i2. H Third 



105 ANNALSOF 

Third Jlate of the cafe» 

The fallow farmer, in preparng and fowing 
1 2 acres of land with wheat, incurs a greater 
expence, when his fovving is finifhed, than the 
clover farmer, by - - - - - £. ^y 6 

The clover farmer, in pieparing his ground, if 
we take only the profit, even of the fecond 
year's clover, gains upon 12 acres - - 21 7 



Total difference upon 1 2 acres - - 58 13 7| 

The firfl: (late of the cafe makes a difference in 
the expence per acre, of 61. 14 s. y^d. The 
fecond ftate of the cafe makes a difference in the 
expence per acre, of 5I. 16" s. 2~d. And the 
third ftate of the cafe, makes a difference in the 
expence per acre, of 4 1. 17 s. gjd. 

Thus, I have ftated this difference in the three 
ways which the preceding accounts admit of. — If 
any one fhall imagine the firft flate of the cafe 
too high, whereby the difference appears to be 
61. 14 s. 7^d. an acre, I fhall be allowed to think 
the third too low ; and, therefore, what feems to be 
the unerring proportion, is the fecond ftate of the 
cafe, whereby the difference is 5I. 16s. 2 fd. an 
acre. — So that it is manifeft, the fallow prepara- 
tion muft produce more wheat, to the value of 
5I. 16 s. 2-7 d. per acre, than the clover-lay, to be 
upon an equality. — This, I .think, is the. clear re- 
fult of the queftion before us. — What fallow upon 
earth, the land being of equal quality in both cafes, 
can come up to that, I remain at a lofs about. 

Wheat is certainly the moft important, becaufe 
it is the moft valuable grain upon earth. — The 

common 



AGRICULTURE. 107 

Common manner of cultivating it is flow, and 
expenfive to fuch a degree, that, I am perfuaded, 
half" the wheat which is grown in this kingdom 
ftands the farmer in more than he fells it for, were 
he to charge his own labour, and that of his cattle. 
A cheaper preparation for it than that of fallow 
is therefore warning. Clover, I look upon it, af- 
fords one happy method ; there are feveral other ' 
articles within the farmer's department, which, I 
imagine, will alfo contribute to this great and 
fundamental fupport of mankind, upon which I 
fliall proceed to make proper trials, before 1 fay 
more about them. 

How the M'heat upon the clover-lay, now de- 
pending, will produce, I can fay nothing to at 
prefent ; but the crop is of fuch a kind, that I 
only wifli every farmer in this kingdom to fee it 
at this hour, as it is an even, clean, fair crop, 
which, I own, I am not a little proud of. 

I fliall, for the prefent, clofe upon this fubjefl ; 
and only prefume to wifh, that the focieties now 1 
ellabliflicd in different parts of Europe for the / 
promotion of agriculture, to confider the impor- / 
tance of thii fubjeft to the farmer, and every com- ' 
munity ; as, I really think, for an infiniiy of rea- 1 
fons which might be offered, they could not dire6l ' 
the liberality of their inftitutions to any obje6l of 
more immediate confequence to the well-being of ' 
mankind. 

And what renders this fpecies of culture more ' 
than ordinarily promifing, is, that the fimpleft ope- 

H 2 rations. 



io8 ANNALSOF 

rations, and the fimplefl machines (provided they 
are fit for work) will perform all the bufinefs. 
. Thus, fir, I have adhered to the idea I fet out 
with, of confining myfelf to the moft important 
objects for the fupport of man and beaft, and the 
fimpleft operations. If you think the fubjeft be- 
fore you worth a place in your intended publica- 
tion, you may expect to have, not only an account 
of the produce of the wheat already mentioned, 
with all the attendant expences, but alfo the fu- 
ture progrefs of the field, which I intend to carry 
on in a fucceflion of crops, without fallow, in or- 
der to confirm, by experiment, how far that pre- 
paration is, or is not neceffary. And I have 
chofen this field for this purpofe,becaufe it is large, 
and will, therefore, convince all doubtful people 
of the utility of the praftice, provided I fhall fuc- 
ceed. [13 A. 2 R. 18 P. our plantation mea- 
fure, make of Englifli acres 22 A. o R. 5 P.] 
which is the fize of the field. I fhall likewife, fir, 
furnifh you with an accurate account of the im- 
provements which I fhall make in this field, of 
which, indeed, very many are wanting. Such as 
ditches to be lunk, hollow drains, gates, fliores, 
and manures*. J. W. B. 

* The original of this letter is at the publiflier's. It does 
not contribute any thing eflential to the agriculture of the 
beil cultivated of our countries; but, to backward countries 
like Ireland, it exliibits a doftrine highly def^rrving their at- 
tcatiott, 

OBSERV- 



AGRICULTURE. 109 

OBSERVATIONS ON SOWING OF CLOVER-LAND- 
WHEAT. 

By Mr. William Macro ^ of Barrow ^ Suffolk. 

FROM upwards of 20 years experience, I am 
of opinion, that the beft way of fowing clover- 
lands with wheat is as follows : 

To plow the land ten days or a fortnight before 
you fow it, on to lletches of 13 or 14 yards in 
breadth, unlefs the land is very heavy, and not 
under-drained, in that cafe two or three yards is 
better; but in both cafes let the land be plowed 
feme time to get dry, and after rain enough to 
make it drefs well, lay on the feed, at the follow- 
ing rates : if in the month of September, two 
bufhels per acre is enough, (except on chalky foils, 
which will at all times require near a bufhel per 
acre extra) in Oftober, fow three bufliels per acre ; 
and in November four bufliels per acre will fel- 
dom be found too much. 

The furrows fhould by no means be more than 
eight or nine inches in breadth, lefs is better, if 
the plough turns them well ; and the two firfl fur- 
rows fliould not be lapped one on to the other, as 
is common with moll farmers, but plowed fo as 
to leave a fpace of about two inches between them 
for fome feed to fall in, as in the other cafe the 
fcedmuft of courfe harrow ofFin dreffingthe land, 
and leave the beft part naked. Some farmers ob- 
jeft to fo much land being left whole under the 
firft two furrows. But I never faw any difadvan- 
tage from it, but the contrary. 

H 3 Another 



no ANNALS OF 

Another thing I have obferved in fome farmers, 
and have paid very dear for it mvfelf ; that is, 
drawing the land over with a heavy harrow when 
only one caft, or half the feed is fown, which ne- 
ver fhould be done, for the ieed can never be laid 
in too deep with harrows, and by harrowing 
before all the feed is fown, what you fow after- 
wards, efpecially if late in the feaf^n, might ahxioft 
as well be thrown on the highway, for by being 
laid in fo fleet, the mildell winter will kill it. I 
tried only one breadth of a harrow fo the lail fea- 
fon, and it is plainly to be feen (notwithftanding 
this favourable winter) aj> far as I can (ee the land, 

I own I ain at a lol's to account for the wheat 
thriving better on lands that have been plowed 
fome time, than it does on frefli plowed lands 
which drefs as well, or better : but 1 have often 
tried both ways on the fame lands, and always 
found the former anfwer beft. I have often tried 
dibbling in ofwheat,upon both clover and rye-grafs 
lands, and both have anfwered vejy well, but befl 
on the former. It coft 8s. 6d. per acre (covering 
included.) And when wheat is fo high as 6s. per 
bufliel, the faving in feed will about pay the ex- 
pence, as one bufliel per acre is as much as can 
well be got in. But this never anfwers fo well, 
after about the middle of 06lober. 

W. M. 



EXPERI. 



AGRICULTURE. in 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE SEEDING OF 
SAND LAND. 

By Thomas Le Blanc, Efq; of Cavenham, Suffolk. 

A Difpute arifing in converfation concerning 

-*• ^ the quantity of feed-barley, and it being af- 

f^rted, that three or four bufliels would produce 

a larger crop than two, a wager enfued, in confe- 

quence of which the following trial was made. 

1. On one acre ofpoorfand, worth about 3s. 6d. 
an acre, were fown two bufhels of barley. 

2. On the next adjoining acre three bufhels. 

3. On the next four bufliels. 

The refult was, that the crop was bcft from 
two bufliels; next beil from three; andtheworfl 
from four. 

The experiment was afterwards repeated on 
fand, worth 7 s. an acre, in which two bufliels pro- 
duce 4I quarters. 

Three bufliels produced four quarters two 
bufliels, and 

Four bufliels produced three quarters feven 
bufliels. 

It is theobfervationofthe farmers in the neigh- 
bourhood on the fame land, that where the chalk 
lies very near the furface, there the quantity of 
feed muft be encreafed. T. L. 

— — — ~T — (Fir—M^ I 
OBSERVATIONS. 

By the Editor. 
nP'HE queftion of proportioning the quantity 
-*- of feed to the nature of the foilis by no 
H 4 meana 



113 ANNALS OF 

means decided. Very refpeBiable writers have 
contended, that the poorer the foil the lefs Ihould 
be the quantity of feed ; this experiment of Mr, 
Le Blanc's feems to fpeak the fame language : for 
as it is ufual on rich lands to fow four bufhels, and 
two on this poor fand producing more than four, 
the conclufion arifing is that opinion. But as there 
are many trials extant^ in which very fertile 
foils have yielded prodigious crops from a quan- 
tity of feed furprifingly fmall, thofe qualities of 
land which make the difference oiight by frequent 
experiment to be difcovered. I cannot but call 
on gentlemen and attentive farmers, to favour me 
with fuch obfervations as tend to elucidate fo in- 
terefting a point. 



EXPERIMENT ON MANURING. 
By Thomas Le Blanc , EJ^. 

A Chalk-pit, from which above thirty acres 
had been manured, at the rate of feventy or 
eighty loads an acre, being in the middle of a large 
field of turneps, a fhed was erefted in it againfl: 
the wall of chalk, in which fix or feven bullocks 
were flailed, being well littered with ftraw, and fed 
with turneps; as the dung accumulated, it was 
mixed with chalk, and this compoft was carted on 
for turneps on a very poor fand the following fum- 
mer, 1780. Barley followed, and it is very re- 
markable, that neither of thefe crops received the 
leaft benefit from the manure; yet dung alone has 

never 



AGRICULTURE. 113 

never been fpread on thefe lands without the bene- 
fit being generally great, and always very vifible. 
It is a hard chalk, but difrolves in frofts. Both 
feafons were very dry. A neighbour, Mr. Macro, 
did the fame thing the fame year, with a more 
foapy kind of chalk, and laid the compoft on for 
wheat, the refult was exactly the fame. T. L. 



E X P E R I M E N T S 

TO ASCERTAIN THE FORCE NECESSARY TO 
DRAW VARIOUS PLOUGHS. 

Never before publiflied. 

Tried hy the Co7nmiitee of Agriculture in the: 
London Society of Arts. 

Registered by the Editor. 

TVyf R. SAMUEL MORE, fccretary to the So- 
-'-''-*- ciety, invented a machine for meafuring the 
force exerted by horfes in drawing, that does great 
honour to bis talents. It is a fpring, coiled with- 
in a cylindrical cafe, having a dial-plate marked 
with numbers like that of a clock, and fo con- 
trived, that a hand moves with the motion of the 
fpring, and points to the numbers in proportion 
as the force is exerted : for inflance, when the 
draughtequals 1 Cwt. over a pulley, the hand points 
to fig. I. when the draught is equal to 2 Cwt. it 
points to fig. 2. and fo on. 

Till this very ufeful machine was invented, it 
was exceedingly difficult to compare the draught of 

different 



114 ANNALSOF 

different ploughs, as there was no rule to judge 
by but the exertions of the horfes as apparent to 
the eye ; a very undecifive mode of afcertaining 
their force. The fociety was no fooner in poffef- 
fion of this gage, but experiments were direfted 
to be made, under the eye of the committee of agri^ 
culture, with feveral ploughs, on comparifon with 
an iron one fent in by Mr. John Brand for a 
bounty. 

EXPERIMENT, No. L 

WITH the Rotherham plough, that weighed 
compleat loo pound, the fhare eight inches broad, 
the field a clover. lay one year old, on a ftrong 
loam on clay, the furrow fix inches deep and ten 
inches wide — good work — force 5 Cwt, 

EXPERIMENT, No. II. 

With the Rotherham, and the fame fliare, the 
furrow four inches deep and ten inches wide, good 
work — force 4.^ Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. III. 

With the Rotherham, having its own fhare on 
of five inches in the fin, furrow 10 inches wide 
and fix inches deep, very bad work, and ragged 
furrow — force ^^ Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. IV. 

With tlie Rotherham and its own fhare, with a 
weight of 431b. in the body of the plough to 

bring 



AGRICULTURE. 115 

bring it to the weight of the iron plough, the fur- 
row fix inches deep and ten broad, the plough 
thus went fteadier than either of the preceding, 
but the furrow not fo good as that of Experiment, 
No. I. but better than that of No. II. — force 
6f Cwt. The furrow of thefe four trials irregu- 
lar in depth. 

EXPERIMENT, No. V. 

The iron plough of Mr. Brand weighed com- 
pleat 143 lb. The furrow fix inches deep and ten 
broad, regular in depth and clear — force 6 Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. VI. 

Mr. Arbuthnot's plough (painted red) which 
weighed compleat 1311b. the furrow ten inches 
broad by fix deep, regular in depth and clear — 
force 5^ Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. VII. 
Mr. Arbuthnot's red plougli, with 12 lb. in the 
body of it, to make it equal to the iron plough, 
the land clung, furrow ten inches broad, fix deep, 
regular and clear — force 4^: Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. VIII. 
Mr. Arbuthnot's red plough in mellower 
land, with and without 12 lb. in the body ; fur- 
row ten inches broad by fix deep, regular and 
dear — force 4^ Cwt. 



EXPERIMENT, 



ii6 ANNALS OF 

EXPERIMENT, No. IX. 

The common Surrey plough weighs compleat 
J 38 lb. the fin of the fhare 6| inches broad, wide 
at the heel i2~ ; furrow ten inches broad by fix 
deep, furrow not cut at bottom — force 6^ Cwt, 

EXPERIMENT^ No. X. 

The common Surrey with 51b. in her to mak,c 
her equal the iron one; furrow fame as before— ^ 
force 6j: Cwt, 

EXPERIMENT, No. XI. 

Mr. Arbuthnot's blue plough, weight of it 
120 lb. furrow ten inches by fix — force 4 J C\vt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XII, 

Mr. Arbuthnot's blue plough, 281b, in the 
"body — force 5^ Cwt. 

E X P E R I M E N T, No. XIII. 

Mr. Ducket's trenching plough, weight com- 
pleat 2661b. the furrow eight inches by fix deep. 
*— force 6^ Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XIV. 
Mr. Arbuthnot's blue plough, with 1461b. in 
the body to make it equal to Mr. Ducket's in 
weight; furrow ten inches by fix — force 5 Cwt, 

EXPERIMENT, No. XV. 

Mr. Arbuthnot's blue plough, with 1461b. in 
the body, the trial upon a fallow — force 4 Cwt. • 

EXPERIMENT, 



AGRICULTURE. 117 

EXPERIMENT, No. XVI. 

Mr. Arbuthnot's blue plough, without any 

weif^ht in it, the trial on the fame fallow — force 

2f Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XVIU 

The common Surrey on the fallow — force 

3 Cvyt. 

EX PERI ME MT, No. XVIII. 

The iron plough on the fame fallow — force 

3i Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XIX. 
The Rotherham, with its own fhare on the fal- 
low — force 3^ Cwt. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XX. 
The Rotherham, with a broad fhare on the fal- 
low — force 3 Cwt. 

The committee determined that Mr. Brand's 
plough was an improvement, and merited a bounty 
from the fociety. The fociety at large confirmed 
the refolution; bought the plough, and gave a 
bounty of 20I. 

The general ftrufture — the cat-bead, and the 
faftcning the coulter, were thought greatly to re- 
commend this plough. 

From thefe trials fome conclufions are to be 
drawn that deferve no flight attention. It appears 
that the- weight of the plough is of little confe- 
quence, very contrary to common ideas; that 
heavinefs is even an advantage oftener than the 
contrary; and that, in fome inftances to a fur- 
prlfing degree. The weight of the plough is the 

leaa. 



ii8 ANNALSOF 

leaft part of the horfes labour : the great object is, 
the refinance met with in the cohefion of the 
earth, h'ghtnefs does nothing to overcome this; it 
is efFefted by juft proportions only. If a plough 
is not made on true principles, the lightnefs is 
prejudicial by adding to the unfleadinefs of all ill 
made ploughs. 

It alfo appears very decidedly, that the ftiare 
fhould be nearly, if not quite as broad in the fin, 
as the plough is wide in the heel, in order that all 
the furrow may be cut, and not torn up by force. 
Both thefe objeBsare of great confequence; and 
they were afcertained very clearly by thefe trials. 

Mr. Arbuthnot's plough was, beyond all doubt, 
the beft that was tried; and plainly owed its fu- 
periority to the fliare rifing as an inclined plane, 
and melting gradually into the admirable fweep 
of its long mould board. I was prefent the 
whole day, and was fo convinced of this, that 
I determined to apply thofe parts of it to 
the others of Mr. Brand's conftru6lion. I 
executed the idea in Hertfordfliire, without all the 
fuccefs I expefted ; but I have fince brought it to 
bear, and formed from both, a plough nearer to 
pcrfcftion than any I have yet feen, with which I 
cultivate my farm at prefent. This plough, tho' 
a fwing one, will go a perch, and fometimes more, 
without the driver holding it at all, and whole 
furrows with no more of the ploughman's ftrength 
applied than one finger would give. This is, per- 
haps, of all others, the fureft proof that the plough 

moves 



AGRICULTURE. 119 

moves with the greateft poffible eafe. With 
wheel ploughs it is eflential ; if they will not do 
it, they mull be very ill conftrufted. 



A COUP D'GEIL 

ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE NATION. 
By the Editor. 

I MAY print Annals of Agriculture, publifli 
them in due form, and advertife them as I 
pleaCe, but the attention of the people is too much 
turned to the brawls of perfonal politicks at St. 
Stephen's, to leave a moment for attending to a 
fubjeft of fo little concern as hufbandry. I muft 
own I lofe all patience when I confider the prefent 
ftate of affairs. 

I do not lofe any patience at the bufinefs of the 
ration (landing ftill — at negociations being fuf- 
pended — at a Lord Lieutenant of Ireland gaping 
for his fucceffor — at the want of a commercial (or 
rather a parliamentary) intercourfe with America 
— ^Nor care I much whether Mr. Haftings is 
hanged by one party for a thief, or cherilhed by 
another as a babe of grace, were it not, indeed, 
that hanging would be a very good fpecific, gene- 
rally applied to every man indifcriminate'y that re- 
turns from India; all thefe things make very little 
impreflion on me. But I lofe all patience when I 
fee the country gentlemen of England balancing 
parties, and then looking up to the heads of them 
as the pillars of national profpcrity, and the only 
hope of future importance. And every man ought 

to 



120 AN N A L S O F 

to lofe his patience, when he hears thefe parlia-^ 
•mentary leaders talk of the fquabbles of their 
hoiife being the ruin of the nation, — Public affairs 
fufFering, and every thing in confufion, becaufe 
quefiions are carried againft a minifter in the 
Houfe of Commons. Are the courts of juftice 
fhut up? Does the plough Hand ftiil ? Is the loom 
idle ? or, do the elements obey the clamour of 
orators, and the wind blow no more propitious ta 
the fail, than their breath balm to the wounds of 
their country ? We are told that government is at 
a full Hop; it may be fo; if it is perfetUy quief- 
cent, fo much the better, for he is a poor obfcrver 
that does not rnark its aflive efforts to be pernicious 
eighteen times in twenty.- The filent and unaffift- 
ed, but almoll for ever impeded progrefs of pri- 
vate induflry, forms the aggregate of national pro- 
fperity ; not the management, ufually contempt- 
ible, of minifters cind Itatefmen. 

What is the c^reat art of government relative to 
the concerns of the people ? To let them alonCy as 
the French merchant faid to Colbert. They will 
do their own bufinefs better than kings can do it 
for them. But when the prefcnt quiefcence of 
government gives way to the vigour we hear of, to 
the Jlrong united adminijlraiion^ what are to be the 
fruits of it? In one cafe the patronage and ma- 
nagement of the India company thrown into the 
hands of a party : in the other cafe, the whole de- 
livered up, body and foul, to the crown. Now, 
although no man can have any bowels for that 
coiKpaiiy, but muft elleem the whole tilTue of their 

conduttj 



AGRICULTURE. 121 

cnnduft, as the mod mifchievous violation of all 
the rights and laws of humanity that ever perhaps 
difgraced the annals of trade ; yet, as the great quef- 
tion feems to be, not who fhall punifh the plunder- 
ers that come from India, but who fhall fend them 
thither, the nation mu(l fee that its real interefts 
in this, and almoft every commercial cafe, depends 
more on doing nothing than on doing much. In 
the other quarter of the globe, the efFe6l of a 
Jlrong adminijlrationy we are told, is to be a treaty 
with America, or fuch an arrangement of the 
commerce as fhall perfuade the Americans to trade 
with us. I will not beflow a word on this con- 
temptible idea, which Lord Sheffield has reprobat- 
ed in fo mafterly a manner. At home, the refult 
of 2i Jlrong adinini/I.ration, we are told *, is to lay 
plenty of new taxes on us, in order to fupport 
public credit ; this is a note that will, doubt- 
lefs, found very melodious in the ears of the 
whole kingdom; efpecially when the ufes are con- 
fidered to which public credit has confiantly been 
applied. It would be endlels to run through all 
the bleffings which a Jlrong adminjlration is to 
bring. But let me aflv one queflion. Will it bring 
us the improvement of wafte lands? V,'ill it make 
inclofing univerfal ? Will it commute tythes ? 
Will it limit poor rates ? Will it cherifh and re- 
ward ufefiil fcience ? — No, — No, — No, — No. — 
Then, in the name of common fenfe, why give fo 

* See the Hon. Mr. Msrfham's fpeech. Tan. Zij-th. 
Vol. I. No. 2. I ' much 



122 ANNALS OF 

much attention to them and their coalitions ? 
Why perfuade them, by hearing, reading, and re- 
peating their fpeeches, that the fate of England 
hangs on their lips? If a country gentleman gets 
five quarters of barley inftead of four, he does that 
in which he is abundantly more interefted than in 
all the perfonal fquabbles that can arife between 
all the Foxes and Pitts of the age. 

I remember Colonel Barre giving me an anec- 
dote at Bowood (in thofe days when Lord Shel- 
burne thought it no difgrace to his underftanding 
to converfe upon agriculture) of one of the New 
England governments, Connefticut, I think. He 
vifited the governor, as they condefcended to call 
him, and enquiring into the conftitution of the 
country, his Excellency informed him, that, lite- 
rally fpeaking, there was no government what- 
ever; that, as to his power, he was a cypher; 
that the legiflature only met to wrangle, and do 
nothing ; in a word, it was mere anarchy and con- 
fufion whenever any a£live ftep was attempted to 
be taken ; and that, upon the whole, the people 
governed themfelves, by every man doing as he 
pleafed. The converfation changed ; and the Co- 
lonel fpoke of the face of the country; the im- 
provements every where vifible ; and the univerfal 
appearance of plenty and happinefs in the fields, 
dwellings, and cloathing of the people. The go- 
vernor affented, and faid he believed there was 
hardly a country in the world that exceeded it in 
all thofe particulars. Such, faid the Colonel, were 

the 



AGRICULTURE. 123 

the effe6ls of the wo government he hadbutjufl 
expatiated upon. — ^^The fa6l is applicable to every 
country in the world as well as America; to none 
more than to this, whofe private induftry is ever 
exerted to accumulate wealth, which ftatefmenare 
fo very kind as to take infinite care and pains 
to fquander— ^^ — pretending, in this meritorious 
work, that we are under the greateft obligations 
to them for giving themfelves fo much trouble ; 
and fo deeply interefted in fupporting them in their 
arduous undertakings, that we ought to attend to 
nothing but thofe quarrels in which they engage 
for the mere purport of being our moft faithful 
fervants. As I am clearly convinced that it is not 
an eafy matter to affign them their reward, I 
fhall never fail to call on my friends in the country 
to give their attention to fomething in which they 
are more intimately concerned, the cultivation of 
their eftates, and fpreading the knowledge of im- 
provements in fuch a manner that every man may 
know how to go the fhorteft way to w^ork : how 
moft eafily to overcome difficulties ; and to draw 
from the earth, obedient to induftrious hands, the 
greateft return. Leave the politicians of party to 
themfelves. He only is the true politician who 
multiplies refources ; and that is only to be done 
in this kingdom eff'edually, by Improvements 
IN Agriculture. 



1 2 VALUE 



124 ANNALSOF 

VALUE OF THE CLUSTER POTATOE, AND 
OF CARROTS, ASCERTAINED IN FEEDING 
HOGS. 

By Hutchejon Mure^ Efq; of Great Saxham, Suffolk. 

TN November 1782, twenty large hogs, fourteen 
-■- or fifteen months old, and that would weigh 
fat 12 to 1 6 ftone (141b.) were confined to a llye. 
In another twenty more were put, that were not 
fo old, fuch as would fat to about eight ftone. 
And in a third fl:ye, two ftag-hogs, that would rife 
to 20 or 25 ftone. Began to feed them with boiled 
potatoes and boiled carrots given thick. The li- 
quor of them being put in large tubs with yeaft 
added to ferment, this was given to the hogs at 
the fame time by way of wafli, and continued 
about a fortnight ; but, though the hogs throve 
very well the firft week, yet the food feemed to 
run through them fo very quick, that though the 
40 hogs eat at the rate of 40 bufliels a-day, yet 
they did not improve well enough to induce a con- 
tinuance of the fyftem. It was changed, and the 
potatoes and carrots wafiied and given raw; tliree 
da\s upon potatoes, and three upon carrots. In 
this way, fo much lefs troublefome and expenfive, 
the hogs did better than before, and yet eat lefs: 
20 buftiels of potatoes, or 26 of carrots, thus, 
fcrved the 40 hogs a day. A remarkable circum- 
jlance is, that the 20 fmall hogs eat as much as tlie 
20 large ones; from whence it Ihould I'eem that 

there 



AGRICULTURE. 125 

there is a great fuperiority of profit in fattening 
large inftead of fmall hogs. 

December 6th, being viewed, the two large 
ftag-hogs looked the beft. The 20 large ones the 
next beft ; and the 20 fmall the worft ; but all 
feemed to thrive, and promifed to do well. In 
their feeding they feemed to prefer the potatoes to 
the carrots. 

The hogs were carefully weighed alive (on one 
of Sharp's engines for weighing cattle) Nov. 10, 
29th, Dec. 6th, and Jan. 5th. 

November lotji, the 20 large ones weighed - 198 ftone. 

29th, ditto, - - - 238 

December 6th, ditto, - . '259 

January 5th, ditto, - - - r 314 

November loth, the 20 fmaller weighed - 134 

-^ : 29th, ditto, - - - 164 

December 6th, ditto, . - 172 

January 5th, ditto, - - » 183 

November loth, the 2 ftags weighed - 41 

1 29th, ditto, - , , -48 

December 6th, ditto, - - - 52 

January 5th, ditto, - - • - 64 

The difference in the thriving of the hogs is 
very great. The 20 large hogs weighed, November 
10th, 24721b. or 1231b. each. Dead weight at 
that time in the proportion of 20 giving i3t, is 
i6o61b. Jan. 5th, their weight was 43961b. 

f Thefe proportions have been found by experiment. They 
vary with the fize of the hogs. 

I 3 which 



i26 AN N A L S O F 

■which dead, is 28571b. they gained, therefore, 
dead weight 12511b. which at 4|d. per lb. is 
23 1. 9s. 2d. or, per hog, 1 1. 3s. 6 d. 

The 20 fmaller, at the fame time, weighed 
18761b. alive, which was dead weight, in the 
proportion of twenty giving twelve t, 11251b. 
January 5th, they weighed 25621b. which deadj, 
1537 lb. they gained, therefore, dead weight 
4121b. which, at 4^d. is 4I. 14s. 2d. or, per hog, 
7 s. 8d. 

The two flags, Nov. 10, weighed alive 5741b. 
dead weight at that time, at twenty giving t four- 
teen, was 401 1. Jan. 5th, weigl^ed 896, which 
dead, is 627, they gained, therefore, dead weight, 
2261b. which, at 4 d. per lb. is 3I. 15 s. 4d. and 
each hog 1 1. 17 s. S-d. 
Profit per hog on 20 large, - £^.136 

20 fmall, - 078 

' 2 flags, - 1178 

When it is recolle6led that the 20 fmall eat as 
much as the 20 larger ones, this fuperiority will 
appear very great. They were finilhed on peafe, 
&c. 

Relative to the value of the potatoes and carrots, 
the following particulars were accurately regifter- 
ed at the tiine. 

Three acres, two rood, and twelve perch of 
carrots in a plantation, produced 1090 bufhels, 
950 of which were confumed by the hogs. 

One acre, one rood, and eight perch of clufter 
potatoes, in the fame plantation, produced 672 

bufliels. 



AGRICULTURE. 127 

bufliels, 598 of which were confumed by the 
hogs. 

The carrots produced 312 bufhels per acre, the 
potatoes 536. 

The value of the 42 hogs at putting up, was 
44 1. 2s. they were valued by a very complete 
judge. That the valuation is fair, appears from 
hence, that their live weight of 52221b. at 2d. 
per lb. is 43I. 10s. 4d. a price at which hogs at 
that time were bought. 

Forty-two Hogs, 

Debtor. . Creditor* 

To value at putting By 42 hogs 

up, - j(^.44. 2 o fold fat at 95 o o 

To 33 Comb * of peafe, 

at 14 s. - -23 20 

To two Co. two Bufh. 

barley, at 14s. - 1150 

To labour, 56 days at- 
tendance, one ir.an, at 
IS. 2d. - - 3 5 4 

72 + 4 
To balance value of pota- 
toes and carrots, - 22 15 8 



95 


95 


They eat carrots, - . - 


- 950 bufhels. 


potatoes, . - - 


- 598 




1548 


Which, at 3|d. per bufhel. Is 22I. us. 6d, 




* A comb is half a quarter. 




I4 


OBSERV- 



128 A N N A LS O F 

OBSERVATIONS. 
By the Editor . 

IF this work continues, I fliall have various oc- 
caHons to prove, that one of the greateft ob- 
jefts of Britifh hufbandry, is to introduce fallow 
crops inllead of fallows on all forts of foils. Tur- 
neps ^nd clover are very well underftood in this 
light, but it is not fo with potatoes and carrots 
confumed by cattle. The great obftacle to fpreadr 
ing their culture, is the uncertainty of their value 
when ufedon the farm : experiments often repeat- 
ed, and greatly varied, can alone decide this ne- 
-celfary point; which, \yhile it remains unknown, 
will effeclually prevent the cultivation from fpread- 
ing where it would be highly profitable if attempt- 
ed. Mr. Mure deferves every commendation in 
my power to beftow, for his readinefs, not only to 
make experiments, be they ever fo expenfive, but 
alfo to communicate them to the world for the in- 
formation of others. If men of the like ample 
fortune would imitate this fpirit, their large pof- 
fefiions would be a bleffinjir to the world. 



A SYSTEM OF GRAZING. 
By Hutchefon Mure^ Efq. 

F bullocks are turned to graze as foon as the grafs 
rifes in the fpring, they keep the ground fo 
bare, that if a hot feafon enfues, it is burnt up, 

and 



AGRICULTURE. 129 

and the farmer either finds a neceflity of turning 
them to hay a fecond lime, or his hearts fafFer for 
want of plenty. Any fyftem that would prevent 
this evil appearing important, winter tares for 
foiling were tried. In June 1782, the experiment 
was miade on 8i Scotch beads, which were regu- 
larly foiled in the farm-yard. The tares being 
given in cribs upon the dung-hill of the preceding 
■winter, the dung and the urine of the beads add- 
ing greatly to the value of the mafs. Thofe 81 
beads eat jud half an acre of tares every day. 
They throve on them very well. Forty-three of 
thefp beads were bought Sept. 24, 1781, weighing 
alive 2250 done. May 3id, 1782, they weighed 
2626, having gained in the winter on draw 376 
done. Turned to forward grafs till June 27th, 
gaining in 27 days 150 done. According to this 
increafe, a bead of 50 done gains eight between 
September and May, that is in eight months, or 
one done per month ; the gain on the fpring grafs 
is fuch a bead getting 2^ dones in lefs than a 
month. 

The ej^periment was repeated in 1783, on 68 
bullocks. 

19 Bought Nov, 14th, weighed alive, - - 858 ftone. 
June 6th, they weighed, being then put to tares, 970 

Gain in 28 weeks, - « - -112 

July 30th, the tares done, and the bullocks then 

weighed, - - - - - 1127 

In 7 weeks gain on tares, - - ' ^ 57 

Account 



I30 ANNALSOF 

Account of ^g others. 

Bought November 19th, and weighed, - - 2706 ftone. 
June 6th, put to tares, weighing - - 3096 

Gains in 28 weeks, - ^ - 390 

July 30th, tares done, and weighed, - - 3397 

Gaiii in feven weeks, - - - 301 

49 Bullocks in feven weeks tares * 

19 Ditto, . . - - . 157 

68 Live weight, - - - 458 

The proportion is, each bead gaining 941b. in 
49 days ; or a beaft of 50 ftone getting five ftone 
in feven weeks. 

This fummer was fo fevere and continued a 
drought, that the advantage of the pra6lice could 
never be more clearly decided. Many other gra- 
ziers were driven to great fliifts ; but thefe lands 
being thus preferved held the beafts forward in 
plenty of food, but they would have been very 
badly off had not the tares faved them. 
Weighed 60 Scotch beafts to grafs, 

June 6th, 1783, their weight alive, 3622 ftone. 
Nov. 23d, put them to turneps, when 

weighed again, - - - 4726 



Gain in 170 days - - - 1104 

Or per beaft - - - t^ 

In 24 weeks, which is three quarters of a ftone 
per week. 

It 



AGRICULTURE. 134 

it appears, from the weight of the beafts, that 
they gain flefli very well from tares thus given, 
a point which fhews how neceffary one of thefe 
weighing machines is to inform the grazier exa611y 
how bis beafts thrive on every fort of food that can 
be given. In ihefe trials, for inftance, a beaft of 
50 ftone gets one fione per month on ftraw in the 
winter. By the firft grafs in the fpring he gets 
two an4 a half ftone in fomething lefs than a 
month; by the fummer's grafs he gets three ftone 
a month; and by foiling on tares, he gains five 
ftone in feven weeks, which is above four ftone a 
month. H. M. 



OBSERVATIONS. 

By the Editor, 

'T^ H E beafts which Mr. Mure fpeaks of in the 
•*■ preceding memoir, throve as well as could 
be wiflied throughout their fattening. I viewed 
them repeatedly myfelf; and it was with the uu 
moft pleafure that fo large a number of thriving 
bullocks were beheld, by many perfons, feeding 
in a farm-yard amongft the moft luxuriant plenty 
of tares, confumed with very little wafte, and a rich 
compoft forming beneath, ready for the improve- 
ment of other lands, and thus forming that noble 
circle in the farmers* bufinefs in which cattle are 
made the fupport of corn. 

Let this account animate fome of my readers to 
profecute fimilar enquiries, and, by weighing alive, 

afcertain 



132 A N N A L S O F 

afcertain the gain on all forts of food; by which 
means this neceffary part of the art will be car- 
ried as near to perfe£lion as poffible. 

Mr. Mure had 71 beafts ftalHng on turneps and 
chaff this winter, till the froft became very fevere, 
then they had pea-flour given with the chaff. 
The reader may expe6l an account of thefe beafts 
(a very noble experiment) in a future number of 
this work. 



ON MAKING HAY OF WINTER TARES, 
By the Editor. 

ULY 1782, having mown three acres for 
hay, and the weather proving remarkably un- 
favourable, I was eager to fave them in the pro- 
cefs of making by cocking, as I would have done 
hay. But on trial 1 found it by far the worft way 
of making them. The cocks were well put to- 
gether, but long and heavy rains were fucked in 
like a fponge, and the bad weather lafting two or 
three days, the tares were mouldy, and ftunk in 
the cocks, while fome that I was not able to cock 
were in far better order. I found this fo ftriking, 
that the only hay of the piece that was tolera,ble, 
was a part not cocked at all where the fwarihs 
were only turned. Common hay on the cock ad- 
joining this field, that ftood the fame weather, faved 
itfelf well. I note this that I may never more cock 
this fort of hay ; mere turning the fwarths is all 
it fliouid have. A. Y. 

ON 



AGRICULTURE. 133 

ON THE CURL IN POTATOES. 
By the Same. 

JULY 26th, 1782. The Reverend Mr. Lord, of 
Welnetham, this day, fhewed me his potatoes 
in his garden, planted the fame day in two beds, 
one the white-kidney, and the other the red. The 
former every plant curled, the latter not one. 

In my own potatoes this year, 1 have a fteatch 
containing four rows of red-nofed kidney, and two 
of the pheafant-eyed, the former are all curled, but 
not one of the latter. But, in 1783, my pheafant- 
cye were many of them curled, and the crop poor; 
but the globe-white not one curled, and the crop 
great. 1 never had any of the clufter fort curled. 

The caufe and prevention of this diflempercan 
be difcovered only by regiftering a great variety 
of obfervations. A. Y. 



HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
By the Editor. 
nPHE prefent imperfe6lion of agriculture does 
■*■ not arife from a want of experiments, but 
from the backwardnefs of gentlemen taking any 
care to make known thofe which are every dav 
tried j there can hardly be a ftronger proof of 
this than my own Tours through both ihefe 
iflands ; I regiftered and publilhed fcveral thou- 
fands of trials and obfervations, which would have 
been loll for ever, if I had not made thofe jour- 
nies : a man may make a few experiments for his 
own ftitisfattion, which would be of confidcrable 

importance 



i34 AN N A L S O F 

importance to the public; but how is a memoir to 
be publiflied, which would not fill half, or perhaps 
a quarter of a page ? — The prefent work provides 
a proper channel for the communication of fueh 
information. 

Let me here obferve, that the objefl which 
moft wants an experimental attention at prefent, 
is that of /allow crops. The great ufe of turneps 
and clover is very well known ; but advance one 
ftep beyond thofe plants, and the general know- 
ledge is very confined. Peafe, beans, tares, pota-^ 
toes, carron^s, parfnips, cabbages, &:c. all rank in 
this clafs. There is not, perhaps, in the whole range 
of Britifh hufbandry, a point of more importance 
than the entire fubftitution of beans inftead of the 
common fallow preparation for wheat. In the 
vales of Aylefbury, Evefham, &c. and through all 
the central counties, you fee fallows ploughed 
four or five times, and all the dung of the farm 
fpread on them for that crop. The produce I be- 
lieve very rarely pays more than the expences, and 
often does not pay them : what a difference would 
it be, if beans were fubftituted upon only one of 
the ploughings, with the fame dung, and the reft 
of the expence laid out in hoeing ! Four or five 
quarters would be gained, and as much wheat 
after them as at prefent after a fallow. Talk this 
language to a Buckinghamfliire farmer, and he 
laughs at you for a theorift : propofe it to a Kentifii 
one, and he frniles at your talking of what he has 
pradifed a century. Thus it is, that one coun- 
try 



AGRICULTURE. 135 

try is ignorant of the methods which enrich 
another. 

In relation to carrots, potatoes, cabbages, &c, 
■we want very much to have their value afcertain- 
ed. Some experiments have been publifhed, but 
the number is not confiderable, nor the applica- 
tions various enough. Let me therefore requeft 
of gentlemen, to communicate their praQical ob- 
fervations on thefe obj e6ls. — Fir fly to give the ex- 
pence at which thefe roots, &c. can be raifed per 
ton or per bufhel. Second, their value per ton or 
per bufhel in feeding or fattening cattle. Thirds 
the effeft of their culture on the crops which fuc- 
ceed them. 



EQUI-DISTANT DRILLING, AND BROAD-CAST 
CULTURES OF WHEAT, COMPARED. 

By the Same. 
nnWO broad arched lands, each exa6lly l)alf 
-*- an acre, were well prepared for wheat ; the 
foil friable fandy loam, but wet, on a clay marie 
bottom. Oftober 21ft, 1782, drilled one of them 
with three pecks red velvet feed- wheat; fowed the 
other broad-caft with one bufhel. I fhould ob- 
ferve, that I drilled it in a method not common : 
it was dropped by hand into a tube that led to the 
heel of the plough, where an iron fwept it all to 
one fide of the furrow : thus the land was feeded 
as the plough moved every furrow : confcquently 
the rows were nine inches afunder: for fuch dril- 
ling, two circumftances are neceiTary; the land 
muft be in fuch order that the feed Turrow is only 

to 



136 A N N A L S O F 

to cover the feed; and care muft be taken that the 
ploughman does not go more than three, or at 
moft four inches deep. The beginning of May 
the drilled half acre was hand-hoed at the rate of 
8 s. an acre; and afterwards weeded at 2 s. 6d. 
an acre. Nothing was done to the broad-caft, for 
no weeds arofe. I have obferved that this was not 
a nr.ildew year; but parts of this field (the whole 
is 12 acres) were touched, fo as to blacken the 
ftraw, but not much : which was exactly in pro- 
portion to the thinnefs of the corn on the ground. 
The half acre drilled was blackifh ; the broad-cafl 
perfeftly bright. Reaped at the fame time, and 
threfhed direQly. 

The broad-cafl; produced 151 flieaves, and ohe 
quarter, fix bufhels, two pecks of grain ; the dril- 
led 121 fheaves, and one quarter three bufhels of 

grain. 

Qrs. Bu{h. P. Sheaves. 

Broad-caft, per acre -350^- 302 
Drilled - - -260 — 242 



Superiority - - -070 — 60 

And the half bufliel of feed deduced, ftill the 
fuperiority is fix bufhels and a half, befides 
10s. 6 d, in expences. The fample from the 
broad-caft was rather better than the other. I drav; 
no concluhons from a finglc trial that contradiQs 
fo many others; but, I am well afTured, the point 
is not liifficientiy afceriained — mildew taken into 
the qucition. 

A. Y. 



ANNALS 
O F 

AGRICULTURE. 



A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENT UPON 
DUNG, LIME, AND COMPOST, MADE IN 
1782, UPON THE LAWN AT ST. ED- 
MUND'S HILL, SUFFOLK, IN ORDER TO 
JUDGE O.F THE EFFECTS OF LIME. 

By John Symonds, LL. D. Proftjfor of Modern 
Hijlory in the Univerjity of Cambridge. 

nn HE foil upon which this experiment was tried, 
-*- is a rich friable fandy loam, of a moderate 
moiflure, and 18 inches deep ; under which there 
is a mixed foil, confifling of marie, clay, and brick- 
earth, about eight feet in depth ; after which there 
is a chalk, which continues uninterrupted above-a 
hundred feet. It is a grafs lay, fix years old. 
Six roods w^ere marked out for formins: the com- 
parifon ; the foil being exactly fimilar, and the 
pieces contiguous. 

N° 1 confiding of horfe-dung, cow-dung, and 

loam, fix cart-loads, the expence 12s. — N° 2 lime 

Vol. LN°3. K and 



138 ANNALSOF 

and virgin moulds, i6 biiflicls of lime, and eight 
cart-loads of moulds, the cxpence i6s. — N" 3 
lime, 50 bufliels, expence 25s. — N" 4 lime and 
horfe-dung, 12 bufliels of lime, and fix cart-loads 
of horfe-dung, the expence il. is. 6d. — N° 5 
horfe-dung, fix cart-loads, expence 15s. 6d. — 
N" 6 chalk and loam ready mixed, eight cart-loads, 
cxpence 8s. 

Thefe were all laid on and fpread at the fame 
time, in January 1782. 

The refult. N'" 5 horfe-dung, the befl of all, 
and four times as good as the lime — 4 lime and 
horfe-dung, three times as good as the lime- — 
1 compoft, full twice as good as the lime — 2 lime 
and moulds, at leaft a fourth part better than the 
lime — 3 lime, as it appears, by far the worft. 

I mowed thefe fix roods of land both in 178^ 
and 1783, and had a fair opportunity of judging 
of the comparative goodnefs of the above mention- 
ed manures, fince the fummerin 1782 was as re- 
markably moift, as that of 1783 was dry. 

In 1782, the rood which had beert limed did 
not yield more than three cwt. of hay, and, in i783> 
a third lefs, infomuch, that I judged it neceifary to 
give it a coat of horfe-dung ; leaving,^ however^ 
the other five Foods untouched. 

j.s. 



E X, 



AGRICULTURE. 139 

Experiments to ascertain how ear, 

AND IN what form, PHLOGISTON IS 
THE FOOD OF PLANTS. 

By the Editor, 

EXPERIMENT, N° I. 

JULY 1, i779> in order to fee what would be 
the cfFcft of bodies greatly charged with phlo- 
gilion, put two and a half lb. of poor furface loam 
into each of four pots, and added, 

N° 1 one oz. of charcoal — 2 one oz. red lead — * 
3 one oz. finely powdered black flint — 4 the earth 
alone. 

I fowed them with turnep-fced, then with wheat 
and then with barley. The refult was, that for 
the firft crop, the pot without addition was the 
bell: ; charcoal rather did mifchief, red lead more 
ftill,and the flint was the worft of all. Afterwards, 
they were all nearly eq_ual ; if any difference, it 
was in favour of the pot with the earth alone. 

EXPERIMENT, N° II. 
May 3, 1781. In order farther to examine 
how far phlogiflon was beneficial, or the contrary, 
I filled tenfmall pots with poor furface loam, and 
added to them, N" 1 the earth alone — 2 fix oz. 
frefli horfe-dung — 3 one oz. charcoal powdered— 
4 one and a half ditto — 5 two ditto — 6 three qrs. 
oz. ditto — 7 half an oz. ditto — 8 ditto and fixoz. 
dung — 9 one oz. charcoal and fix oz. dung — 
K 2 10 half 

* Red lead was not well chofen with the view mentioned ; 
fcut I relate the experiment as it was made. 



140 A N N A L S O F' 

lo half oz. fait of tartar. Havinir found the sood 
efFc6l of fait of tartar, faturated with fpirit of nitre, 
added the lafl, to iee what would be the effect 
alone. Planted each with four grains barley ; and 
again in the fpring of 1782. 

The refult was, that in tlie firft year the fait of 
tartar proA'cd a direct poiiun, but a benefit the 
fecond. 

Relative to the charcoal, the effe6l was very con- 
tradiftory ; for, though N" 8 was the beff, yet 9 
was very indifierent; and all that can be conclud- 
ed, with any degree of certainty, is, that charcoal, 
upon the whole, was in a fmall degree beneficial. 

I am now arrived at the period of my inquiry, 
when the writings of Dr. Prieftley, and his opinion 
thatphlogillon is the food of plants, made a greater 
impreffion on my mind than, they had done before, 
and induced me, not only to extend my trials, but 
to make them with all the care, attention, and ac- 
curacy of which I was able. At the fame that 
I made the preceding expcrimcntst, many others 
failed from accidents, fo that thoudi I could now 
and then catch a hint from them, yet they would 
not yield any conclufions to be drawn with confi- 
dence. 

I come now to have my experiments more under 
command; I have railed the fkeleton of a fmall 
building, covered the whole with net-work, in 

order 

+ With others on different fub fiances, which will be in- 
ferted in a fucccedinsj number. 



AGRICULTURE. 141 

order totally to exclude birds ; and furroundcd it 
with lime, to deter flags and grubs j thus prepar- 
ed, I opened a new campaign with new views. 

EXPERIMENT, N^^ III. 

May 23, 1782. I filled 32 pots nearly full of 
a very ]>oor red pit fand, every part of which was 
as fimilar as can be conceived, fcven pounds in each 
pot, and then mixed well with the following fub- 
fiances. 

N" 1 train oil one ounce — 2 fpirit of wine oneoz. 
— 3 the fand without addition — 4 common poul- 
try-dung two oz. — 5 ditto, and half oz. charcoal 
— 6 gun-powder one oz. — 7 nitre one oz. — 8 pitch 
one oz. — 9 charcoal powdered one oz. — 10 ditto 
two oz. — 11 ditto half oz. — 12 fine oyfter-flrell 
powder one oz. — 1 3 train-oil one oz. and charcoal 
oneoz. — i4fea-coaloncoz. — i5flourofbrim{lone 
one oz.^^ — 16 vitriolated tartar oneoz. andfuming; 
fp. nitre qr. oz. — 17 the fand fufpended in a ficve 
and moiftened three hours full in the fumes of a 
braziere of burning charcoal — 18 charcoal aflies 
two oz.^ — -19 fait of tartar one oz. — 20 ditto, fa- 
turated with half an oz. fp. nitre — 21 fpirit of nitre 
one oz. — 22 common fait one oz. — 23 fpirit of lalt 
half oz. — 24 oil of turpentine one oz. — 25 tallow 
one.oz. — 26 human ordure putrid, mixed with one 
oz. charcoal — 27 ditto alone, the quantities equal 
— 28 feven pounds rich new broken up loam — 
?9 ditto^ and one oz. charcoal — 30 ditto, and four 
K 3 oz. 



142 ANNALS OF 

oz. ditto — 31 fand as the others, but eleftrified 
feven tirnes, an hour each time- — 32 fand, and one 
oz. coal afhes. 

Notwithftanding the fixity of phlogifton in the 
medium of charcoal, yet I conceived that the com- 
parifon between that body and its afhes, might 
yield fome hints worth purfuing, as the principal 
cfFe6l of the a6l of combultion is to diffipate that 
elementary fire. And, as the air in which it is con- 
fumed is phlogifticatcd to fuch a degree as to be 
utterly unfit for refpiration, I thought that the fand 
moderately moiflened and fufpended immediately 
over it, might retain, and be in fome meafure im- 
pregnated with, phlogittic particles. I did not ex^ 
peft to find the fand- retentive of the ele6lric fluid, 
but ftill thought it worth the trial. The mixture 
of the charcoal with other fubflances, was to fee if 
putrefa6tion would have any efFedon its phlogifton. 
The nitre, fulphur, and gunpowder were added 
farther to elucidate the fame fubjeft ; for, if the 
laft fhould prove of any benefit, and fulphur and 
nitre mifchievous or neutral, then fuch benefit 
would feem to flow^ from the charcoal. As to the 
bodies tried in this experiment, which have little 
or no relation to phlogifton, I added them as a 
continuation of other inquiries. 

May 25th, fowcd each pot with five grains of 
barley that funk in water. Watered the pots 
equally in hot weather; viewed them frequently 
during their growth j the following are the con- 

irlufions 



AGRICULTURE. 143 

cliifions I made from the minutes, which are too 
voluminous to infert. 



N" 13 train oil and charcoal — 19 fak of tartar 
— 21 fpirit of nitre — 23 I'pirit of fait — 24 oil of 
turpentine. No vegetation whatever. 



N° 2 fpirit of wine — 8 pitch, both improved ve- 
getation for fome time ; but produced only a few 
fickly plants, which were dead by July 3. After 
violent rain every pot moift, except N" 8 and 25, 
and thefe as dry as if no rain had fallen — 17 fumes 
of charcoal feemcd rather to accelerate at firfl, but 
turned poor and dead July 4. 



N° 1 train oil — 3 fimd alone — 15 fulphur — 16 
vitriolatcd tartar and fpirit of nitre — 25 tallow. — 
All thefe produced a very miferable vegetation ; 
yet fulphur feemed at firft, if any thing, to accele- 
rate it. By auguft 12th X° 15 was dying, and 16 
^orfe than 3. 

4- 

N^gcharcoal one oz. — loditto two oz. — 1 1 do. 

half oz. — All accelerated vegetation confiderably. 

June 9th, 10 was the beft of all the fand pots, the 

19th they had declined confiderably, and auguft 

K 4 12th 



144 A N N A L S O F 

12th 9 was dying, lO was worfe than three, but 
11 continued rather better than 3. 

5- 
N° 18 charcoal afhes at firft rather retarded ve- 
getation, but by June 5th appeared better than 
N° 3. The 9th the plants were very fine, three 
of them equal to N° 10. June 18th, after three 
burning days this pot had got the better of N" 9, 

10, 11. July 12th, the plants were amongft the 
fineft in the experiment : far beyond 3, 9, 10, or 

11. Aucruft 12th, while the charcoal itfelf had 
quite declined, this was better than N° 28, the rich 
Ipam without addition. 

6. 
N° 6, gun-powder — 7 nitre — 9 charcoal — 15 
fulphur — comparing thefe June 9th, N° 9 the beft, 
6 better than 3, 7, or 15. The 15th, 6 and 7 
were quite green, while 3 was turning yellow. 
June 19th, the nitre and the gun-powder are good, 
but the charcoal and the fulphur are bad, July 
12th, N° 7 is the bell of the four, 6 next, 15 next, 
and 9 the worft ; 7 better than 3, 6 rather better, 
15 equal, but 9 worfe. Auguft 12th, N" 6, 7, 
9, and 15, all dead or dying, and confequently 
every addition had done mifchief, being worfe 
than 3. 

N° 4 poultry-dung — 5 ditto and charcoal — 
26 human ordure and charcoal — 27 ditto alone. 
— Comparing thefe, N" 4 and 27 were regular* 



AGRICULTURE. 145 

]y fuperior to 5 and 26, from the beginning to 
July 12th ; but auguft i2th, the order was 27 — 
26—5—4. 

8. 

N° 19 fait of tartar — 20 ditto, and fp. nitre. 
■ — 21 fp. nit. — N" 19 and 21 poifoned the plants 
from firft to laft. The mixture of 20 retarded 
vegetation much at firft ; but, after the plants 
came up, they carried a more healthy 'green than 
many. Auguft 12th, N" 20 better than three. Af- 
ter heavy rains, 19 and 20 hold water, while all 
the reft are dry. 

9- 

N" 31 ele6lrified — till july 12th it has had no 
effe6l ; but auguft 12th its plants are dying, while 
thofe of 3 are alive, though poor. 

10. 

N°2 8 loam — 29 ditto, and one oz. charcoal. 
— 30 ditto, and four oz. do. — have exhibited a 
regular appearance throughout ; 30 much better 
than 29, and 29 better than 28 — which, confi- 
dering all the reft of the experiment, is remark- 
able. 

11. 

N" 14 coal at firft was fuperior to coal-aflies 
N° 32, but, by auguft 12th, the coal plants dead, 
whereas thofe manured with the aflics were better 
than N° 3. 

12, 



ti6 A N N A L S O F 

12. 

N" 2 2 common fait retarded vegetation much 
for fome time. July 12th, it was rather better 
than 3. Auguft 12, equal. 

N" 12 oyfter-fiiell powder at firft feemed very 
efficacious, but the effeft went off, and augull 
12th but little better than 3. 

September 22d, being ripe, I reaped them, cut- 
ting every plant clofe to the earth ; weighed the 
flraw, and counted the grains. 

Weight* N* of Weight N<» of 

Pots, ftraw. grains. Pots. flraw. grains. 

N*' I. — o I o N*' 16, 018— o 

j, o 12 8 18. 16 o — 110 

-^ — 8 o 87 20. 08 — o 

7 o 87 22. 411 — 12 

o I o 25. 018 — 4 

o Y o 26. 14 o — 185 

O y O 27. 12 O 126 

O i O 28. 60 48 

o II 3 29. 9 o — 72 

o 14 7 30. 19 4 — 220 

o 1 4 11 31. 010 — 3 

o 2 • o 32. I i8 ■— e© 



4 

5 
6 

7 
S, 

9 
10 
1 1 
12 



15. o 7 o 

Rejefling the numbers which did not produce 

grain, the reft may be thus arranged, 

Wt. flraw. Gr, 

N° 30 loam and 4 oz. charcoal, 19 4 — 220 

26 fand and hum. ord. 1 oz. ch, 14 o ~ 185 

N°27. 

* In pennyweights and grains-. 



AGRICULTURE. lif 

\Vt. draw. Gr, 

JsJ"" 27. Sand and ordure alone, 12 o — 126 

18. Ditto, and char, allies, 16 o— 110 

4. Ditto, and poultry-dung, 8 o — 87 

5. Ditto, and do. with charcoal, 7 o — 87 

29. Loam and one oz. charcoal, 9 o — 72 
28. Ditto alone, 6 0—48 

32. Sand and coal-aflies, 118 — 20 

2.2. Ditto, and com. lalt, 4 12 — 12 

j2. Do, and pyfter-fhell powder, o 14 — 11 

3. Sand alone, ' 1 12 -, 8 

11. Do. and hcilf oz, charcoal, o 14 — 7 

25. Tallow, 018— 4 

31. Ele6trified, O iO — 3 

10. Charcoal 2 oz, 011— 3 

The variations between this refult and what was 
before given of the apparent growth, are very few, 
they are chiefly, 

N" 11 loft its fuperiority to 3—26 much bet- 
ter than 27, which was reverfing the former ftate, 
— 22 common fait became much better than 3 — 
12 oyfter powder proved the fame. 

September 25th, having Ilirred the earth in the 
pots, planted each with five grains of white 
wheat. 

Oftober 18th, viewed them, N° 7, nitre — 11 
charcoal— 14 coal— 18 charcoal-aflies — 26 ordure 
and charcoal were the beft. 

April 



148 ANNALS OF 

• April 12th, 1783, viewed again. N° 5, poul- 
try-dung and charcoal were better than 4, the dung 
alone — 18 charcoal-afhes was ten times over bet- 
ter than 10 charcoal — 26 ordure and charcoal 
quadruply better than 27 ordure alone — 28 loam 
alone better than 29 loam and charcoal ; yet 30, 
loam and more charcoal, equal to 28 — i, 2, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 39, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 
and 25, all worfe than 3. 
Auguft 3d, reaped, 

Pots. Grs. Wt. draw. Pots. Grs. Wt. ftraw, 
Ko I o o 12 N"' 26 o 1 4 

3 — - o o 15 27 o I 4 

4 o 016 28 38 I 23 

_j o 1 3 29 6 2 3 

6 o o 15 30 -! ^^ 2 16 

1 1 o ^5 31 — — o ■ o 6 

18 o o 13 32 o o i^ 

The reft nothing. There is but one conclufion to 
be drawn from this, which is, that the fand is too 
weak to produce wheat, and that the effeft of the 
additions to the loam whether good or bad, is 
w,orn out. 

The 25th, fowed them with turnep feed. View- 
ed the 7th feptember. 

N" 18 the beft — 27 the next— 29 ditto — 

20 do. -^—28 do. — 26 do. — 4 do. — '^ equal — 

14 3<» 

17 21 

ditto. — '9 ditto. — "-3 do. — 1, 6, 8, 13, and 15, 

nothing. The reft contemptible. 

This refult is remarkable ; for it is totally con- 
trary to moft of the preceding. 

N" 18 



AGRICULTURE. 149 

N" 18 charcoal-aflaes — 20 tartar and fp. nit. 
being fo high, are the circumftances mofl re- 
markable. 

06lober 20th, the refult is different, the order 
then was, II equal and beft — 28 next — 27 do. 
— 26 do. — 20 do. — 18 do. — 5 do. — 21 do.— The 
experiment is yet continued. 

The great objeft of the inquiry, the effe6l of 
phlogifton, is by no means cleared up by this ex- 
periment. Charcoal contains fomething that aflifts 
vegetation for a time confiderably. ' I have been 
informed, by very good chemical authority, that 
the phlogiflon in it is in fo fixed a Itate, that it can- 
not take effeft. To what then is the benefit ow- 
ing ? Are we to confider charcoal as a body not 
differing from wood-aflies ? This trial, combined 
"with the refult of others, will not allow fuch a con- 
clufion, for I have found thofe afhes to aft in pro- 
portion to the goodnefs of the foil ; to do little 
good on poor fand ; but we find the effeO: of char- 
coal confiderable for a time. May I not obferve, 
that the efF'=8: of adding any fubftance to a foil 
may not eafily be pronounced from the refult of 
chemical trials? Phlog^ifton is fo fixed in charcoal 
that a chemift can fcpaiate it only by combuflion ; 
but this, like a thouiand other limilar cafes, is 
in reference only to immediate operation, which 
does not feem to prove, that a long cxpofition to 
the atmofphere in union with fubftances capable 
of fermentation, may not have a power of letting 

loofc 



150 A N N A L S O F 

loofe fixed principles that are volatile when lin* 
combined. 

But the good cfFe6l of the white allies of burnt 
charcoal adds to this difficulty. Why they fliould 
do To much more good than the powdered charcoal^ 
feeing that wood-aflies are not beneficial on fo poor 
a fand, is not ealy to account for. Their being fo 
' much fuperior to the charcoal itfelf, does not allow 
us to attribute the benefit of the latter body to its 
phlogifton. 

Spirit of wine, a fubftancc by means of which I 
cxpefted to have made fome difcoveries, feems to 
have aclcd at firft as a (limulus to vegetation, but 
to have been a poifon in the end ; it was the fame 
W'ith both fulphur and pitch. As the phlogiftoii 
in liquids is certainly in a form in which the roots 
of plants can imbibe it, it fccms remarkable that 
Ipirit of wine fliould be fo deadly. 

The effett of fait of tartar and fpirit of nitre in 
this trial, as in various others, feems to prove, that 
there is in the nitrous acid fomcthing beneficial to 
vegetation ; but its being i'o long before it takes 
eft'cti:, is remarkable. 

E X P E R I M E N T, N° IV. 

Ju N E 10th, 1782, having obfervcd early in the 
preceding experiment, fome circumftances that 
demanded further explanation ; I formed another 
trial, by means of which, I hoped more clearly to 
afccrtain them. 

Put 



AGRICULTURE. i^i 

Put into each of 19 pots five pounds of the fame 
poor fand, and added to them as follow : 

N" 1 charcoal powdered one oz. and oil of vi- 
triol half an oz. — 2 charcoal one oz. and fp. of 

nitre half an oz 3 do. one oz. and fp, of fait 

half an oz. — 4 oil of vitriol half an oz. fp. nit. half 
an oz. and iron-filings forted with a magnet one 

oz 5 fpiritof fait half an oz. and powdered flint 

one oz 6 the fand without addition.— 7 fpirit 

of wine one oz. and half an oz. of train-oil 0iaken 

together 8 forge-water one oz.— 9 iron-filings 

forted with a magnet one oz 10 fp. of fal am- 
moniac one oz 11 fp. of hartfliorn half an oz. 

— 12 red lead one oz 13 oil of fulphur half an 

oz — 14 flowers of fulphur one oz. and iron-file- 

ings one oz. made into a pafte with water 15 

charcoal two oz.— 16 do. four oz 17 barilla 

one oz. — 18 fiilt of tartar half an oz. and fpirit of 
nitre qr. oz.— 19 frefh urine 2 oz. 

The i2*:h fowed each pot with five grains of 
weighty barley. Watered equally in dry weather. 
The 19th, viewed them. 

N° 6 has three blades up. — 8 five and the for- 

wardeft of all 9 three 12 five. — 14 five jufl 

appearing. — 15 five. — 16 three. 

Forge-water, therefore, has acled as a confider- 
able ftimulus. Sulphur, red lead, iron-filings, 
and charcoal, feem to have had the fame effeft in a 
lefs degree. All the other fubftances have plainly 
retarded vegetation. 

June 30th, N° 8 forge-water, and 15 charcoal, 
were the beft, and equal. July 



152 ANNALS OF 

July 9tb, N° 19 urine, the beft of all. 

12th. All the pots dry after eight hours of 

rain, except 10 fal ammoniac, which holds water 
on the furface, 

Auguft 10th, after rauch rain, they rank in the 
following order, N" 19—15 — 12—16—9—8 — 
f, — 14 — 10- — 2. 

But 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 13, 17, 18, are dead, or never 
vegetated. N"" 10, and 17, hold water on the fur- 
face. Hence urine, charcoal, red lead, iron-filings> 
and for;:e-water, have all done !][Ood. 

September 26th, cut the plants. 





Straw, 






Straw, 




Pots, 


Dwt. gr. 


Grains. 




Pots. Dwt. gr. 


Grains. 


N°2 


— I 


— 


N' 


'12 — 12 


— 6 


6 


— 18 


— 10 




14 — 012 


— 5 


7 


Dead 3 


— 




15 — 16 


— ^7 


8 


— 15 


— 8 




16 — 12 


— 7 


9 


— 5 


— 2 




1 8 Dead i 16 


— 


12 


— 6 


— 




19 — 3 22 


— 25 


11 


— 4 


— 









Here we find, that the forge-water, red lead, 
fulphur, and iron-filings, all did mifchief in the 
end, notwithftanding the benefit which, for fome 
time, accrued from them as (limuli to vegetation. 
But the effect of charcoal holds good to the laft. 

It is evident from this trial, that the idea of frefii 
urine being prejudicial, is erroneous. Of the three 
mineral acids united with charcoal, the nitrous did 
leaft mifchief. 

September 27th, ftirred the fand well. N° 6, 
17, and 19, were wet, 10 a mafs of mud, 7 was 

very 



AGRICULTURE. 153 

very dry and friable, fowed each with five grains 
wheat. 

Viewed o6lober 18th, N° li, the fp. of hartf- 
horn the heft. April 12th, N° 3 the bed, 8=16 
=19 next and equal, the reft bad. 

Atugufl 20, fowed them with turnep-feed. 
September 17th, viewed. N° 17 beft, — 1 next, 
— 15 do. — 19 do. — 10=11 equal, the reft poor. 
4j 7, 8, 14, nothing. Pot 18 broken by ac- 
cident. 

The refult is muck changed, and oBober 20th, 
it is again very different, for the order then was, 
N° 2 the beft, — 1 next, — 15 do. — 17 do. — 4, 5, 
and 14, no vegetation, the reft contemptible. 

Charcoal and oil of vitriol, for above a year, 
were poifonous, but now recovered, arid ftand 
high in the fcale. It feems as if the fubftanccs that 
\jere the moft poifonous for the firft two or three 
crops, were, by the fucceffive influences of the 
atmofphere, neutralized into fomcthing really be- 
neficial. Charcoal alone has done good in one 
inftance from firft to laft. Sal. ammoniac and fp. 
of hartfliorn appear to confiderable advantage; for, 
though they retarded vegetation at firft, probably 
from the dofe being too great, yet they recovered; 
the latter was once fupcrior to any, and both good 
to the laft. Urine, which clafTes with them, the 
beft of all through the firft crop, and beneficial to 
the laft. The other fubftances feem, upon the 
whole, to have been mifchievous. 

Vol. I. N°3. L £ X- 



154 A N N A L S O F ^ 

EXPERIMENT, N" V. 

June 7th, 1782. In order farther to continue 
and vary the inquiry into the efFeft of the volatile 
alkali, and of ciiarcoal, and at the fame time to 
difcover that of hre on the foil, I put 41 ounces of 
rich new broken up loam that had yielded but one 
crop, into each of fix pots. 

N" 1, the earth burnt in an iron ladle, in the 
violent fire of a blackfmith's forge, three hours, 
\vhich reduced it to 29 ounces — 2 ditto, in a 
fmaller degree on a kitchen fire, reduced to 35 
ounces — 3 the earth without burning or addition 
• — 4 half an oz. nitre, one qr. oz. fp. of fait, and 
halfoz. oil offulphur — 5 half oz. fp. of hartfhorn 
' — 6 one oz. charcoal. 

June 30th, fowed each pot with eight feeds 
coVefeed. Watered equally in dry feafons. 

July 2d, N° 3 is quite dry, 5 rather fo, but all 
the reft entirely wet. 

July 20th, N° 6 the beft — 3 the next — 2=5 
ditto — 1 do. — 4 nothing. 

Auguft 4th, the progrelTion was in this order, 
viz. 5 — 2—6—3 — 1 — 4. 

Which is a fudden change in favour of the vo- 
latile alkali and moderate burning. 

The 10th of auguft another change, fot now 
N° 2 is rtie beft, 5 next, 3 and 6 equal, 1 very 
poor, 4 worfe. The leaves of 2 and 5 are of a 
fine deep healthy green, which is not the cafe of 
the others, 

Sep- 



AGRICULTURE, 155. 

September 28th, cut the plants and weighed 
them. 



Pots. 




Dv^t. gr. 


Pots. 




Dwt.gr, 


N" 1 




9 


N% 




2 


2 




16 3 


5 





II 


3 




3 


6 




s 



Hence, therefore^ we find that naoderate burn- 
ing, fp. of hartfhorn, and charcoal, have all 
done good, the two forfner confiderably. The 
effe£l of burning is very remarkable; reafoning 
from theory, one would have fuppofed that new 
rich loam, broken up a year, and confequently 
with its vegetable fibres in a ftate of putrefaftion, 
would have been greatly prejudiced by any degree 
of burning; the contrary i.s, however, the fa6l, 
and it deferves the attention of thofe who have op- 
portunities to take the hint and try it more at large. 
The volatile alkali is in this as in many other trials 
excellent. 

The fame day ftirred the earth, and planted 
each pot with five grains of wheat. 

April 17th, 1783, viewed them. N° 2 much the 
bell — 5 next — 3=4 do. — 1 do» — 6 the worft. 

June 12th, th>e order was, 2, 5, 4, and 1, 3, 
and 6, equal. Auguft 3d, reaped. 

Wt. ftraw, Wt. ftraw. 

Pots, Gr. Dwt.gr, Gr. Dwt.gr, 

N® 1 Mildewed — 15 N® 4 Mildewed o — 1 22 

2 Do. o — 1 15 5 iS — 1 37 

3— 9 — o 15 6 — — H — o 12 

L 2 » I rauft 



1^5 ANNALS OF 

I mud here make a remark which is necefTary 
to be attended to throughout moft of thefe experi- 
ments ': the ftraw is to be taken as a guide as much 
and fometinjes more than the grain ; for, if the 
pots are fmal!, very luxuriant and flourifhing plants 
are apt to decline m the latter part of their growth ; 
from the very circumftance of having been luxu- 
riant, they want room for the roots to continue 
tlieirprogrefs, and turning fickly, yield little corn; 
this has been the cafe in feveral trials where dung 
of any fort has been added. 

The hartfhorn and the charcoal are great, the 
moderate burning good, and the extreme burnin|^ 
beginning to recover. 

Auguft 20th, Town with turnep-feed. Viewed 

September yth. 

N" 2 the bed— 4 the next — 5 do. — -3 do. — 6 do. 

— ^1 the worft. 

Hence, therefore, moderate burning and the 
volatile alkaii, for three crops, have preferved 
their effeS:. 

The experiment continues. 

EXPERIMENT, N° VI. 

July 29th, 1782. Having found that 
one ounce fpirit of wine added to feven pound 
offand, proved a poifon, and being one of thofe 
fubftances which contained, as I apprehended, 
mofl phlogifton, in fuch a form as would eafily 
permit it to enter the vefiels of plants, I formed 
another trial, exprefsly for the purpofe of farther 

dif- 



a6r I CULTURE. 157 

difcoveriiig its Gffe6l, both alone, and combined 
with forae bodies of which it is a folvent, and given 
uD-itcd v.'ith fome others. Put about 46 ounces of 
the fame poor fand into each of the following pots. 
■ N° 1 the fand without addition — 2 half an oz. 
ether — 3 quarter oz. do. — 4 quarter oz. fal. am- 
moniac in qr. oz. fpirit of wine — 5 quarter oz. 
camphor in half oz. tjp. wine — 6 quarter oz. feda- 
tive fait in half oz. fp. wine — 7 quarter oz. cor- 
Vofive fublimate in qr. oz. fp. wine — 8 quarter oz. 
borax — g qr. oz. do. in qr. oz. fp. wine — 10 quar- 
ter oz. fal. ammoniac — 11 quarter oz. alum — 
12 qr. oz. do. in qr, oz. fp. v.'ine — 13 qr. oz. oil 
turpentine in qr. oz. fp. wine — 14 qr. oz. oil olives 
in qr. oz. fp. wine — 15 qr. oz. frefli urine and qr. 
oz. fp. wine — 16 one oz. fp. wine — 17 half oz. do. 
— 18 qr. oz. do. — 19 qr. oz. hard foap in qr. oz. 
fp. wine — 20 half oz. charcoal and qr. oz. fp. 
wine — 21 one oz, poultry dung — 22 one oz. do. 
and qr. oz. fp. wine — 23 half oz. clayed fugar in 
qr. oz. fp. wine — 24 one oz. fp. wine in a quart 
of w^ater, given at different times— 25 quarter 
oz. fp. nitre diluted, and qr. oz. fp. wine — 
26 the pot filled with a rich fandy loam, kept 
in a drawer feven years — 27 do. with rich new 
broken up loam — 28 the fame loam and half oz. 
fp. of wine — 29 do. and qr. oz. do,- — 30 the 
pot filled with a very calcarious clay marie — 
31 do. and half oz. f}). wine — 32 do. and qr. oz, 
fp. wine. 

L 3 The 



158 A N N A L S O F 

The fame day planted each with five grains of 
colefeed. From this arrangement I expeBed to 
difcover the efFeft of fpirit of wine on poor fand^ 
rich loam, and calcarious raarle : alfo, whether 
the efFeft of that Hquid is improved or injured by 
the addition of various bodies on which it has a 
folvent power. 

Auguft 5th, N° I has four plants up — 21 two 
— 26 two — 27 two. 

Every thing added, therefore^ has retarded ve- 
getation. The 10th, N° 27 is the beft, 26 the 
next, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, have nothing 
up. Auguft 18th, N° 26 beft — 27 next — 
28 ditto — 29 do.-r-2i do. — 22 do. — 1 do. — 
15 do. 

By the 25th, N° 26 was doubly better than any 
of the reft. N" 6 and 16 hold water. 

September 7th, all dry except N" 7, which is 
quite wet. The 25th, cut and weighed. 

Pots. Wt.Dwt.gr. Pots. Wt.Dwt.gr. 

N° 1 - — ■ — o V2 N<^ 27 1 6 

21 16 28 1 12 

26 7 12 29 1 12 

The reft withered or never vegetated. 

From this firft crop, it appears, that the fpirit 
of wine-has been uniformly poifonous on fand; but 
on good loam it has been fomething better than 
harmlefs. Next to this general rcfult, the cir- 
cumftance that claims moft notice, is the amazing 
fuperiority of loam kept in a drawer feven years, 
to other loam frefti from a good field. 

In 



AGRICULTURE. 159 

In whatever light this faft is viewed it will ap- 
pear extraordinary ; if the immediate aftion of the 
i'un's rays, and of light, on the foil, is beneficial 
to it (which I very much queflion from a thoufand 
obfervations) this fpecimen of earth muft have to- 
tally wanted fuch aftion. If the atraofphere 
abounds with the particles that are the food of 
plants, how very imperfe81y mud this earth have 
been expofed to receive them ! But if this foil was 
feven years ago very rich, the circumftance of its 
preferving its fertilitv, is, perhaps, remarkable, 
fince there is reafon to believe, that had it been 
fully expofed that would not have been the cafe. 
This point, however, I fliall try more particularly. 

September 25th, planted with four grains of 
wheat. 

Oftobcr 18th, N° 4 the bell of the fand pots. 

April 17th, 1783, K° 26 by far the belt — 27, 
28, 29, next and equal — 21, 23, 24, next and 
equal. 

All the reft either no vegetation, dead, or dying. 
Auguft 3d, reaped. 











\Vt. ftraw 


Pots 




N°gr 




Dwt.gr. 


N°26 


— 


21 


— 


23 


27 


— 





— 


10 


28 


-^ 


1 


— 


20 


29 


— 


9 


poor ones o 12 



Auguft 16th, fowed turnep-feed in thefe four 

pots, putting an end to the experiment on the reft. 

L 4 Oc- 



i6o ANNALS OF 

* 

06lobcr 20lb, viewed. N'' 28, 29, bell — 27 
next — 26 do. 

The vaft fuperiority of the earth folong exclud- 
ed from the fun continued throughout the fccond 
ciop. In the third it loft that fuperiority: this 
looks very rfluch as if its fertility was not original, 
but derived from the circumftance of being fo ex- 
cluded. 

This part of the experiment continues. 

EXPERIMENT, N'' VIL 

June 14th, 15th, 16th, 1782. Inorderfar^ 
ther to inquire how far the phlogifton of various 
fubftances can be \nade to affift the vegetation of 
plants, and to continue the preceding purfuit, I 
put three pounds and a half of the fame poor fand 
into each of thirteen pots, with the following ad- 
ditions. 

N° 1 the fand alone — 2 fait petre one oz. and 
half oz. oil vitriol — 3 poultry-dung two oz. and 
charcoal two oz. — 4 do. and four oz. charcoal 
— 5 coagulated blood one oz. bottled and corked 
frefh from the throat of a calf killed by the butcher, 
and one oz. charcoal — 6 the blood alone one oz. 
■ — 7 poultry-dung two oz. — 8 do. tv/o oz. and 
one oz. charcoal — 9 one ounce of the thin ferum 
that floated on the furface of the above blood — 
10 the fand burned three hours in an iron ladle 
kept red hot, which reduced the weight of it to 
two pound thirteen ounces. This changed the 
colour from a pale yellow to red — 11 the fand 

boiled 



AGRICULTURE. 161 

boiled in water 3 hours— 12 fait of tartar half 
oz. and fp. nitre half oz. — 13 train oil one oz. and 
half oz. fp. fait. 

The 19th, fowedeach with four grains of heavy 
buck-wheat. Watered equally in dry feafons. 
The feed muft have been bad, for pot 7 had none 
come up, which could have been owing to no other 
caufe. July 25th, ftirred the fand and fowed each 
with five grains colefeed. 

Auguft 4th, viewed. 

N" 4 hc{\ — 3=7 '^^xt and equal — 8 do. — 5 do. 
— 2, 6, 10, 11, 13, none come up. 

The 7th, they rank in this order, 7 — 4 — 8 — 3 
— 5 — 9, the reft poor. None came up in 2, 
6, 13. 

It is very I'emarkable that the coagulated blood 
fhould prove a poifon, and the ferum of the fame 
blood a manure, which it is by 9 being much bet- 
ter than 1. Charcoal being mixed with the blood 
takes off' its ill effeft. Auguft 18th, viewed. 

N° 4, 7, 3, 8, rank in this order, and are much 
better than the reft. 

N" 9 and 5 do. and indifferent — 10=1, 12 do. 
poor — 2, 13, nothing. 

September 28th, cut and weighed. 

Pols. Dwt. gr. Pots. Dwt. gr. 

N^ 3 — 4 o N° 7 — 2 12 

4 — 6 12 8 — 20 

5 — I 12 9 — o 12 
The reft miferable, or nothing. 

The 



i63 A N N A L S O F 

Th-e diftinftion between the blood and the feruni 
continues, and does not fpeak in favour of phlo- 
aifton. The benefit of adding charcoal to dung 
feems to be eftabliflied by this trial, though not 
without the exception of N° 7, being better 

than 8. 

In ftirring them to plant five grains of wheat 
in each, the fame day, 13 had to the eye an un- 
common appearance, of a fermentative motion, as 
if compofed of animalcules. N° 2 was a mafs of 

mud, 

Oftober 18th, viewed, N" 4^ 6, 11, the bed 
■— 1, 2, 3, 12, 1.3, nothing. 

April 17th, viewed, N° 4 treble better than any 
of them. N° 7, 8, next and pretty good— 5, 6, 
9, next, and bad — very poor — 10, ii, 12 dying 
—2, 13, nothing. 

A carpenter letting a piece of timber fall on the 
pots while putting up a bench, broke fome, and 
tumbled the relt over. Here, therefore, ends 
this trial. 

Expofition to the atmofphere cured the preju- 
dicial quality of the blood. 

In a former experiment, reducing a rich loam 
one-feventh by fire, improved it greatly ; but in this 
trial, reducing a poor fand only an eleventh, pro- 
ved very mifchievous. Does not this feem to fliew, 
that the common idea of paring and burning rich 
foils being more fatal than on poor ones, is erro- 
neous ? I (hall, however, repeat and vary the ex- 
periments on this point. 

I fliall 



AGRICULTURE. 163 

I fliall only remark, at prefent, that no degree 
of field burning can be made in common denfhir- 
ing, to equal that of a red-hot iron ladle for three 
hours; though burning dug giay in great ciamp 
probably much exceeds it. 

EXPERIMENT, N^ VIII. 

Auguft 14, 1782. The volaiile jilkali had fuch 
a remarkable effeft in fome of the preceding expe- 
riments, that I was led to form a trial, purpcfely to 
difcover more fatisfaftorily the reiult of .t, applied 
under every form in which I could eafily procure 
jt. With this view, I put 42 ounces of good 
jiewly broken up loam, the fame as that of fome pf 
the preceding trials, into each of 12 pots, and ad- 
ded as follows. 

To N° 1 nothing — 2 fal. ammoniac qr. oz,- — 
3 do. half oz. — 4 fait of hartlhorn qr. oz. — 5 do. 
half oz. — 6 fpirit offal, ammoniac qr. oz. — 7 do. 
halfoz. — 8 fpirit of hartfliorn half oz. — 9 do. qr 
oz. — -10 fpirit of hartfliorn qr. oz. and fp. nitre qr. 
pz. — 11 fp. nitre qr. oz.— 12 aquafortis qr. oz, 
which pot being fmaller than the reft held only^ 33 
pz. of earth. 

At the fame time, planted each with five grains 
heavy colefeed. 

September ift, viewed. 

N° 1 has five plants, and the beft — 9 five, and 
nearly equal to 1 — 11 two, and ranks next-^ 
8 three, do.- — 6=z'j^ thefe equal, and are next — 
»io do. The reft none. 

But, 



i6i ANNALS OF 

' Eat, by the 9th of the fame month, the refuit 
was changed, for 9 was much the beft. Septem- 
ber 26th, cut the plants and weighed them. 

Pots. V/t. Dwt.gr. Pots. Wt.Dwt.gr. 

6 



V/t. Dwt.gr. 


Pots. 


^ 12 


N9 9 


3 12 


10 


3 


11 



I 1 2 

3 o 



N" 7 eaten by feme Aug or infeft. 



From hence it appears, that the dofe of the vo- 
latile alkali was too great. The fmalleft quantity 
proved a manure in one inilance. The 27th, 
planted each with five grains of wheat. 08,ober 
18th, they ranj^ed thus, N" 4, 5, 10, 11, the beft, 
the reft poor. 

April 17th, viewed. 

N" 5 by much the beft — 4 very good, and the 
next; thefe two much fuperior to the reft — 6 next 
— 10 do. — 7 do. — 9 do. — n do — 1 do. — 12 do. 
— 12 do.-— 3 nothing. 

June 12th viewed again, the order as follow^s, 

N" 4, 5, equal, and the beft— 7 next— 6 do — 
8 do.— 2 do.— 10=11 equal— 9 do.— 1 do.— 12 
do. — 3 nothing. 

The refuit here is very uncommon, for it is rare 
in fuch experiments to find fo many additions 
prove a manure fo beneficial to the plants. 

Auguft 3d, reaped. 



Pots. 



AGRICULTURE. 165 









Straw, 










Straw, 


Pots. 


G 


rains. 


Dwt.gr. 




Pots. 






Dvvt. gr. 


N*' 1 


— 


>7 


— 12 


N 


'7 


— 


27 


— 20 


2 


— 


25 


— 20 




8 


— 


17 


— I 18 


3 










9 


— 


29 


12 


4 


— 


33 


— 2 18 




10 


— 


3m 


Idew 18 


5 


— 


14 


— 2 12 




1 1 


— 


30 


— 20 


6 


— 


30 


— 18 




12 


— - 


10 


— 6 



The difcriminating circumftances of the refult 
arc not very interelling, but, on the whole, the 
trial fpeaks very ftrongly in favour of the volatile 
alkali. The 16th, fov/n with turnep-fced. Sep- 
tember 7ih» viewed. They rank in this order, 
N" 5, 4, 3> 6> 7> lOi 2, 1 1, 8, 9, 1 2, 1. Nothing 
can be clearer than the benefit of the volatile 
alkali here : an hundred experiments on fuch fub- 
je6ls might be tried, and the refult not prove fo 
decifive. 

October 10th, N" 2 and 3 v^-ere quadruply bet- 
ter than any of the reft. This fhews that the falts 
have not loft their quality fo foon as the fpirit. 
I ftiall be curious to obferve how long fuch vola- 
tile fubftances will retain any e-flPeft. 

The exDcriment continues. 

i. 

EXPERIMENT, N" IX. 

November 14th, 1782. Charcoal-afhes having 
been attended with a more remarkable effe6t than 
powdered charcoal itfelf, and as it was poflible 
that this circumftiince might lead to fome.Qifco.- 
very of the principle in that fubftance to which its 
effeft as a manure was to be attributed, I for ned 

a trial 



t66 ANNALS OF 

a trial fingly to inquire farther into the facl* 
Filled ten equal fized pots with loam or fand: 
pot and loam weighed 21 lb. Pot and fand 25 lb. 

N° 1 loam alone — 2 fand alone — 3 loam, and 
one ounce charcoal powdered— 4 fand, and do. 
— 5 loam, and one ounce charcoal aflies — 6 fand, 

and one do 7 loam, and two do 8 fand, and 

two do. — 9 loam, and two ounces charcoal — lO 
fand, and two do. 

Planted each with fix grains of wheat. April 
7th, viewed. 

Comparing 1, 3, and 5, together, 5 the bed* 

Ditto 2, 4, and 6, together, 6 the beft. 

Ditto 7, and 9, together, 7 the better. 

Ditto 8, and 10, together, 8 the better. 

The afhes are therefore invariably better than 
the charcoal. 

June 4th, viewed. 

N° 9 the beft — 3=7 ^qual, and the next — 

5 next — 1 do. 8 do 6 do.— 2 do.— 4 do.— « 

10 do. 

The fame refult continues with the fand, but 
fails with the loam. 

Auguft 4th, reaped* 

Pots. Grains. Strsv/. Pots. Grains, Straw, 
K** I 20 — — 2 6 N*' 6 -.— 9 o 12 

2 — — - 8 o 14 7 ■— — 52 — i — 3 ^^ 

3 92 — — 40 8 —- " 25 o 23 

4 Y — _ o 17 9 ™=— 84 3 12 

5 — ~- no — — 5 13 10 - — o o 4 

In 



A G R I C U L T U R E. 16/ 

In three cafes out of four, the aflies are better, 
therefore, than the charcoal. We muft remark, 
alfo, that in the fingle inftance where the contrary 
refult takes place, 7 being better than 9,' they are 
equal in ftraw ; and that, in another ftage of the 
trial, 9 was better, which altogether ieems to give 
as decided a fuperiority to the alhes, in this trial, 
as they pofieffed in the former. 

The 16th, fown with turneps. 

September 7th, viewed. They rank in the fol- 
lowing order, 3, 9, 5, 7, i, 4, 8, then 6, 2, 10, 
which three arc equal. The refult here is again 
divided. 

The experiment continues. 

EX P E R I M E N T, N' X. 

May 16th, 1783. A very ingenious gentleman, 
and moft ufcful writer upon agriculture, in Sect- 
land, Mr. Andrew 'Wight, with whom I have 
been fome time incorrcfpondence on the fubjeftof 
the food of plants, having mentioned in one of his 
letters, the circumllance of iugar being very bene- 
ficial as a fubftance that accelerates vegetation, I 
immediately tried the fad, by making this expe- 
riment. Filled nine pots equally with exa6lly the 
fame good loam, three lb. in each. 

In N° I no addition-— 2 clayed fugar half an 
ounce--3 ditto one ounce--4 double-refined fugar— 
5 clayed fugar half an ounce inafmalltable-fpoon-. 
ful of fpirit of wine--6 clayed fugar half an ounce> 
and poultry-dung half an oz.— 7 poultry-dung half 

oz. 



S68 A N N A L S O F 

oz.— 8 clayed fugaf half bz. in a fmall tabie-fpoon- 
fiil of fpirit of nitre— 9 clayed fugarhalf an ounce 
beaten and well rubbed in a mortar with half an 
oz. of wood-aflies. 

Planted each with four grains of good barley. 
Watered equally in dry feafon. 

June ift, viewed. N" 1 beft, then 6, 7, 2, 3^ 
and no vegetation in 4, 5, 8, 9. In three days 
after 7 was before 6. 

Auguft 15th, cut. 

Straw, Straw, 

Pots. Grains. Dwt, gr. Pots. Grains. Dwt.gr. 

N'' 1 14 i 10 N*^ 6 — — o I 17 

2 6 06 7 ' o 2 o 

2 o 06 8 • o o : 8 

^ o 05 9 1 1 o 1 2 

5 3 o 4 

The dry burning feafon was againft all trials in 
fmall pots; to this it was owing that the dung 
alone took ePit-a early in the trial, but pufting the 
plants Porward, they proportionably declined for 
want of a larger mafs of earth. The principal 
point we learn, is the uniform mifchief refulting 
I'lom the fugar, lellening very confiderably (as I 
expeBed it would be) by the addition of. wood- 
aflies ; the alkaline fait of that body neutralized, I 
apprehend, the acid of the fugar, which was 
blunting the quality by which it became preju- 
dicial. 

Auguft 16th, ftirred the earth and fowed turnep- 
fced. The 29th viewed. 

N°6, 



AGRICULTURE. 169 

N° 6 fine, and the beft. — 7 good. Then fol- 
low 1, 5, 4, 2, 8, 9, 3. 

September 7th, and o6lober 20th, viewed. 

N° 7 and 6 much the beft — 1 next — 4 do 

5 ditto, poor — 3 do 1 do. 

Upon the whole, the fugar appears to confider- 
able difadvantage; but I have experienced fuch 
changes in the effeft of fait, by waiting longer 
than two cropsj that I do not yet venture to decide 
any thing. 

The experiment continues. 

Some Attempts to apply Air as a Manure to 
the Soil. 

^ I ^HE theory, v/hich our great philofopherftart- 
-•■ ed, that phlogifton is the food of plants, ap- 
peared to me fo important in the philofophy of 
agriculture, that it engaged my earneft attention. 
It has never been my condud to abandon to fpe- 
culation that which can be brought to the teft of 
experiment. But a perfon in fuch retirement as I 
live in, without opportunity of communicating 
with pra6lical chemifts and philofopher;>, with 
fmaller means of overcoming difficulties by force 
of large expences ; and, without experience in the 
fciences necelTary to purine fuch inquiries, farfrom 
all other affiftance ; a perfon thus fituated, may 
feel very earneft defires to purfue a line of aftivity 
and vigour, and yet experience the mortifying 
conviction, that, for want of better fupport, his 
Vol. I. N° 3. M wilhes 



lyo 



ANNALS OF 



wiflies may be vain, and his efforts ufelefs. Many 
of thefe feelings have been mine through this lit- 
tle beginning of my inquiries ; imagining a mul- 
tiplicity of experiments which I had not tlie pow- 
er to execute. 

Being defirous of knowing what were the difco- 
veries on which this theory was founded, I read 
the five volumes of Dr. Prieftley with attention, 
and alfo Dr. Ingenhouz's experiments on vege- 
tation ; and I was exceedingly furprifed to find, 
that, amidft a great career of experiments that 
may indeed be called a new world for the inge- 
nuity of mankind to range in, though the trials 
were numerous and decifive which prove the 
power of plants to imbibe phlogifton from im- 
pure atmofpheric air, yet thofe which fliew it to 
be taken in as a pabulum or food, are very few. 
Even in the moft remarkable of Dr. Prieftley's, 
the willow plant thriving heft in inflammable 
air*, an inflance is given in the fame page of 
mint thriving much worfe in it than in common 
air. And in a letter which I had the honour of 
receiving from him upon this fubjeft, July ift 
1782, he expreffes himfelf thus : " Though I 
have no doubt but that phlogifton is the effence, 
as we may fay, of the food both of plants and ani- 
mals, they are not capable of extrafting it except 
from certain fubftances and in certain circum- 
ftances; and phlogifton adminiftered in any other 

way 

* Experiments and Obfervations relative to various Branches 
of Natural Philofophy, Vol. II. p, 1. 



AGRICULTURE. 171 

way infallibly kills both." The Doflor means, 
I apprehend, from other expreffions in his corre- 
fpondence,that the phlogifton muft be given either 
as the refult of putrefa6lion applied to the roots, 
or elfe in air applied to the leaves, in which I en- 
tirely agree with him. The labours of that truly 
GREAT MAN are almoft uuivcrfal : a Tcach of faga- 
city, a depth of penetration, united with an ardor, 
and even enthufiafm, in pufliing his refearches 
with an unremitting induftry that removes diffi- 
culties in the very moment of difcovering them, 
would have left us nothing to wifh in the prefent 
inquiry, had it been poffible for one mind to bring 
to maturity the ideas he has thrown out for the 
employment of thoufands. The variety of his pur- 
fuits has prevented fo marked an application of his 
difcoveriesto my favourite art, as might otherwife 
have happily advanced it. 

If there are any experiments extant in which the 
exprefs application of phlogiilon, or of inflamma- 
ble air, to the roots of plants as a manure, has been 
made, I am ignorant of them. No fuch applica- 
tion, or even conjecture of the refult appears in 
any.work that I have confulted ; and yet it feemed 
to be the only method by which the queflion of 
that fubftance being the food of plants, could pof- 
fibly be decided. The eflPeft of it on leaves, from 
the experiment of Dr. Ingenhouz, feems rather to 
be an edulcoration of impure air for the purpofe 
of making it falutary to the human body, than ne- 
ceffarily beneficial to the growth of the plant. If 

M 2 this 



172 ANNALSOF 

this is not the exaO; refult, I may at leafl obferve, 
that the doubt which arifes might be very eafily 
refolved by thofe who have the flvill and apparatus 
neceirary for fuch experiments. 

The leaves of a plant may perform the office of 
lungs in the body of an animal, and inflammable 
air may be as falutary to their inhalation, as de- 
phlogifticated air is in the refpiration of animals; 
but it no more follows (however likely it may 
otherwife be) that phlogifton is, therefore, their 
food, than that pure air is the food of man. 

Conceiving, upon the whole, that the theory, 
however probable, was by no means proved, I 
wiflied to form fome trials that might be more de- 
cifive ; but, in the execution of this idea, I was 
fenfible, from the beginning, of the difadvantages 
under which a perfon muft proceed with no more 
experience in this line than I pofleffed. 

EXPERIMENT, N° XI. 

June 6th, 1782. Having brewed twohogfheads 
of ale, and fet it to work with yeaft, when the fer- 
mentation was pretty well advanced, and I found, 
by a wax light, that an atmofphere of fixed air was 
formed, I filled two pots equally with poor fand, 
and emptied one of them into a flat tin difli, in 
which the fand did not lie above an inch thick. 
This I fufpended by cords, within the region of 
fixed air, at nine in the evening ; finding by my 
wax light that it was entirely within that air ; next 
morning I found the air was above the tin, as I 

could 



AGRICULTURE. 173 

could wifli, and ftirred the fand, in order that a 
greater lurface might be expofed to the action oi 
the air. Before I ftirred the fand, the light went 
out when held near the furface of it ; but after 
ftirring, it burned without obftruftion ; from 
which it appeared as if the fand abforbed the fixed 
air, a circumftance favourable to my defign. I 
Itiould, however, obfervc, that the Ration of the 
fixed air was not regular; over fome parts of the 
tub it was four, five, and fix inches deep, and 
over other parts, at the fame time, there was none 
at all. Upon firft going down into the cellar, 
I found much more than after I had been in 
it a few minutes, the door left open. Over one 
place I found fo much that I fliifted my pan ; 
but then trying the fame place again, found that 
it was all gone; from which circumftance it ap- 
pears, that the large veflels of public breweries, 
over which Dr. Prieftley mentions its being a foot 
deep, are the proper places for fuch experiments. 
The 8th, I returned the fand into its pot, and 
planted that, and its ftandard one, each with five 
grains of barley. The pot with air marked N° 1, 
the other N° 2. 

June 16th, N° 2 has one plant up. The i8th, 
it has five up, and N" 1 has four. July 2d, they 
were equal, and both very poor. The gth, N° 1 
was yellow and fickly, N° 2 green and much better 
than the other. July 20th, N° 1 almoft dead, 
N° 2 much better. September 27th, cut the plants. 
N° 1 has no grain, the ftraw weighs 6 grains. — 

M 3 N°2 



174 A N N A L S O j^ 

N° 2 has lo grains, and ftraw i dwt. i8 gr. 
Stirred the fand^ and planted each pot with four 
grains wheat. October 1 8th, viewed. N" i has 
three plants^ N" 2 none. April 12th, N° 1 has 
four plants miferably poor, N° 2 none. 

The refult of the fecond fowing is fo contradic- 
tory, that nothing is to be concluded from it, be- 
caufe the fand alone ought at lead to have made the 
feed vegetate. It is poffible that by the chance of 
a thoufand to one, the feeds were all bad. 

The refult of the lirfl: fowing is remarkable, and 
fhews, as far as a fingle experiment goes, that fixed 
air is very prejudicial to fuch poor fand. If I 
might be indulged to conjefture, I fliould imagine 
that it muft be owing to its antifeptic quality ; for, 
if putrefaction is the origin of the food of plants, 
as can fcarcely be doubted, any fubftance that 
counteracts, like antifeptics, a putrefaClive ten- 
dency, muft neceffariiy be prejudicial. One ex- 
periment is not, however, foundation enough for 
fuch reafoning. 

EXPERIMENT, N" XII. 

June 24th, 1783. In the preceding trial, I 
hadexperiencedtheeffeftof fixed air on poorfand; 
in order to fee w^hat would be the refult on rich 
loam, I made another arrangement. I filled two pots 
equally with the fame loam, marked N° 12 and 
N° 13, fpreading the contents of N° 13 in a broad 
tirij about two inches and a half deep, and taking 
it to the public brewery of Mr. Mathias Wright, of 

Bury,' 



AGRICULTURE. 175 

Bury, fufpended it in the region of fixed air form- 
ed by the fermentation of 30 barrels of beer. I 
kept it juft an hour, ftirring it gently all the while 
with my cane. 

Returned it into the pot, and fowed both with 
fourgrains barley, and fix grains turnip-feedjWhich, 
when they arofe, I fingled to one plant each. 
Watered equally in dry weather; I remarked that 
watering left the earth of N° 13 with rather a 
plaiftered furface,and that it contracted all around 
from the pot ; but it might poffibly be owing to 
the particles being made finer by motion. July 
29th, viewed ; when they were fo pcrfe6lly equal, 
that -I could not pronounce which was better. 
September 7th, N" 13 much the better. 06lober 
5th, cut. 

N° 12 yields 28 grains barley, one and half dwt. 
ftraw, and 3 dwt. the turnip.— N° 13 yields 
40 grains barley, 2 dwt. ftraw, and 4^ dwt. the 
turnip. 

This refult will not permit me to doubt the be- 
nefit of fixed air as a manure in this inftance. But 
the two experiments contradi6l each other, and all 
I conclude is, that the queftion demands many re- 
petitions, which I fhall fpeedily give. 

This trial continues. 

EXPERIMENT, N° XIII. 

- December 6th, 1782. Inflammable air was 

that which I was mofl defirous of trying in this in- 

M 4 quiry. 



176 ANNALSOF 

quiry, but the means of doing it puzzled me not 
a little ; one of my earlieft attempts was to put a 
pound of good loam in a cloth, and fufpending ir 
in ajar that held about a quart, in which I mixed 
a quarter of a pound of flour of brimftone, and 
a quarter of a pound of iron filings, made into a 
pafte with water. I poured melting modelling wax 
on the part of the cloth (in a circle) that joined 
the edge of the jar, working it well in with a knife, 
in order to prevent the efcape of the air any where 
but through the earth. Planted it with fix grains 
of wheat; and, at the fame time, fix grains in 
another pound of the fame earth in a fmall pot ; 
fet them both in a chimney-corner, where a con- 
ftant good fire was kept, watering them from time 
to time equally. 

December 12th, one plant up in the pot 

13th, three more up in ditto, none in the jar 

16th, five up in the jar, and fix up in the pot, 
but the former have not half the vegetation of the 
latter. — 17th, fet them away from the fire to the 

other end of the room 28th, meafured them ; 

the five plants in the jar 313 inches in length 

The five beft in the pot 263 ditto. 

Including all fix in the pot, it is 31^; fo that, 
in this way, five in the jar equalled all fix in the 
pot. But as one grain in twelve might fail in any 
lowing, the abpve comparifon of 31I to 263 feems 
to be the fair one. 

But here I muft obferve one circumftance which 
ought to have ftruck me in making the experiment. 

The 



AG41ICULTURE. 177- 

The ftandard earth without air, ought to have been 
fufpended in cloth exaflly like the other, though 
no materials were to be in the jar under it; be- 
caufe in watering, it was a great advantage to the 
fimple earth that the pot retained the water, where" 
as the cloth would necefFarily let fome pals through 
it. The experiment is in favour of inflammable 
air, but the procefs not plcafing me on the whole, 
I carried it on no farther. 

EXPERIMENT, N° XIV. 

April 5th, 1783. My next attempt was, by 
boringholes through the bottom of the earthen jars ; 
and fixing glafs tubes through them into fuch glafs 
phials as are ufed in eleftrical experiments for fir- 
ing inflammable air by the eleftrical fpark. But 
this failed on two accounts; the air was not enough 
diffufed through the earth, and the glafs tube was 
not eafily cemented to the jars. May 5th, having 
been difappointed repeatedly, I tried to difcharge 
through bladders, the air that was generated in 
bottles, by a mixture of chalk and oil of vitriol, 
but the bladders, being neceffarily expofed to dry- 
ing winds, cracked, and the trials failed. 

I then had fome tin pots made to go one whhiri 
another, the fmaller inward one with a bottom 
pierced, the holes half an inch diameter; this in- 
w^ard tin did not reach the bottom of the outward 
one by five inches, which fpace was left to contain 
the materials for generating the air. But with thefe 
tins my failure was as great as before, for the ebul- 
lition 



178 A N N A L S O F 

iition drove up particles of the vitriol, and I poi- 
foncd every thing I had fown. 
' Tired by thcfe repeated difappointments, I di- 
rected a different tin apparatus to be made, and, 
after a few alterations, fucceedcd to my fatisfac- 
tion. The upper part of it is fhaped like a 
flower-pot, the bottom pierced. Under the bot- 
tom is a fmall vacant fpace, finiihing below in a 
tube, juft large enough to Iheathe over the neck 
of a pint bottle. Setting the tin upon a fiielf, the 
tube through a hole in it, I mix the ingredients 
to yield the air in the bottle, and immediately 
enter it in the tube. Thus the air rifes into the 
earth, and comes through it, appearing (that 
which is inflammable) like a thin whitifli va- 
pour. 

May 17th, 1783, being thus provided, in order 
to try fixed air again, I filled a fmall garden earthen 
pot (an open hole at bottom for the water to pafs 
out) wnh good loam, about four pounds and ex- 
actly the fame quantity (balanced in fcales) of the 
fame loam, in the tin above defcribed, and planted 
each with four grains of barley. Watered equally. 
A4ixed oil of vitriol with chalk and water in the 
bottle every day till June iff. 

May 27tb, three plants up in the tin, two 
in the pot. — 28th, two plants in the pot, much 
finer than thofe in the tin; and two others jufl 
coming up. Three in the tin, one of which ra- 
ther diftempered. — June 21ft, the tin is now the 

beff . — Auguft gth, cut The plants in the tin 23 

grains 



AGRICULTURE. 179 



/ 



grains of barley, and the ftraw weighed 18 grains; 
thofe in the pot nine grains of corn, and the ftraw 
12 grains weight. Hence, therefore, the fixed air 
has had a confiderable efFe8:. 

EXPERIMENT, N° XV. 

May 31ft, 1783. Tried the efFeQ; of inflam- 
mable air by means of fuch feparate pots, as I have 
defcribed in the preceding experiment. Balanced 
the loam in fcales, put half (3 lb.) in the tin^ 
and the other half in a garden pot, the hole open 
at bottom ; planted each with fix grains of barley. 
Threw up air in the tin every day, hy putting 
about two fmall table fpoonfuls of iron filings, 
with fome water, in the decancer, and adding a 
little oil of vitriol, quickly replaced its neck in the 
tin fheath. The air prefently found its way thro- 
the earth, rifing above in white fume: Repeat '^d 
this operation every day. Wa'^^red both equally 
in dry weather. 

June 6th, five plants up in the tin ; none in the 

pot 7th, fix in the tin ; two in the pot ; v'egeta- 

tion in the former the more luxuriant.-- -8th, Six 
in the tin ; four in the pot : the former lull twice 
the growth of the latter, — 21 ft, Six plants in each. 
I got a friend to view them with me, and we both 
agreed that the plants in the tin were beyond comr 
parifon finer than thofe in the pot ; of a deeper 
green, and a longer and broader leaf; the ftems 
thicker, and what decided it yet more, feveral til- 
lers ifTuing out, whereas there was not one in thofe 

of 



i8o ANNALS OF 

of the pot. Upon the whole, the fuperiority was 
in every refped manifeft. July loth, I have 
ihrown up air every day except fix, in which I 
waited for filings. The fuperiority of the tin con- 
tinues ; but the leaves of the plants burn more by 
the draught than thofe of the pot. July 20th, 
air given five times a week. The fuperiority of the 
tin lelTens, owing feemingly to the draught, which, 
in above a hundred pots that are in the houfe, 
<ittacks, in every experiment, the bed and for- 
warded plants moft, 

Auguft 9th, cut them. The tin yielded 18 
grains of barley ; and the flraw weighed three 
and a half dwt. — The pot yielded 39 grains, and 
the ftraw alfo three and a half dwt. 

Notwithflanding the failure of the air at Lift, I 
confidered the trial as explicitly decifive in proof 
of the benefit of inflammable air; as every one will 
be ready to do, who recolle£ls, that in all the pre- 
ceding trials in this burning fummer, the beft, 
forwardeft, and fineft plants in pots manured with 
fubilanccs that are the moft undoubtediy benefi- 
cial, fell off latterly exactly as the plants in this 
tin did. 

E X P E R I M E N T, N° XVI. 

August 9th, 1783. On the conclufioa of the 
preceding experiment, in order to continue it in 
the manner that fliould be the moft convincing, I 
changed the earth, putting that which had been in 
the tin apparatus, into thp fame pot, the mark 

N° 3. 



AGRICULTURE. iSi 

N" 3. and that which was before in the pot, in- 
to the tin. And that I might know whether any 
benefit would reCult from fuch quantities of inflam- 
mable air having pafled through the earth that was 
now in the pot, 1 added another pot to the experi- 
ment, containing an equal quantity of the fame 
loam, but frelh from the field. This pot was 
marked N° 4. And farther to fatisfy a friend, I 
added two other pots, N° 7, half an oz. oil of vi- 
triol added to the fame quantity of the fame loam ; 
and, N° 8, half an oz. iron-filings. My friend 
would perfuade himfclf contrary to my repeated 
experience, that thefe fubftances would prove be- 
neficial, if the air they generated did [o. Sowed 
each with a few grains of turnip-feed, a few ditto 
cabbage, and feptember 9th, with three of wheat. 
Soon after the turnip and cabbage-feed arofe, I 
pulled the plants up, except one cabbage and one 
turnip in each pot. 

I remarked, on adding the oil of vitriol to the 
earth, that a very fenfible degree of warmth was 
generated, owing, I fuppofe, to a fermentation 
with the alkalefcent particles of the rich loam. 
Threw up air for three weeks, fix times a week, 
afterwards four times a week. 

Augufl 20th, two plants in the tin, one in pot 
N° 4, none in the others — 29th, viewed. The 
tin by much the beft, pot 3 next, pot 8 next, pot 
4 next, pot 7 has nothing. 

06lober 22d, viewed. Tin the largeft and moft 

healthy 



i82 A N N A L S O F 

healthy plants of all the three forts.-- -Pots 3, 4, 
and 8, nearly equal — 7 nothing. 

The refult of the experiment feems very cleci- 
five, for, united with that of N° 15, it is a double 
proof. Inflammable air is evidently a manure 
applied to the foil in which plants grozu. It cannot 
be doubted but the roots abforb it as their proper 
nourifliment. I am happy in this decifion of a 
point which does not appear to me ever to have 
been proved before. The refult is jnuch to the 
honour of the penetration of our great philofopher, 
v.'ho, without paying fo marked an attention to 
vegetation, faw enough to enable him to pro- 
nounce, in general, that phlogifton was the food 
of plants. 

EXPERIMENT, N° XVII. 

August 9th, 1783. In a preceding experiment 
I have given an account of a trial oh fixed air, by 
means of my tin apparatus; in order to render it 
the more decifive, I reverfed the earth in the fame 
manner I have juft defcribed in the cafe of inflam- 
mable air. Into a tin marked N° 2, I put the 
earth that was before in the ftandard pot. And 
into a pot marked N° 9, I put the earth that had 
been before in the tin ; -fovved each with cabbage 
and turnip-feed, and feptember 9th, with three 
grains of wheat. Threw up air for three weeks, 
fix times a week ; and afterwards thrice a week. 
Augufl 29th, viewed. The tin has one poor 

plant. 



AGRICULTURE. 183 

plant, the pot a good one. September 7th, the 
pot rather the better. Oftober 2 2d, they are fo 
equal that I know not which to prefer. 

EXPERIMENT, N° XVIII. 

August 14th, 1783. In order to fee the efFe6l; 
of inflammable air generated by the effervefcence 
of iron-filings and fpirit of nitre, I put four lb. of 
good loam into a tin marked N" 3, and four lb. 
of exaQly the fame earth into a pot N° 10. Sowed 
turnip-feed in each ; and feptember 9th, planted 
three grains of wheat. Threw up air four times 
a week. 

Auguft 22d, three plants in the pot, none in 
the tin. — October ift, fowed the tin again with 
wheat. — 22d, the plant of turnip and the wheat 
healthy in the pot, but there has been no vegeta- 
tion in the tin. 

Finding that this air was thus poifonous, I 
planted wheat for the third time the 12th of oclo- 
ber, ceafing at the fame time to give air, in order 
to fee whether the earth would foon recover itfelf 
from the noxious qualities it had received. 

Viewed november 27th, no vegetation in the 
tin. 



EX* 



l84 A N N A L S O F 



EXPERIMENT, N° XIX. 

October 31ft, 1783. Having received frort 
the very ingenious Mr. Wedgwood, two pots, 
each in two divifions ; the upper with a pierced 
bottom for this purpofe of manuring earth with 
air, and defirous, late as the feafon was, to try 
them : I put into each five lb. of good loam, and 
the fame quantity into a garden pot, planting each 
with feven grains of wheat ; N° 1 was maniired 
with inflammable air, N° 2 with fixed air, N° 3 
the garden pot for a ftandard. They were kept 
in a room that had a fire in it ; afpeft to the north. 
Threw up air every day. November 6th, N" 1 
has one plant, N° 2 two, N° 3 none ; the next day, 
N° 1 five plants, N° 2 four, and N° 3 three. No- 
vember glh, N° 1 and 2 have feven, and N° 3 
five. The 16th, the two air pots nearly equal, 
and much better than the other. Cut the plants 
clofe to the ground. The 18th viewed, N° 2 much 
the bed, N" 1 next, and N" 3 much the worft. 
Put an end to the experiment, intending to re- 
new the inquiry in the fpring. 

Mr. Wedgwood's pots anfwered well, except 
in refpeft of lofing a little of the air at the joint. 

Obfer-vations, 

11 yfANY of the preceding experiments may, per- 
^ haps, be found to open the way towards a 

more 



1 



AGRICULTURE. 



185 



more confiftent theory of vegetation than has yet 
been eftabliflied. Had nor inflammable air been 
tried, the leading feature for feleftion would have 
been the effcft of the volatile alkali, which is uni- 
formly excellent, and, as putrefadion is known in 
common praftice to yield admirable manure, it 
might have been concluded, with great propriety, 
that the volatile alkali was the food of plants, a 
theory, for feveral years, the favourite dedu£lion 
of my pra6lice. But inflammable air having fo de- 
cifive an effe6l, analyfes, if I may ufe the expref- 
fion, that alkali, and fhews us to which of its parts 
we are to attribute the refult, viz. phlogifton in a 
volatile flate. 

The volatility of the element feems efTcntial to 
its aQion on vegetation, for, in a fixed flate, it 
appears to be attended with little or no effe61, and 
in mofl cafes with a mifchievous one ; for, though 
charcoal operates confiderably as aTnanure,yet tlie 
white afhes of that body being almofl uniformly 
fuperior to it, will not permit us to attribute the 
efFe6l to its phlogifton. We are rather to fuppofe 
that it operates mechanically in the manner of 
wood-afhes. Pitch, tallow, red-lead, fugar, and 
powdered flint are poifons : thefe fubftances 
abound greatly with phlogifton, but not in a vo- 
latile flate : it is very remarkable, that in the form 
of a liquid it is mifchievous, unlefs in the volatile 
alkali ; not only in fpirit of wine, but in that moft 
volatile liquid of all others, ether. Oil of every 
ind the fame, and in general let it be mixed with 
hat it may ; a circumftance the more remarkable, 
lis a very ingenious phyfician (Dr. Hunter, of 
Vol. I. N°3. N ' York)! 



i86 A N N A L S O F 

York), for whom no one has a greater refpeQ than 
myfelf, a6lually fixed on oil rendered mifcible 
with water as the food of plants. Keep ihat mix- 
ture, or any other fubftance in nature capable of 
putrefaction, till it is putrefcent, and I have no 
doubt but you have the food of plants. Why ? 
Becaufe you then have phlogifton in a volatile 
ftate. 

Still, however, fpirit of wine being fo prejudi- 
cial, furprifed me a good deal, till I found it was 
generally confidered as compofed of an acid united 
with phlogifton. All the three mineral acids are 
uniformly poifonous to vegetation ; the acid is, 
therefore, prevalent enough in the fpirit of wine 
to a8. in its ufual manner : fulphur alfo has always 
been a poifon, though, in fome inftances, it has 
feemed to a6t for a fhort time as a ftimulus. Fix- 
ed air proving in any cafe beneficial, furprifed 
me ; for, if the food of plants depends on the vo- 
latility of phlogifton, the refult of putrefaClion, 
(which is the fa6l in 19 inftances out of 20) then 
every antifeptic ought to be pernicious (not to 
mention the proof Mr. Bewley gives of its being 
an acid). Wemuft, however, remember, that the 
benefit of it in the preceding trials, is by no means 
fo well afgertained as that of inflammable air. 

To difcover fa6ls hitherto unknown in fcience,.:Ui 
ean hardly fail of being ufeful in the end, however 
deficient in that refpe6t they may appear at firfl. Bje 
The inquiry is worth the purfuit, though not im- mih 
mediately applicable to the practice of any art. But, fc 
in the prefent cafe, we can fcarcely take a ftep that flbi 
is not nearly conneded with common agriculture. 

If) 



AGRICULTURE. 187 

If phlogifton in a volatile flatc be the food of 
plants, the farmer has a leflbn of infinite import- 
ance to him; to acquire and cherifli as much as 
poffible the elfefts of putrefaction, and confe- 
quently to manage his dunghills, and other re- 
ceptacles of manurej in fuch a manner as to pre- 
vent the efcape of the volatile principle generated 
by their putrefcence. In this view, the praftice 
of frequently turning dung over, which is reckon- 
ed by fome writers fo very excellent, will, perhaps, 
be found, after one {lining, uniformly pernicious, 
find tending only to let loofe and difTipate in the 
atmofphcre, the eflence which would moll contri- 
bute to tiie fertility of die fields. Without a cer- 
tain degree of putrefaftion, the phlogifton will not 
be volatile ; continued too long it will all fly off. 
Confident with this theory is an obfervation I make 
every year in my own farm-yard; I have a (land- 
ing flieep fold, part covered and clofed, and part 
of it uncovered : the whole is littered equally, but 
one load of the dung in the covered part, is worth 
two in the uncovered. When the carts go in to 
be loaded, it (links much more offenfively, and 
makes the men's eyes water that move it. This 
fhews that the volatile alkali and phlogifton are 
retained, and that the a6tion of the fun and at- 
mofphere is to carry them off. 

I wifli much to have made fome jirogrefs in 
deciding the effeft of fun-fhine on foils, but ex- 
cept the experiments on earth kept feven yeais ex- 
cluded from both light and fun-fhine, and alfo 
kept in a vault, I have not been able yet to execute 
N 2 the 



i88 ANNALSOF 

the trials I have proje6led, though fome of theffi 
are at prefent in courfe^ Thofe were decidedly 
againfl the foil imbibing any food from rbe ac- 
tion of that luminary, and the whole range of 
common hufbandry feems to fpeak the fame lan- 
guage *. Covering the foil with a thick fmcther- 
ing crop of clover, tares, peafe, &zc. is foui d m 
enrich it far more than a fummer fallow. O'd 
meadow land receives very little of the fun's rays ; 
and fome woodlands none, yet thefe are the richeft 
foils all over the world, becaufe the putrefcence of 
vegetable and animal matter impregnates them 
with volatile phlogifton. I cannot conclude thefe 
experiments, without admitting an imperfeftion for 
want of more fpirited and extenfive trials (many 
of which I had planned); but the expences necef- 
fary are beyond my ability ; and no day pafles 
without my regretting that infufhciency for purfu- 
ing the hints that arife. Time is precious. Life 
flies faft away, and leaves one little more than 
wiflxes to execute what fortune forbids. I fhould 

* See a very friendly controverfy I had with that excellent 
writer and able hufbandman, Mr. Wright, in the 6th vol. 
of his State of Hujbandry in Scotland, in which the argument 
concerning phlogifton, founded on both fides on conjefture, 
appears to me, at prefent, to be (from thefe experiments) in 
Mr. Wright's favour. Should farther experiment lead me to 
think more favourable of fummer fallowing, I Ihall not fail 
to publifh them. The man that wants this fort of candor is 
fit only for voluntary Ignorance. Should the proof be ever fo 
compleat that phlogifton is the food> it decides little or no- 
thing upon the queftion of fallowing ; the objeft is, what fyf- 
tem will beft create and retain that fubftance ? The putrefac- 
tion of a fmothering crop, or expofition in a burning fallow ? 

be 



AGRICULTURE. 189 

be glad to try ele6tricity by means of a machine 
conftantly turning by wind, or fome other power. 
I want a very lofty conduftor to bring down the 
ele6lric ihiid from the clouds, to impregnate cer- 
tain recipient bodies, with and without plants 
growing in them. I wifh, — But wiflies are vain, 
and unworthy every philofopher : — experiment is 
his bufinefs • we muft content ourfelves with do- 
ing the little in our power. A. Y. 
Experiments on various other bodies, made at 
the fame time with the preceding; will be publifh- 
jed in N''4. 



EXPERIMENTS ON A NEW POTATOE, 

By Nathaniel Turner ^ Efq. of Stoke ^ near Jpfwicht 
in Suffolk. 

IT is well known by moft farmers that have 
cultivated potatoes, that the common clufter 
fort is a red one, and that when a root of it is cut, 
the heart is all ftreaked with red marks ; the 
fkin of that fort is alfo red: on the contrary, the 
kind which I have cultivated is a white duller; 
the fkin is white; and, when cut, the infide is of 
a yellowifli colour, but it grows in the fame con- 
glomerate form as the common red cluftered 
one. The quantity of land on which the experi- 
ment was tried, is four acres, two of which were 
planted with the red, and two with the white, for 
comparifon. The foil a rich fandy loam, quite 
dry, hanging on a flope to the river Orwell. It 
N 3 yield- 



I90 



ANNALS OF 



yielded turneps in 1781. Manured with 103 
loads of rich compoft, dung, earth, and chalk; 
half ploughed in balks, harrowed down, and then 
ploughed as deep as-the plough could go. The 
potatoes were* cut in flices, an eye to each, and as 
large a piece left to it as the fize would admit ; 
dibbled along every other furrow, and from 
10. to 12 inches from fet to fet, in which way 
12 bufiicls of feed plant an acre : the eye fhould 
lie upwards. Bufli-harrowcd to fill the holes. As 
foon as the rows were vifible above ground, horfe- 
hoed them. Then hand-hoed among the plants ; 
and afterwards earthed them up with a double 
raould-board plough, and finifhed by hand-weed- 
ing. Dug them with three-pronged forks, chil- 
dren following to pick them up. Being in pof- 
feffion of fome very large wine-vaults (built for a 
merchant), the potatoes were laid in them, but 
from the warmth of the fituation, the roots indi- 
cated a tendency to fprout ; they were, therefore, 
drawn over to prevent it. 

The product of the common red-cluiler 729 
bufhels, or per acre 364. That of the white- 
clufter 831 bufhels, or per acre 415, of very large 
fine roots. 

Expences per acre. 

25 Loads of manure at is. 6d. 1 176 

Ploughing and harrowing - 080 

Seed - - o 10 o 

£, 1 15 6 

Brought 



AGRICULTURE. 



9^ 



Brought over. 


- 


i 


r. 1 


15 


6 


Cutting, 


- 


- 





6 





riantiiig*. 


- 


- 





4 


6 


Ilorfe-hoeing, 


- 


- 





4 





Hand-hoeing, 


- 


- 











Weeding, 


- 


- - 





1 





Taking up and forting. 


- 


1 


1 





Carting home, 




:- 





10 





Rent, 


£.0 18 


01 

0^ 








Rates, 


2 


1 


3 


6 


Tythe, 


3 


eJ 









Produce. 
364 buftiels rcd-clufter fold at lod. 
Expences, 

Profit, 

415 bufliels white-clufter at is. 4d.t 
Expences as above. 



^5 
6 



27 13 
6 7 



8 16 3 



Profit, - - - 21 5 10 

Many of the red-clufter were given to hogs, of 
which ftock 60 were kept a confiderable time: the 
experiment does not permit me to decide by pofi- 
tive faft what the value is, but I am clear in my 
own mind, from attentive obfervation, that they 

* This appears very little. A. Y. 

f Part fold at 3s. 6d. a fdck, and part at 4s. 6d. aver- 
age 43. 

N 4 are 



192 ANNALSOF 

are worth 6d. per bufhel in this application. The 
moft profitable method, however, is, not to let the 
hogs depend entirely on them, but have fome 
beansgivenoccafionally; orelfe a barn door where 
there is great plenty of {traw thrown out ; hogs 
confined totally to potatoes are apt to grow tired, 
not coming on faft enough in flefh. At 6d. a 
bufliel the account would Hand thus : 
364 Buflicls at 6d. - - 920 

Expences, - « 676 



Profit, - _ £'.2146 

This moderate profit is applicable to all fitua- 
tions, where they cannot as well as where they can 
be fold; and it demands attention, that the crop, 
after paying an ample manuring and all charges, 
yields more in nett profit than turneps do in grofs 
produce. 

But it is not only for hogs that this potatoe is to 
be recommended. I find that bullocks do exceed- 
ingly well on them : four (each of 35 ftone) will 
eat 14 facks a week, and feven lb. of hay each per 
diem; and when they take to them kindly, no- 
thing will bring them on fafter. 

From the experience of feveral years I can aflert, 
that potatoes are by no means (as fome perfons 
have thought) an exhaufting crop, but, on the con- 
trary, an ameliorating one. My barley this year 
after them, was fo clean that not a weed was to 
be feen, and produced five qrs. an acre. N. T. 

OB- 



AGRICULTURE. 193 

OBSERVATIONS. 

By the Editor, 

MR. TURNER'S pbfervation, that hogs want 
beans while they are at potatoes, is confined, 
I apprehend, to ftore hogs that are fattening for 
roaflingpork, becaufe I have had a confiderable 
experience in keeping a large lean flock on the 
red-ciufter^ and have found that they may be abfo- 
lutely depended on without fupplying them with 
other food J but fattening even for roafting-pork 
is a different queflion. I have 14 acres prepared 
for planting potatoes this fpring; and Mr. Turner 
having been fo obliging as to favour me laft year 
with a fack of this new potatoe, I have now a 
ftock of it fufficient for experiment, and intend 
comparing it with the red-cluflerand globe-white. 
I fhall only add, that Mr. Turner's well-cultivat- 
ed farm abounds with many very interefling ex- 
periments, fome account of which the reader may 
expeft in ♦I'is work, as I have found him aftuated 
by that lioerality of fentiment which difdains 
merely private practice, when public ufe can, by 
any means, be deduced from a communication 
of it. 

A. Y. 



EX^ 



$94 A N N A L S O F 

EXPERIMENTS ON CARROTS. 

By the Rev. Mr. Carter y of Hemp ton. Stiff oik. 

^ I ''HE foil on Vv^iich the following trials were 
-*■ made is fand, about 18 inches deep, upon 
an imperfeft clay bottom. 

1771. 

March iSth, fowed one acre with carrot-feed; 
april 5th another; and at the end of the month a 
third : four lb. of feed per acre. Began to hoe 
may 27th; put out an acre at il. is. but the 
•workmen found the plants fo very fmall and full of 
weeds, that they could not go on by the acre, 
which obliged me to get them hoed by the day at 
is. ^(i. a man. Carrots generally come to the hoe 
in feven weeks from fowing. The rcafon of mine 
being longer, I apprehend to be partly from a cold 
backward fpring, and partly from the feed being 
old. New feed is a very material article in order 
to fucceed in a carrot crop. It will come up a 
week fooner than the old feed, and confequently 
the crop will get a wreck's advantage of the weeds, 
much to the benefit of hoeing, upon which opera- 
tion the whole difficulty of fucceeding is placed. 
N. B. it is better to fow five lb. inflead of four of 
feed per acre, in order to guard againft a bad fea- 
fon or bad feed, and the hoers, from the fmallnefs 
of the plants, are more apt to leave too few than too 
many. As it is very difficult to be fure of getting 

new 



AGRICULTURE. 195 

riew feed from gardeners, it would anfwer very- 
well to any one who intends cultivating carrots to 
grow his own feed ; this I attempted afterwards, 
but the hares eating the roots up, I got it from 
Weathersfield in EfTex, where 1 have always been 
fupplied with good feed, the price varying from 
6d. to 2s. 6d. a lb. Hoeing two acres and a half by 
workmen at is. 4d. a day, coll me 3I. 14s. or 
il. 12s. per acre. Run them over a third time by 
my harveft-men, worth about 2s. an acre, Oftober 
lOth, began to take up the crop which I let out to 
the workmen at three farthings a bufliel, topping 
tailing, and meafuring included. Mem. one half- 
penny is good pay for it, and has always been taken 
at that price fince by the workmen. Produft of the 
two acres and a half 851 bufhels, fold at 8d. per 
bufliel. All expences paid, I cleared 20I. 

1772. 

Sowed one acre and a quarter march 24th, fix 
lb. feed per acre; april 10th, three acres more 
44" lb. per acre; began to hoe June ift, at 30s. 
per acre, twice hoeing. Mc7n. hoed about 10 
rod per man per day. June 11th, harrowed 
one acre after being hoed a week, but tore up 
many young carrots, and did confiderable damage. 
Auguft ift, began to hand-weed, by women at is, 
per acre. Oftober 27th, began to take them up 
at one half-penny a bufhel, topping, &c. includ- 
ed ; finiflied november 14th. Total produce 1040 
bufhels, or 250 per acre. 



igG ANNALS OF 

Expencei. 

Hoeing as above, - £ 

Weeding, 

Taking up, 

241b. of feed at 2s, 



1000 bufhels fold at gd. 
Referved 40 bulhels, 

Expences, 

Profit, » - ^ 

Or, per acre, - - 

Mem. My man thinks that fix bufhels of car- 
rots do not more than equal one of oats for horfes ; 
in which cafe the value of carrots is 4d. a bufhel, 
oats being 2s. 

1773- 
February 2d, fowed one acre and 20 rod with 
JO Ibv of feed; began to hoe may 14th, the wea- 
ther turned out very rainy, fo that they could not 
finifh till the 29th. Part of it let out at 2d. per 
rod the firft hoeing ; the refl by the day, at is. 4d. 
a man, cofl rather more than i^d. per rod. June 
7th began to hoe a fecond time at is. 4d. a day ; 
coft 18s. or not quite i^d. per rod, or per acre 

i6s. 



\6 


7 


6 





4 


3 


2 


3 


4 


2 


8 





i 1 


3 


1 


37 


10 





1 


10 





39 








11 


3 


1 


27 


16 


11 


6 


11 


5 



, AGRICULTURE. 197 

16s. 8d. Firft hoeing il. Began to take up 
o6lober 25th, at ^d. per bufiiel. Produce 455 
bufhels, fold at 6d. a buflieL 

1779- 

Began to fow one acre april 2 2d. Began to hoe 
June ift, and continued it occafionally till auguft. 
Produce, befides many ftolen, 368 bufliels : fold 
to Lord Grofvenor at Newmarket, for 8d. a bufhcl, 
paid 2d. for carriage, 6d. therefore nett. 

The carrots were given to hogs more than once; 
fome feemed to thrive tolerably for a time ; with 
others they were prejudicial. Upon the whole, I 
can value carrots for hogs at not more than 3d. 
and not to be depended on at any price. They are 
better for horfes than for hogs, efpecially for fuch 
as are broken-winded; but not to be relied on as 
a food inilead of oats, being chiefly to be conli- 
dered as luxury or phyfic. 

In refpe6l to their effeft for fucceeding crops, 
the foil is light and fandy, and confequently very 
fubje6l to fpear-grafs (triticuvi ripens) which hoe- 
ing rather increafes than deftroys; and I could ne- 
ver find that the land was in order for barley to lay 
down with clover, fo that I have generally fowed 
them after wheat, in order for the turneps to fol- 
low ; and have found much labour necefTary to 
free the land from the fpear-grafs. Inaword^ 
they can never be introduced in courfes,as turneps 
are; to fell, they arc highly advantageous, but the 
demand is nothing : the culture fliould^^ therefore, 

be 



198 A N N A L S O F 

be confined to a fmall fpace of land for the parti- 
cular ufcs I have j lift mentioned*. 



OBSERVATIONS. 

By the Editor. 

MY own experience in the culture of this root 
is rather different from my friend's in feveral 
particulars: but this by no means impeaches either 
his praftice or mine, for our foils are equally dif- 
ferent. 1 have found carrots to clean the land bet- 
ter, I think, than any other crop I cultivate, and 
had the pleafure, two years ago, of fhewing a crop 
of barley to Mr. Carter after them, that was abfo- 
lutely clean. But I am very little troubled with 
fpear-grafs, which certainly multiplies in fand 
vaftly more than in other foils, and accounts for 
the different refults of our trials. The great ob- 
je6l is the value of the root confumed at home. 
Mr. Carter's expences may be thus calculated : 
Seed five lb. at is. and fowing, £•'^5 ^ 

Hoeing iJ7i-y£' 1 14 operacre,"^ 

1772, 1110 I 

^ o y 1 14 o 

1773, 3 16 8 f 

average of the three, J 



1 19 b 

* I fhould obferve, that Mr. Carter did not draw up this 
account with any intention of printing it, but merely for his 
' own private ufe ; I perfuaded him to let me copy it for this 
work; it is accordingly tranfcribed verbatim from the jour- 
nal-book of his farm. 

Brought 



AGRICULTURE. 199 

Brought over, - - £. 1 ig 6 

Taking up at ^d. per bufhel 
crop of 1771, per acre 283 
1772, 250 

1773* 404 

1779, 368 

Average 326 bufli. which at ^d. are, o 13 7 
Suppofe rent, &,c. &c. to be 0100 

3 3 1 

The crop at 326 bufliels, the prime coft of the 
carrots is fomething better than 2:Jd. per bufhel. 
Suppofe them coufumed at home, to pay 4d. per 
bufhel, the profit M'ould be i|d. or per acre (at 
326 bufliels) 2L 7s. 6d. which would anfwer pei- 
feftly well. Are they worth ^d. ? Fiat e x peri- 
men tum. 

If ever Mr. Carter makes any trials to afcertain. 
this point, I have no doubt of their being very 
valuable, fince no man is more accurate or more 
attentive. A. Y. 



IMPORTANCE OF THE CULTURE OF 
BUCK-WHEAT. 

By Thomas Farrer, Efq. 

IT is defired that all perfons who have horfesto 
feed, will try the eihcacy of French, or buck- 
wheat, mixed with bran, chaff, or grains, either 
in the whole, or broke in a mill : it has beea 

proved 



ioo 



ANNALS OF 



proved to recover a favourite old coach-horfe (he 
is fondeft of it unground) when all other fort of 
food failed. It is prefumed, as the grafs flufhes 
cows with milk, that the fiour or meal, mixed 
with grains, will have the fame good effeB;, and 
enrich the milk. It is fiirely worth trying. A 
bufhel of it, which goes farther than two bufhels 
of oats, even with beans, mixed with at leaftfour 
times as much bran, will be full feed forany horfe 
a week, and much lefs hay will do. Four bufhels 
of th'fe meal put up at two cwt. will fatten a hog of 
fixteen or twenty ftone in three weeks; then give 
him three bufliels (of Indian corn, if you can get 
it) of hog-peafe, broken in a mill, dry, with plenty 
of water (for as the peafe are fmall, fo they fwal- 
low and part with them whole), and you will find 
mod delicious meat ; but it mull be underftood, 
the hog fo fatted, mufi: be in pretty good order 
when put up ; but be affured, that eight bufhels 
of buck-wheat meal will go as far as twelve bufhels 
of barley-meal. I write from experience. 

In regard to poultry (pigeons eat it whole with 
great avidity) it is a vulgar error, " That it renders 
the hens fo fat they will not lay." If there is 
the leafl foundation for fuch a furmife, it is be- 
caufe they over-feed them. 

The reluBance fhewn to the cultivation here in 
England of this valuable grain is rather wonderful, 
efpecially confidering the number of treatifes on 
the improvements of agriculture. Yet it feems a 
tempting inducement;, if the farmer will but re- 

fleft 



AGRICULTURE. 201 

fle6l, ** That as one bufhcl will be very fufficlcnt 
to fow an acre, which bufliel only cofts four fliil- 
Jings and three-pence, it is cheaper than a Gnglc 
load of dung." And the advantages produced 
therefrom are threefold, viz. 

ift. To plough it in, which rnends the land. 
2d. If a dry fummer, it is fodder for the cattle. 
3d. If you let it (land for a crop, it may pro- 
duce an equal quantity with oats, and will alwpys 
fell for more money ; — and, farther, think that 
an acre of oats requires four, even to five, bufhels, 
to fow it; whereas one bufjiel of buck-wheat will 
fow an acre. 

It may not be' improper to remark, that buck- 
wheat may never be brought again into this king- 
dom — and pray God grant it may not, fince it 
depends on an importation duty free ; for by the 
book of rates, " when buck-wheat does not ex- 
ceed the price of 32s. per quarter, of our growth,, 
the duty on importation is 16s. per quarter." 
Permit me to add a few hints concerning wheat. 
One quarter of wheat, or eight bufhels of Win- 
chefter, is fuppofed to be the yearly confumption 
of one perfon ; call the weight 591b. per bufhel, 
according to the prefent mode of drefling for 
wheaten bread, it produces only 28c;lb. or 2opeck 
loaves ; being drefled as Queen Ann's wheaten 
bread, or ftandard wheaten bread, 356 lb. or 26 
peck loaves. Reckoning the number of people 
within the bills of mortality at i,cco,coo, the*con- 
fumption of a pound of bread each per day w^ill be 
Vol. I. NVs- O eqjaal 



ii02 ANNALS OF 

eqtial to 20,coa facks, rendering each 347 pounds 
of bread per week : but, not to exaggerate, fav 
900,000 people in London and within the bills of 
mortality, then the confumption will be 18,000 
facks of flour made weekly into bread. 

Now the Lord Mayor has it in his power to fet 
the affize or the ftandard wheaten bread, for ex- 
ample, wheaten bread, the peck loaf 17 lb. 6 oz, 
at 2s. 8d. — Standard wheaten ditto, the peck loaf, 
at 2s. 6d. and fo invariably. Lower the price of 
the ftandard wheaten bread a whole aflize, being 
3s. 4d. per fack, or 2d. in every peck loaf under 
the aifize, as the bread-table direds for wheaten 
bread. 

Your bread will be more nutritious, whole- 
fomer ; not fo apt to dry as the white bread, and 
the community fave weekly 3000I. amounting to 
yearly 156,000!. A family of fix will fave, weekly^ 
about 5d. — yearly, il. is. 8d. 

Prefcot-Jlreet^ T. F. 

Feb, 10, 1784. 



OBSERVATION. 

By the Editor. 

THE application of buck-wheat as a food for 
horfes, has been very properly touched upon 
by Mr. Farrer*, and is an objeft of very great 

* This gentleman is one of the moft confiderable corn- 
fa£lors in London, 

itn^ 



AGRICULTURE. 203 

importance. One circumftance I think necefTary 
to add, as I can do it on my own repeated expe- 
rience; that this plant ameliorates the foil fomuch 
that the farmer may have any crop after it, efpe- 
cially wheat, in which fyftem it is commonly cul- 
tivated about Norwich. Now it muft furely be 
apparent at the firft blufh, what a prodigious ad- 
Vantage it would be for the farmer to feed his teams 
by a crop which improves his ground and prepares 
for wheat, rather than by another which exhaufts 
it, and throws him fo much the further from the 
golden grain. A. Y. 



OF THE PRICE OF LAND AT PRESENT 
IN ENGLAND. 

By the Editor. 

IN a morning paper of the 18th of march, 1784, 
I fee advertifed to be fold, two farms of 268I. 
a year freehold, with all the neceflary buildings, 
eligible and well tenanted, near Yarmouth, in the 
Ifle of Wight ; that is in a fituation unexception- 
able for markets, and with a limited poor-rate j 
and the price ajked is no more than 24 years pur- 
chafe.-— Let me, as a friend of the landed intereft, 
contemplate this faft* 

Moderately fpeaking, thefe farms would have 

fold, previous to the American war, for 31 years 

purchafe, which was the rate when I was in that 

ifland ; if the rental of England is only 20 mil- 

O 2 lions, 



•204, 



A N xN A L S OF 



lions, the defalcation of eight years purchafe 
amounts to 160 millions; and 100 millions a6lual 
expence of the war, and the difference in 200 mil- 
lions of funds of the three per cents, being at 57 or 
at 88, which will make near 60 millions more, 
and we have a very undeceiving pi6lure of the 
agremens of war to a commercial people. That 
war thus cultivated, leffened the national flock 
above 300 millions, exclufive of Scotland. How- 
ever, the whole kingdom is not under the hammer 
of Mr. Chrillie, and therefore our reafoning may 
be turned into a different train. Why is land, 
two feffions after the conclufion of the peace, at 
no more than 24 years purchafe* ? Is it thought 
that the loans neceffary to wind up the accoun-t of 
the war would alarm the people, by the multipli- 
city of taxes, if brought forward at once ? What- 
ever may be the caufe, the difference to the public 
intereft is incredible, between clofingthe fatal ac- 
count at once, and keeping it open three or four 
years. Till it is finally clofed, the jobbers will 
keep that hoard of money at London, which has 
been kept there through the war on account of 
treafury dealings, which impeded circulation, and 
was, in fa6l, the heavielt of all the taxes laid on 

* I learn from Monf. Lozowiki, a French gentleman, at 
prefent refident in Bury (and whom I cannot name without 
obferving what a lofs our fociety will fuffer when he departs, 
fince he has the talents to render a very general knowledge 
equally pleafmg and inftrudlive) that in France no fuch de-~ 
clenfion in the price of land has taken place : indeed the 
fame caufes did not operate there. 

US 



AGRICULTURE. 205 

lis in confequence of the war, as I fliewed more 
at large in the hrft number of" this work. If, as it 
is faid, at leafl 12 millions muft flill be borrowed, 
and there is but too much probability of the truth, 
it ouiiht all to be funded this feffions, be the fum 
great as it may. By that means we fliall foon 
know our real fituation. Land will find its true 
price, and (locks fettle to a proportionable balance. 
If, after that operation, the price of the former is 
24 years purchafe, melancholy indeed is the fuuu- 
tion of the kingjdom. 

That the prelent depreffion, however, is tem- 
porary, and depends on the caufes to which I have 
affigned it, I am led to imagine by the high prices 
of every fort of land produtl. This could not be 
the cafe if the mifchief was radical; nor is it a na- 
tural fituation that that fliould fell loxv whofe every 
product fells hi^h. I have no doubt of the price 
rifing if every idea of loans were done away ; what 
a powerful reafop. is this for winding up the whole 
account by the enfuing one! 

As it is always of real confequence to know the 
price of land, and whether the vibrations it is fub- 
jcft to, are in proportion to the price of flocks, it 
is worth inquiry whether this of 24 years purchafe 
may, with any propriety, be reckoned a fair price. 
To compare it with the fluBuation of the moment 
in (lock would not be fair; let us, therefore, fee 
what was the price of the three per cent, confols 
during the preceding year. 

O3 January, 



2oS ANNALS OF 

Average, 



January, 1783, 




60 to 70 


— 


65 


February, 




67 to 68 




67i 


March, 




67 to 69 




68 


April, 




66 to 68 




67 


May, 




6s to 68 




67i 


June, 


— 


67 




67 


J"iy> 




60 to 66 




63 


Augufl:, 




62 to 64 




63 


September, 




60 to 64. 




62 


Oftober, 




57 to 60 




58i 


November, 


— 


57 to 60 


— 


58* 


December, 




56 to 58 




57 



Average price of the whole year, 63 

The fall of flock from 88 to 63, is nearly in 
the proportion of that of land from 31 to 22, fo 
that the above price of 24 appears to be higher 
than it might be eftimated from fuch a compa- 
rifon. 

I wifh for more general authority, £tnd fhould 
be glad my correfpondents in different parts of the 
kingdom would tranfmit me the years purchafe at 
which land fells at prefent, and the number fit 
which it did fell in 1781. 

A. Y. 



OB. 



I 



AGRICULTURE. 



!07 



OBSERVATIONS MADE IN ITALY ON THE. 
USE OF LEAVES IN FEEDING CATTLE. 

By John Symonds, LL. D. Profejfor of Modern 
Hijlory in the Univerfity of Cambridge. 

\ MONG the various kinds of winter-food pro- 
•^ ^ vided for cattle in Italy, the ufe of leaves is 
not the leall confiderable. This branch of huf- 
bandry was introduced a few years ago in the 
Ferrarefe ; and is adopted univerfally in Italy, exv 
cept in the dutchy of Mantua, which of all coun- 
tries feems to ftand moft in need of it ; for, as the 
landlords have fuffcred moft of the paftures to be 
broken up; and, as the culture of artificial graffes 
is little undcrftood ; the cattle fublift more preca- 
rioufly during the winter, than in any other part 
of Italy. The city of Rome is furnifhed chiefly 
v/ith oxen from the territory of Perugia ; and the 
Roman markets arc known to be plentifully fup- 
plied with beef of a very good quality; yet, fo 
fcarce as hay is in the territory above-mentioned 
that the oxen have no other fuftenance in the winter 
than turnips and leaves; but the turnip hufbandry 
is fo ill executed, that I did not wonder the pea- 
fants affured me, that they placed no fmall de- 
pendence upon leaves. Indeed it is efteemed fo 
important an obje6l in Italian agriculture, that 
lubliantial advantages are often facrificed to it ; 
for, inftead of fupporting their vines by flakes, and 
keeping them very low, in order that the grapes 

O 4 , might 



2o8 A N N A L S O F 

might receive more heat, and attain to full per- 
feclion, they fupport them for the molt part with 
trees, not more with the view of providing them- 
felves ^with fuel, than of refervin"; the leaves for 
their cattle. Eims and poplars are moll common- 
ly planted for this purpofe in Lombardy ; but the 
latter are more frequent in the kingdom of Naples, 
\vhere they are fufFered to grow to an aftonifliing 
height. The common afh is fome^imes ufed as a 
ftay for vines; though the flowering afh* is ge- 
nerally preferred to it : the manna-tree t, as it is 
vulgarly called, is never applied to this ufe, being 
confined for the moft part to lofty hills, or rocky 
precipices J; but the leaves of it are as carefully 
preferved, as thofe of the other forts of afli. They 
hold in great efteem the maple |[, which is well 
adapted to prop the vines ; and is not more re- 
markable for the quicknefs of its growth, and ra- 
pid increafe of its bulk, than for the uncommon 
fize of its leaves. In fhort, there are very few de- 
ciduous trees, which do not adminiftcr food to 
cattle ; and ever-greens are not negleSed ; for, 
not to mention other forts, I have often feen the 

* Fraxinus Florifera botryoides. Moris. 

+ Fraxii'US Ornus Linn. Sp. Plant. The common name 
in Italy is Orno, or Ornello. 

X Virgil has charafteiizcd tiie Orni with his ufual pro- 
priety : 

~ Steriies faxofis montibuS Orni. 

C-EORG. ii. V. 1 i 1. 

II Acer majus folio rotundiore minus latiniatu. The vul- 
gar name is Oppio. 

peafants 



A G R I C U L T U R £. 209 

psafants in the neighbourhood of Naples take oflp 
all the leaves from the ilex. It is obfervable, that 
the leaves of the oak. are lefs grateful to cattle in 
Italy, than thofe of any other trees whatfoever, 
upon account of their bitter tafte and aftringency ; 
but when they are mixed with others, they are 
very well relilhed. 

To preferve the frefhnefs and verdure of the 
leaves, requires a great deal of attention. To ef- 
fe6l this, they gather them about the end of fep- 
tember, or the beginning of oftober, at the time 
of the day when the heats are moft piercing ; and 
fpread them very thin upon a pavement abroad, 
Vk'here they fufFer them to lie three or four hours; 
^fter which they put them into wooden cafks, and 
prefs them down as clofely as poffible ; and cover 
them intirely with fand. The very moment after 
they have taken out the quantity which is wanted, 
they flop up the cafl^s, left the leaves fhould be 
expofed to the air; by which method they are en- 
abled to keep them both frcfh and tender durino- 
the whole winter. It is cuftomary for thepeafants 
in fome parts of Italy to bury them in a pit, and 
to cover them with ftraw, upon which they lay ei- 
ther clay or fand ; and both are equally calculated 
to anfwer the purpofe. But there is a praftice in 
the Veronefe, which is defervingof particular no- 
tice. The hulbandmen fink a very broad deep pit, 
and fill half of it with leaves ; then they throw 
over them bunches of unripe grapes, about two 
feet thick : after which they put a layer of leaves 

of 



210 A N N A L S O F 

of the fame thicknefs ; and then another layer of 
grapes ahernately, till the pit is quite full, when 
they carefully proteft it from the air. This not 
only prevents the leaves from heating, but im- 
pregnates them with a kind of fpirit, which pro- 
duces extraordinary effefts ; for the horned cattle 
cat them with a greedinefs which can hardly be 
conceived ; and the flieep are as eager to devour 
them, as when they are firft turned into clover in 
England. Upon the whole, it is certain, that 
fhere is no dry food in Italy, of which both horn-r 
ed cattle and fheep are fo fond, as leaves w^ell pre- 
ferved ; infomuch, that they fatten very quickly, 
when a fufficicnt quantity can be fpared for them. 
In the good dairy-farms in the Milanefe, the cows 
are fed with hay in the winter, and are rarely fuf- 
fered to touch any leaves, unlefs hay is extremely 
dear; but in other parts of Italy little regard is 
paid to the tafte of the milk. 

That the cuftom, which I have defcribed, ob- 
tained among the ancient Romans, appears from 
the concurrent teftimonies of the beft authors. 
Cato the elder recommends autumn as the proper 
feafon for gathering leaves; and direds the farmers 
to keep them as freih as poffible for their fiieep*. 
Virgil has frequent allufions to this kind of fod- 
der; and gives us undoubted reafon to think, thai 
the man who gathered the leaves was called by the 

name o^Jrondator^ : 

Hinc 

* See chap. vi. and XKxl. de re ruftica. 
f The commentators are Itrangcly embarralTed about the 

mean- 



AGRICULTURE. 2H 

nine alta fub rupe canctfrondator ad auras. 

Eci,. i. 57. 

Horace takes it for granted, that his baihfF will 
feed his oxen with leaves, as foop as they are un- 
yoked; an unerring proof, that the praftice wa§ 
very general*. 



et tamen urges 



Jampridem non tafta ligonibus arva, bovemque 
Disjunftum curas, et Jin£lis frondibus exples. 

Ep. 1. xlv. V. 27. 

But of all the ancient writers, Columella is the 
moftexaft upon this head; for he has fcarce omit^ 
ted any thing that may ferve to determine the qua- 
meaning of the -word frondator J but that it fignifies the per- 
fon who ftrips the leaves from the trees, is clear from a paf- 
fage in Pliny, 1. xxxviii. ^ 74. " Unus frondator quatuor 
frondarias fifcinas complere in die juftum habet." 

* Several commentators obferve a profound filence witl| 
refpeft to the fignification of Jlridis. Lambin interprets it 
flringendo fuccifis, which conveys no meaning. Cruquius 
fays, " diftridis, hoc eft, diligenter pafcis, ne defit agris 
colendis, ftrigofior faftus." This feems to be equally unin- 
telligible. Striclcs frondcs are doubtlefs leaves gathered for 
fodder. Virgil ufes the fame exprefhon, where he repre- 
fents the fhepherd pointing to a grove or copfe, in which it 
was ufual for the hufbandmen to ftrip off the leaves : 



his, ubi denfas 



Agricolx Jiringunt frondes — 

EcL. ix. ^o. 

Should any farther doubt remain about the meaning o^JlriC" 
tis, it is removed by Columella, who fays, " poffint etiam 
et folia ficulnea apte dari, fi fit eorum copia, aui Jlringere ar- 
bores expediat." L. vi, c, 3. 

lity 



212 A N N A L S O F 

lity and value of this kind of food ; and, what is 
worthy of remark, he has enabled us to judge of 
the comparative goodnefs of it j for, it appears, 
that twenty pecks of dried leaves were efteemed 
equal, 'm point of fudenancC;, to thirty pounds 
weight of hay t. 

This branch of rural cEConomies has been adopts 
, ccj in France from very earlier times. De Serrcs, 
who wrote undej- the aufpices of Henry the fourth, 
fpeaks of it as an eftablifhed cuftom ; and affirms, 
that oxen did not prefer oats to leaves^; but 
inftead of recommending the common method of 
gathering them, he adyifes the peafant to lop, in 
autumn, the boughs of fuch trees as are intended 
for fuel; and to keep them in a very dry place; 
fo that the cattle might eat the tender twigs, as 
well as the leaves jj; but there is no ground to 
imacrine, that the advice of De Serres has been 
much followed. It is ufual, at prefent, either to 
gather the leaves when they are upon the point of 
falling, or immediately after they are fallen ; and 
to preferve them as dry as podible for the main- 
tenance of their flock in the winter'^. The ma- 

+ Si grand 'abftinemus, frondis arid^e corbis pahulatoria 
modiorum viginti I'ufEcit, vcl fuini podo lii>iinta. I-. vi. c. 3,. 
The Roman modius was rather more than our peck ; and the 
Roman pound differed a Unle from ours ; but tlic difference 
is inconiiderable : and it is not worth while to attend to ni- 
ccJfor, when the defign ib only to convey a general idea. 

Z De Serres Theatre d'Aerituh. ed. Gcnev. p. 160. 

I! Ibid. p. 714.. 

* Du Kamel Llemens d'Aoviculr. vol. 176?. p. 261. 



AG R I C U LT i; R E. 21;^ 

nafremcnt of them feems to be beft underflood in 
fome parts of Francbe Compte and Auvergne- 
Whenever there is a very fcorching fummer, or an 
inconfiderable crop of hay, the peafants never fail 
to make an ample provifion of leaves, which they 
keep in a barn, and frequently cover with ftraw, 
that they might not be expofed to the leaft moif- 
ture ; but they do not gather them indifferently 
from almoft all forts of trees, after the manner of 
the Italians, but confine themfelves chiefly to the 
beech, and to others of the fame nature, whofc 
leaves are noc of a fpongy quality. 

We can trace this mode of hufbandry in Eng- 
land as far back as the reign of Henry the eighth. 
Fitzherbcrt, who was Judge of die court of Com- 
mon-Pleas, and father of Englifli agriculture, ad- 
vifes the owners of underwoods to cut down no 
more at a time, than what was fufficient to fupport 
cattle for two days, being allov/ed to browze the 
lops, as well as the leaves*. This is partly upon 
the fame principle recommended by EXe Serres. 
Many of the fucceeding writers copied fervilcly 
after Fitzherbert, without adding any remarks 
upon this head: however, we learn from Mr. 
Evelyn t, that, in the reign of Chailes the fecond, 
it was cuftomary to £ced cattle with the leaves of 
elms in fome parts of Herefordfliire ; and an au- 

* Ancient Trafts on the Management of Landed Property, 
8vo. 1767. 

i Evelyn's Silva, ed. i776>p. 133. 

thor 



214 ANNALS bp^ 

thor of unqueftionable credit afTerts, that thfefe 
leaves, gathered in auguft, and preferved with 
due care, will prove a great relief to cattle in 
winter, when hay and fodder are dear ; and he 
goes fo far as to affirm, that they will eat them in 
preference to oats, and thrive exceedingly*. Whe* 
ther this is praftifed at this day in Herefordfhire, 
or in other parts of England, I cannot take upon 
me to fay : and whether it would be of general ad- 
vantage to a country, where the price of labour is 
high, and where artificial grafles are carried to a 
great degree of perfection, I fliall leave to others 
to determine. 

I cannot conclude this paper without obfcrving^ 
that it is much to be regretted, that our voyage- 
writers are not a little more converfant in agricul- 
ture, and natural hiftory ; not only as it would 
prevent them from falling into miftakes, which 
are a difcredit to themfelves, but as it might ren- 
der the remarks, which they have an opportunity 
of m.aking, more curious and interefting to the 
public. Mr. Addifon, fpeaking of the country 
between Verona and Padua, informs us, that 
" the fields are planted thick with rows of mul- 
berries, which furnidi food for great quantities of 
filk-worms with their leaves ; and that their trees 
themfelves ferve as fo many flays for their vines, 

* See Lifle's Hufbandry, ed. 1757, vol. i.p. 398. Ellis 
fays, that ivy gathered in the fpring for ewes increafes the 
milk, and that ftieep love it exceedingly. See his Huihandry, 
8vo, 1772, vol. 2. p. 15O0 

which 



AGRICULTURE. 215 

which hang all along like garlands from tree to 
tree*." One cannot account for fo extraordinary 
an affertion, without fuppofing, either that he 
tranfcribed it from others ; or that he was deceived 
by the appearance of the trees, in paffing through 
that country in the midft of winter. There is no 
doubt, but that vines are fupported by mulberries 
in feveral parts of Italy ; efpecialiy in the State of 
Genoa, and in the Milanefe ; butthefe are ftrag- 
gling trees; and applied to that ufe, merely becaufe 
they were found upon the fpot, and other foreft- 
trees had failed ; and, I believe, it may be fafely 
affirmed, that there has fcarce ever been a flngle 
plantation of mulberries trained in Italy regularly 
for this purpofe. I have been affured by men of con- 
fiderable age and experience, that the vines in the 
territoriesof Venice have been always fupported by 
the elm, poplar, afh, or maple, as they are aftually 
at this day ; thepra61ice of which was undoubted- 
ly dictated by good fenfe ; for, as the vines put out 
their leaves in general as early as the mulberries^ 
and fometimes fooner, it would be impoffible to 
take the firil: crop of leaves from the latter, with- 
out doing an injury to the former; whereas it is 
not ufual to ftrip the foreft-trees above-mentioned 
of their leaves, before the vintage commences ; fo 
that the vines can receive little or no damage. Mr. 
Addifon obferves, in the following paragraph, that 
** between the feveral ranges of vine there lie fields 

* Vol. II. p. 21. London 1721, 4to» 

of 



ei6 ANNALS OF 

of corn, which, in thefe warm countries, ripen^. 
much better among the mulberry Ihades, than if 
it were expofed to the fun*." Had he conllilted 
the ancient writers, for whom no one had ever a 
more exquifite relifh, he would have found, that 
they maintained the contrary opiniont; and in- 
deed it is obvious to every one, who has furveyed 
Italy with the leaft degree of attention, that, in 
the befl corn countries, the grain is always fowed 
alone, and not encumbered with any fort of plants. 
This is the cafe of the plains in Apulia, and in the 
Marc of Ancona; and it likewife prevails in the 
Valdichiani, which is properly called the granary 
of Tufcany ; whether wc confider the richnefs of 
the foil, or the fuperior mode of cultivation. It is 
farther obfcrvable, that an acre of land deftined 
only for corn, is generally let for as high a price 
as an acre of land of the fame quality which is 
planted, as well as fowed with corn ; for, as the 
former is not exhaullcd by trees, and as the grain 
is brought to more perfeft maturity by the heat, 
the increafcd value of the crop is fuppofed to com- 
penfate for the advantages which arife from the 
other kind of culture. This is a common covenant 
between landlords and tenants in the Venetian 
State, of which 1 have been an eye-witnefs myfclf. 

* Ibid. p. 28. 

+ It is fuffieicnt to quote the authority of Columella, who 
fays exprefslvj *' Omne autcm frumentum maxime cair.po 
paiente, et ad folem piono apricoque et foluto Lxtatur." Lib. 
ii. c. 9, 

I fliall 



AGRICULTURE. 217 

1 fhali mention but one more particular with re- 
fpe6l to Mr. Addifon, who fays, that " there are 
at St. Remo many plantations of Palm-trees, tho' 
they do not grow in other parts of Italy];." If we 
underftand his words in their literal meaning, it 
muft appear to be a groundlefs furmife; for many 
palms, or date-trees, are to be found difperfed 
throughout Italy; and fome of a confiderable age 
and fize in the fouthcrn p^rts of the kingdom of 
Naples; but if he means, which indeed his words 
feem to infinuate, that they grow naturally only 
in the environs of St. Remo, he has certainly been ' 
led into an error; for they are not natives of any 
part of Italy. The only indigenous palm in that 
country, is what the botanifl calls pahna humilis 
and chamcerops humilis, which feldom rifes to more 
than five or fix feet in height. It is to be feen all 
over Apulia and Calabria, where thepeafants ufe 
it to make ropes and bafkets ; and it is ftill more 
frequent in Sicily, where the lower people eat the 
roots, befides ufing the leaves for the purpofe 
above-mentioned. I obferved it in the greateft 
■abundance about the ruins of Selinus, which ex- 
hibits the remains of three of the moil magnificent 
temples of antiquity ; a circumftance that fixes 
the meaning, and marks the propriety of the epi- 
thet, with v;hich Virgil has diftinguifhed this 
cityL 

Vol. L N° 3. P Let 

$ Ibid. p. 3. 

^ Tequedatislinqvio vent-s. palmofa'Sclinui, 

^N. jiii, \v 705'« 



2i8 A N N A L S O F 

Let it not be imagined, that my aim is" to de- 
traft from Mr. Addifon, whofe works have not 
done liiore honour to our country, than to human 
nature itfclf. Such blemifhes are to be overlooked 
in fo accompliflied a v/riter ; but in thofe, who 
build their reputation entirely upon books of tra- 
vels, they are not fo eafily pardonable. It is a 
common remark, that it is impoffible to make any 
frefli difcovery upon fo beaten a traft as Italy. 
Perhaps it may be true as to painting, fculpture, 
and archite6lure, which fwell the volumes of fo 
many authors, at the expcnce of inquiries more 
iifeful and important. The " fufpenditpifta vul- 
tum mentemq. labella" (to ufe the beautiful ex- 
preffions of Horace) may be proper to form the 
tafte ; but when that is formed, the mind ought to 
employ itfelfin more rational refearches ; and the' 
fine arts fliould be efteemed but as fecondary pur- 
fuits. It muft, however, he acknowledged, that 
new fources of information have been opened in 
the prefent age, which, either through the igno- 
rance or prudence of the earlier voyage-writers, 
had been fuffered to lie unexplored. The moll 
fecrettranfa6lions of families have been pryedinto, 
and reported as clear and undoubted truths : the 
gallantries of the firft nobility haVe been proclaim- 
ed : the converiation of crowned heads has been 
retailed : ancfthe confidential communications of 
individuals have been difclofed, whofe fortunes, 
and even lives might be endangered by an ilU 
judged attempt to amufe the public. But there is 

ftili 



AGRICULTURE. 



219 



{till to be found an ample body of materials which 
have been fcarcely touched upon by others; and 
■which may poffibly furnifli inftruftion, if not en- 
tertainment. Such are a defcription of feveral 
parts of Italy, which lie out of the general tour of 
travellers — an examination of the ftate of litera- 
ture — a view of the internal and external com- 
merce — arHnquiry into the different kinds of cul- 
tivation — and a comparifon of the ancient and 
modern hufbandry, as far as it can be afcertained 
by obfervalions upon changes either in the foil, or 
the climate; or the introdu61ion of plants un- 
knowm to the old Romans. I am unable to judge, 
whether difquifitions of this fort would be accept- 
Jible to the public ; but were I pcrfuaded, that 
they would not be unfavourably received, I would 
gladly concur in forwarding the plan of my ex- 
cellent friend and neighbour, Mr. Young; and 
would not confine myfelf to thp praBical part of 
Italian agriculture, but endeavour to explain both 
the phyfical an^ moral caufes, which tend in any 
degree to facilitate or obftruQ it. J. S. 

VALUE OF DUNG SPREAD FOR 
WHEAT, ASCERTAINED. 

By the Editor, 

NOVEMBER ift, 1782, fpread 14 bufhels of 
good farm-yard dung on part of a land in- 
tended for wheat that had yielded winter tares; the 
P 2 foil. 



220 A N N A L S, &c. 

foil, good loam on a marley clay bottom. It cp-=. 
vered a fpace 19 yards long by eight broad. This 
is in the proportion of 445 bufhels an acre, or 11 
loads at 40 bufliels. Marked immediately ad- 
joining an exa6lly fmiilar piece for comparifon. 
Augufl 25th, 1783, reaped both, and had them 
threflied direftly : the dunged piece produced ten 
flieaves, and juft one bufhel of corn. The un- 
dunged, three pecks and ^ and ^ quarter. 

Qrs. Bu. Pec. Sheaves. 

Per acre the dunged, 3 7 — 317 
' the undunged, 323 — 254 

Superiority, ;— o 4 1 ■=— « 63 



The principal intention of the experiment was to 
fee the effeB of the dung in cafe of a mildew ; for 
ray crops, three years fuccefTively, had been fo ex- 
ceedingly damaged by that diftemper, that I was 
anxious to make obfervations : but the year 1 7 83 
had fo little of it that it made no difference in this 
trial. It is, however, of fo much confequence to 
afcertain what return all forts of crops make for 
given quantities of dung, that I intend varying my 
trials in this inquiry, and wifh very much that 
others would do the fame. Here is fomething 
more than a guinea for 11 large loads of dung — - 
which appears to be inadequate. A. Y» 



A V y E R T I M E N T O. 

T A maniera d'inacquar le terre efTendo portata. 
r*"-^ ad iin maggior grado di perfezione ncU' Italia, 
ch' in alciin'akra parte d'Europa, Tautore di quefl 
'opera farebbeparticolarmente tenutoad ogni ama- 
tore deir Agricoltura in quel paefe^ ad informarlo 
della qualita dell' acque, Ic quali per quel propofita 
fono preferite. Bramerebbe fapere, fe I'acque, che 
fcaturifcono immediatamente dalla terra fiano per 
pratica riputate cosi proprie a fertilizzar la terra, 
come quelle da una con^derabile diftanza condotte 
per poterfi da fatti dedurre, come I'acqua pholo~ 
gijlicata debbafi di gran lunga all'altre anteporre. 
Sara altresi moltp a grado dell' autore intendere e 
fapere gli difFerenti metodi di render fertili I'acque, 
fe con letarae, fango, creta, o calcina a quelle mef* 
colata. Oualunque notizia, o informazione forap 
diqucfti ed altri foggetti deila rurale ceconomia e 
defiata da quel celebre paefe che ha prodotti uxx 
Crefcenzio, un Gallo, e un Tarello^e fe in contra- 
pambioalcun' informazione concernente Agricol- 
tura Inglefe foffe defiderata, fara quefta fubitamen- 
te con ogni accurata diligenza trafmefla. 

BradJield'Hall, neay^ A. Y. 

Bury^ SuffolL 



A V E R T I S E M E N T. 

L'EDITEUR de cet ouvrage eft inftruit qu oh 
s'occupe beaiicoup d'arrofements en France, 
etprincipalementdanslesprovincesmeridionnales. 
il prie en confequence ceux qui aiment Tagricul- 
ture dans ce Roiaume, et qui en defirent les pro- 
gres, de vouloir bien lui envoier des memoires 
QU des notices fur ces arrofemensen general, et en 
p9rticulier, lur les details fuivans. QucUes font les 
qualites que Ton prefere dans les eaux ? Trouve-t-on 
que les eaux de fource fertilifent le fol dans tous 
les cas, autant ou moins, que les eaux qui ont eu 
un certain cours ? Les obfervations fur les faits re. 
fultans de cette queftion, peuvent feules mener a 
determiner k; dcgre de fuperiorite dans les eaux. 
Quelle eft la maniei e d'emploier les eaux deftinees a 
fertilifer le fol, les mele-t-on avec du fumier, de la 
bourbe, de la terre, ou dela chaux? L'editeur re- 
cevra avec reconnoiffance tous memoires non feu- 
lement fur ces objets, mais ^ncore fur tous autres 
fujets d'economie champetre qui lui viendront de 
cette nation eclairee dont les lumieres ont tant 
contribue a ravancemen-t des arts et au bonheur 
(i?s hommes. Rcciproquement, il feferaun merite 
de repondre a toutes les qucftions et aux details 
qu'on lui demandera fur Tagriculture Angloife. 

A. Y. 



QUUM iiujus operis editor intclligat in pie- 
rifque Gcrmaniae locis agrorum irrigationi- 
bus operam impendi, curamque baud vulgarern ; 
quumqiie fempcr fuerintapud Germanoshodieque 
fint viri rerum turn ad naturam, turn ad publicam 
utilitatem pertinentium, fcientia praeclari : rei ibi 
rufticas ftudiofos rogat, fiquid luper hujufmodi ir- 
rigationibus pro comper£o habent, ad fe velint per- 
fcribere remque totam ordine, quemadmodum fe 
apud agricolas habet, exponere. 

Quoeritur igitur — quae fit aqua: natura terrisir- 
rigandis accommodatiirimiE. Utia magis faecundet 
quae nuUo intercedente curfu ipfum, unde fe erum- 
pit, proximumve agrum irrigat; an qus curfu per 
multipHces anfraftus confetto, ita demum tcrris 
inducitur. Atque hoc adco quaeritur, quofacilius 
ftatui poffit, quantum aquas phlegifti participes bo- 
nitate caeteras anteccdant. 

Defideratur infuper aquae ad ten arum fascundi- 
tatem utilioris reddendae ratio admiltionc {lercori.% 
limi, argillar, vel calcis. 

Defiderantur denique fiqui funt de bis aut aliis 
quibuflibet rei rufticae partibus commentarioli vel 
differtationcs. Hzec unde poffint comparari fatis 
erit indicaflc. 

Contra, quae fit Britannica ruris difciplina quae- 
rentibus ad ea quae rogata fuerint, refpondebitur. 

, A. Y. 



ANNALS 

O F 

AGRICULTURE< 



TO ARTHUR YOUNG, Esq, 

S I tl, 

THE great things we are told of Flemifh huf- 
bandryj which fome authors fo ftrongly re- 
commend in general terms to our imitation, with- 
out deigning to defcend to particulars, induced 
you and me laft fummer to meditate an excurfion 
to the very fcene of aflion, in order to take a view 
of what was tranfafling on the fpot. It was my 
fate to have the hopes I had entertained of your 
company difappointed : neverthelefs, 

Quaerere conftitui focioque exafta refene. 

At my return from Flanders, the refult of my 
inquiries was fubmitted to your infpeftion j and 
you pronounced it to contain obfervations nezv and 
unknown in England. Of the truth of this I am not 
quahfied to judge. But, fliould you deem thofe 
obfervations, v^hether new or old, unknown or un- 
heeded, ufeful to agriculture, I Ihali be happy in 
having them tendered by your hands to the accept- 
ance of the public j who, at the fame tim.e, Ihould 
be warned to expedl no more than the curfory re- 
marks I could make in a four-weeks tour: for 

Vol. I. No. 4> Q^ thefe 



2S2 ■ ANNALS OF 

thefe were the narrow limits of my liberty, and, as 
fuch, may reafonably be admitted in plea for the 
fcantinefs of the fubfequent information. 

The reinarks, which accompany this letter, are 
confined to Auftrian Flanders and part of Brabant ; 
and, for the fake of method and pcrfpiciiity, re- 
duced to the triple confideration of foil, induftry, 
and produdlions. 

PHIL. LAURENTS, 

School-Hall, Bury St. Edmund's, , 
Suffolk, April 3, 1784.. i 

CURSORY OBSERVATIONS ON THE 
HUSBANDRY OF AUSTRIAN FLAN- 
DERS AND PART OF BRABANT. 

^ I ^HE part of Flanders, to which thefe obferva- 
tions are confined, is a very low and fiat coun- 
try. Over the greateft part of it is fpread a ftratum, 
confifting of an exceedingly fine fand, and of a 
foapy mud, or fediment of former innundations, 
with various decayed fubftances, and forming the 
feat of vegetation. This ftratum is different ac- 
cording to the different proportion of its ingredients. 
The predominant foil is a rich and black mould. 
Light fandy grounds are common enough in the 
neighbourhood of Bruges, and in the environs of 
GlKnt. In the vicinity of Aloft, as you go thence 
acrofs the country to Oudenarde j on both fides, 
but cfpecially the fouth of the Lis above Courtray, 
and between Ypres and Poperingue, the foil is a 

pale 



AGRICULTURE. 223 
pale ftone-coloured earth, reducible to an impal-- 
pable dull. This earth, if you wafli it, remains 
fufpcnded in water, depofiting fcarcely any hetero- 
geneous matter. It is very tenacious, hardens in 
the fun, and chinks j bricks are made of it. Quite 
the reverfe of this is a ridge of fand downs (les 
Dunes), without any mixture of cementing mate- 
rials to give them folidity. Thefe Dunes form the 
whole length of the coaft, and the only barrier the 
Flemifh have againft the fea ; and, foloofe is their 
furface, that the weft and north-weft winds, whofe 
violence is here peculiarly tremendous, brufh it off, 
adding to the fterility of the part adjacent, what they 
take from the fccurity of the whole country. This 
fandy ram.part (to obferve it by the way) feems, in 
a manner, left to the care of the fame engineer that 
firft raifed it. Nature. She has, indeed, pointed 
out the way how to bind it faft, by caufing to grow 
in many parts of it, the Arundo arenaria, Elymus 
urenarius, 'Trit'icum junceum. Convolvulus Soldanella, 
Hippopkae rhamndides, and (though r^tc) Salix are- 
naria : but thefe her hints, have not been followed 
up and improved. 

From its nature and fituation, a country lying 
low and near the fea, muft of courfe have the v/ater 
not far from the furface : and, as fuch is the nature 
and fituation, fo alfo is it the cafe of Flanders. Now 
this circumftance, unremedied, chills the very 
vitals of agriculture, 

0^2 For, 



224 ANNALS OF 

For, allowing that a foil, fuch as has been de- 
fcribed above, contains the food neceffary to plants, 
yet this food is loft to them, if they are not put in a 
way and condition to feek it. The principal chan- 
nels through which plants receive their nourifh- 
ment, are their roots. The bed, therefore, in 
which it is intended that plants fhould thrive, muft 
afford, to the minuteft fibres of their roots, a free 
and eafy pafTage : and, becaufe experience teaches 
us that air is indifpenfably neceffary to vegetation, 
to the influence of the air alfo muft that bed be 
penetrable. — Upon thefe principles have the vari- 
ous implements of hufbandry been provided, to 
break, to crumble, to pulverize the earth. 

It remains now to fee by what means the induftry 
of the Flemifh has been able to efFed: thefe pur- 
pofes in a country abounding with water, and to 
bring that country under the high degree of* cul- 
tivation in which it is at prefent. The means are 
very fimple. Befides a great number of artificial 
canals, which anfwer the double purpofe of com- 
merce and draining, other confiderable drains con- 
duct the fuperfiuous water, either into the natural 
rivers, or at once into the fea. 

This pradlice may be no more than what other 
countries of fimilar fituation have in common with 
Flanders : but this is not all. An infinity of fmaller 
cuts and ditches divide it, and bleed out its redun- 

* This is not fpoken of the whole country, there being flill very 
large trails undrained. 

dant 



AGRICULTURE. 225 
dant moifture : not a whole farm only, but every 
piece of ground, every houfe, every hut, is fur- 
rounded with a moat or ditch of feme kind. The 
fubdivifion of the fields themfelves has fomething 
fingularly nice and laboured. Beds, from fix to 
eight feet in breadth, are feparated from each other 
by a deep furrow. The furrow which feparates the 
beds, is trenched to the depth of between 1 2 and 20 
inches, in proportion to the lefs or greater ftifFnefs of 
the foil ; and the mould neatly fcattered over the 
beds, whofe furface lies even, with edges as ftraight 
and as full as thofe of abedofafparagus, wh^n it is 
dreffed for the winter, — a wonder to behold. All 
thefe trenches communicate with the main drain, 
either immediately, or by the mediation of another 
cut running acrofs their extremities, and leaving a 
headland where the fite of the ground m.ay make it 
neceffary. To return to the beds : this mode of 
dreffingthe land is fo prevailing, that, even in places 
which by their elevation require it lefs, a fcrupu- 
lous attention is paid to the praftice : as if the ob- 
jedt was no lefs to admit the air, than to exclude the 
water. Here then, in brief, is the whole myfteryi 
this is the bafis, this the foundation of Flemilli 
hufbandry : others are hut fecondary means. 

But before this account is permitted to proceed 
to more minute obfervations, the mode alfo of en- 
clofing claims our notice. It is already apparent, 
from what has juft been faid, that ditches, whilft 
they drain, difcriminate the lands. The fences 
0^3 i^ei"C 



226 ANNALS OF 

here are water. Whenever the hand of induflry is 
moft confpiciious, every field, which feldom exceeds 
two or three acres, is encompafTed with a ditch. 
This ditch is, at the top, from fix to ten feet over; 
but, at the depth of two feet or more, two horizon- 
tal flielves or borders, each two feet wide, are taken 
from the breadth of it, one on each fide : the ditch 
having thus loil four feet of its breadth, is deepened 
four or five more, with a flope fufficient to uphold 
the fides. The borders left on both fides are not 
'Ihrown away : for, at proper diftances are planted 
the Poptdus * alba, tremula nigra ; and Salix alba. 
The Lombardy poplar too, has within thefe 20 
years, been here introduced to its aquatic fifters. 
The remaining intervals are dedicated to the Betula 
Alnus, for coppice-wood. The advantages refuking 
from this manner of inclofing, are manifold. The 
^arth dug out, has given the area of the inclofure an 
arable elevation; the capital miifchiefs of rainy fea- 
fons are prevented ; the fcouring of the ditch is ex- 
cellent manure ; and a genial atmofphere, unknown 
to bleak 'expofures, fits brooding on the land. 

The fize of farms in general is moderate. In 
the Pays de Waefe in particular, v/hich is deemed 
the richefl in all Flanders, 30 or 40 acres Englifh 
is no contemptible farm. There are alfo many of 
greater extent j but then there are thofe, which 
cannot afford a horfe, and where the whole bufinefs 
is executed with the fpade. That is accounted a 

* Efpecially the Arhele variety. 

very 



AGRICULTURE. 227 

very fizeable farm, which can be carried on, in 
all its departments, by the afliftance of two or three 
fervants or labourers added to the hands of the fa- 
mily. Upon thefe laft are acquired fortunes, which 
enable the farmers to retire, and fpend the reft of their 
days at their favourite St. Nicholas, the principal 
market town of the Pays de Waefe. Many there are, 
who own the land they occupy. Hence fprings an in- 
credible fpirit of induftry : example animates. Who- 
ever is able, purchafes a nook where he can j where 

• ' Sua regna videns miratur, 

and falls in love with * independence. 

Of the implements of hufband-y it need only be 
told, that to an Englilh eye they have a clumfy ap- 
pearance. The fpades indeed are handy, five inches 
by fifteen, fuited to the trenching bufinefs. The 
hoes are mattocks. The harrows have wooden 
teeth, or tines of an enormous length, pointing 
forward, and reaching as deep as the plough has 
opened the ground. 

No invariable rotation of crops feems eftablifhed. 
What is moft wanted and the ground will bear, is 
fown, yet the repetition of clover has an interval of 
fix years j fo has that of flax ; no fallows. Some 
very dry and fandy Ipots reft for a few years under 
broom fown among rye, for which latter alone this 
foil is fit. Clover is ploughed up the fccond year. 

* The populoufnefs of Flanders confidered, the army receives 
from it very few mercenaries. The /sr'vantry too. In moft of the 
Flemi/h towns, is drawn from other countries. 

0^4 « Clover, 



22§ A N N A L S O F 

[Clover, -J 
' >moft commonly wheat; 
Beans, I 
Potatoes, -* 

but inftead of wheat, efpecially if it has preceded 
thofe crops very lately, is fown meQin, rye, or barley j 
thefe three, as well as the wheat, are winter corn. 

As foon as a crop is off the ground, if the land is 
not wanted for winter- corn, in goes the plough for 
turnips j thefe fucceed very frequently to colefeed. 

After turnips comefpring vegetables, oats, beans, 
flax, and buck- wheat. It may be remarked, that for 
fjpring-fowing the beds are two or three times as wide 
as for winter, with the trenches between fhallow. 

If the ground is not thought fufficiently clean for 
flax, it is dug a foot deep, or deeper, with a fpade. 

The ufual manure is dung, lime, peat>a(hes, 
wood afhes, lye afhes from the foap- boilers, and 
the drainings of the cow-houfe meeting human ex- 
crements, in a well conftruded to receive them ; 
whence, after proper fermentation, they are con- 
veyed in cafks to the fields. 

Short rotten dung is ufed for flax, for potatoes 
lonsf. If the m'ound has had no dung when it was 
dug for flax, it is top-drefTed with peat afhes. Clo- 
ver thrives better being top-drefTed with thefe, than 
with any other manure : the time for it is March, 
In the latter end of June, or the beginning of July, 
after the firfl mowing, a top-drelTing of lime is often 
adminiilered when the clover is even a foot highj 

Wood 



AGRICULTURE. 229 
Wood and lye-aflies agree beft with meadows, efpc- 
cially fait marfhes. As for the foetid mixture, where 
it is wanted, it is ladled on flax and turnips juft after 
fowing J and on the tardy clumps of potatoes. The 
ground is generally limed for turnips before plough- 
ing. 

The bed peat-afhes come from Holland, and 
are in Flemifli called Hollandts-afh. The FlemiHi 
peat-alhes are inferior to the Dutch ; but fome peo- 
ple fay, that with the addition of fca fait, they 
might be rendered as good. 

Thus far of foil and induftry. The vegetable 
produftions — Do you wifh to fee ihem ? Let us 
take a turn through the country, and view thefe 
humble matters as they fall under our eye. 

Forgive, ye large and populous cities, which 
{land fo thick and fociably connected by caufe-ways 
and canals ; forgive, ye crouded villages, v/herc 
plenty, peace, and happinefs, children of induIVry, 
have kijfed each other ; ye portly, manly race, frank 
and fincerej and above all, ye fair ones, with rofes 
and lilies in your cheeks, and yet fo chade, forgive. 
If the attention you merit, is nor paid, it i.^, not that 
I am infenfible to your feveral beauties; but 

Non hoc ifta fibi tempus fpo^lacula pofcit. 

But, as 1 wifh to be at peace wiih you, be af- 
fured that I have not loft fight of you in the fol- 
lowing lines J for they contain the notice of things 
neceffary to us all, 

Q^iicunQue tens munev; vtTcimur. 

Cflend, 



230 ANNALS OF 

Oftend, June 20, 21, 22, 17S3. 

The Dunes between this place and Nieuport are 
part of thofe, of which mention has been made 
above ; and to that place the reader is referred for 
the prodiidions or natives of the foil. From the 
foot of thefe Dunes, the land has for a confiderable 
way, a declivity towards the interior of the country, 
2nd from its proximity to them is very fandy, 
bearing little elfe than rye. 

In the n\a,rket-p\a.ce 3 per con for quanH olus. Af- 
paragus, cauliflowers, fhalots {^Allium afcalonicuni) 
of tlie ordinary fize, and fome of an extraordinary 
bignefs, called de Dunkerke. As this plant is known 
to come from Afkalon in Palejiine, it is not im- 
probable that it meets here (near the fea) with 
a foil congenial to its original habitation j con- 
fult Ha[felquift : this is a hint to gardeners. Oni- 
ons, hyflbp, potatoes of the laft year, fome newj 
fpinage; cabbages of the kind called in De- 
vonfhire the Penton cabbage; leeksj of the pjum 
hortenje two varieties, one the common garden- 
pea, the other defcribed by Bauhin fine cortice du- 
riore, is a broad ram's horn, with a pod free from 
a hard Ikin within, and fit to boil or flew * un- 
fhelled j taragan (Artemifia Dracunculus), Spanilh 
radifhes, Raphanus cortice nigricante. Ges. hor. 
Garden beans, lettuces of the kinds called in Eng- 
land the common cabbaged lettuce, the brown 

* Pifa loptoloba, quae fimul cum folliculis comedunter. Camt' 
rarius, 

Dutcli, 



AGRICULTURE. 231 
Dutch, and brown and white Silefian ; which two 
laft are here named Spaniih: chervil, purflain, the 
golden variety; forrel, corn-fallad {^Valeriana Lo- 
cujid), carrots, bafkets full of tanfey leaves, a moft 
fragrant woolly mint (Mentha rotundifoUa), and 
the petals of white rofes, mixed together to be ufed, 
I was told in aumelettes ; may-duke cherries, fear- 
let and wood ftrawberries. The aforementioned ve- 
getables were in fuch plenty, and at fuch reafonable 
prices, that they could not, I fuppofe, come from 
far. But, upon enquiry, and after diligent fearch, 
I could find only two fmall gardens in or near 0(- 
tend, cultivated for the market. In thefe gardens, 
befides fomeof the plants already enumerated, were 
many beds of Scorzonera hifpatiica, a mofl: excellent 
root, introduced into thefe parrs during their con- 
neflion with Spain, and not encouraged in England, 
as it deferves. The beds were fown broad-caft. 
The garden of the Capuchins is filled v/ith great 
plenty of culinary plants, cultivated by the good 
fathers for their own ufe. Of this garden few offi- 
cinal fimples, among which the deadly night-fhade 
makes a confpicuous figure, inhabit a corner, of 
which an apothecary keeps the key in his poficffion. 
Whence then fo plentitlil a market ? Women, 
who have their huts without the town of Nieuport, 
derive from Furnes the vegetable provifions, with 
which the Oftend market is lupplicd. They bring 
themonaffes, in hampers, containing, befides the 
vendibles, Holcus lanatus, Phaiaris arundinacea^ 

Foa 



232 ANNALSOF 

Poa aquaiica. Sic. packed up with the greens to 
keep them frefh, and ferving as provender for the 
affes, which ftand in the market-place by their 
owners. The market over, which is precifely at 
twelve, the women troop off back again to Nieu- 
port ; keeping to the windward of the Dunes and 
flying lands, if the wind is wefterly. 

Cackling they go along the founding fhore, 

Frefli fiipplies every day. The beef is good, 
mutton indifferent, butter execellent from Dixmude. 
Milk is brought from the neighbouring villages in 
large brazen veffels, in panniers, on affes. 

June 23d. 

On each fide of the canal, between Offend and 
Bruges, there is a fucceffion of corn-fields and mea- 
dow grounds. The corn is for the moft part horfe- 
beans, oats, rye. The fouth fide appears richer, 
better inclofed, and thicker fown with villages. 

Bruges, "June 24, 25, 26. 

The fpontaneous effufion of the ramparts is 
principally rye-grafs, and trefoil {Medicago lupi- 
■ Una.) Within the ramparts, kitchen-gardens and 
hleaching-grounds; without, north-weft, rich 
gardens abounding with what we have feen at Of- 
rend. Orchats of apple and cherry-trees of the 
kind called in England, FlemilTi or Kentiffi, with 
very tall trunks, lifting their boughs above the 
reach of cattle. Going towards Blankenberg, 
ffrong land, orchats, potatoes, horfe-beans, wheat, 

barleys 



AGRICULTURE 233 
barley, clover near a yard high, which was Town the 
year before with rye, as appears by many ifolated 
handfuls of the latter left {landing where the clover 
was cut, nnonuments of minute and trifling induflry. 
The barley feems to agree with the Hordeum •poly- 
Jitchon hyhernum of Bauhin, concerning which fee 
Rafs Synopfis. The ears confift of fix rows, of 
which twooppofite are plum.per than the other four; 
the grains of each ear from fifty to fixty ; it is fown 
in November. No other barley, I have found lince, 
is cultivated in this country. Here an inftrumentis 
ufed in levelling ground, with which one man and 
one horfe (or two if the foil is fliff) v/ill, with eafe, 
do as much work as 20 men, at leaft, with fpades 
and wheelbarrows. A defcription of it, and the 
manner of working it, are referved for fome future 
number. Seen fince at BrufTels. On the fouth, and 
fouth-eaft of Bruges, the foil is light : gravel, in 
fome places, not far from the furface ? much rye, 
barley, buck-wheat, potatoes, carrots choaked with 
fpurrey. Meadows, near the town, abounding with 
RhinanthuSj Carduus palujlris ^ Senecio aquaticus^ Ra" 
iiunculus acrisy Inula dyfentericdy Lychnis flos cucuU^ 
Spraa Ulmariay Ihali^lrum viridey and others, well 
known to flourifli in many an Englilh meadow, to 
the exclufion of gramineous plants, and to the fhame 
of the hufbandman. North of the town, oats, cole- 
feed, winter-barley, wheat, beans, potatoes. The 
Damme canal is fringed with the Acorus Calamus^ 
the root of which is, I was told, exported to Spain 

for 



234 A N N A L S O F 

for the ufe of apothecaries and confedlioners. It may 
here be noted, that neither in Lcefling's Spanifli 
plants, nor in Flora Catalonicay is any mention 
made of this fragrant aquatic. To the fouth-weft, 
much wood and water, interfperfed with arable land. 
At Oorfkamp, a farmer, after fhewing me his farm, 
concluded with exhibiting in his garden a bed of the 
Teucrium Scordiumy to which, he faid, he and his fa- 
mily owed their being cured of the ague. Lime- 
trees. Willows — the Salix 'uitellinay S. amygdalina, 
S. Capr^a, S. viminalisy S. aurita, S. alba. Wooden 
fiioes much worn by the poor in town. Many pea- 
fants prefer them in wet foil to leather. They are 
here called hollow-blocks. Clover in flax. A far- 
mer's family at breakfaft, 12 or 14 round a large 
wooden bowl full of green peas, forrel, and parfley. 
flewed together in butter and water, and crammed 
with meflin bread j the fecond courfe, a bowl full 
of potatoes j then fmall beer. The dinner begins 
by a foup of butter-milk boiled and ftirred over a 
gentle fire, crammed with meflin bread, and with 
the yolks of eggs. This mefs, without chilling, 
quenches the heated labourer's thirfir. The fecond 
courfe, fait beef or pork, with a bov/1 full of dry 
kidney-beans, boiled and well buttered ; but thefe 
are propeily winter llorej beer at will. The kid- 
ney-bean is the tall fpeci^s (Pha/eolusvtil^aris) run- 
ningup poles, white. In deep (Vagnated waters, the 
water- fold ier StratiQtesAldideSjSe7;eciopaludofus3 &c. 

. The 



AGRICULTURE 235 

The Canal between Bruges and Ghent, June 27. 

The country much the fame as about Bruges. 
Corn fields, alder copies, alder hedges, rows of 
lofty willows (Salix alba), oaks, elms, poplars. 
About half way, the fides of the canal rocky, an 
uncommon fight here j Vlex europaus for a little 
way J arches here and there under the road which 
is along the canal, where drains from the adjacent 
country communicate with it j long barges full of 
market people. 

Gi&f«/ and its environs, 18, 29, 30. 

On the ramparts much Lolium perenne (rye 
grafs), Medicago lupulinaj Medicagafalcata on the 
fouth eafterly quarter of the ramparts, Cerejiium 
arvenje. Within the ramparts are gardens full of 
black currants, red ditto, red cabbages, hollow 
Dutch cabbage, celeri, endive, fcorzonera, dwarf 
kidney-beans {Phajeolus JianusJ, and other vege- 
tables enumerated at Oflend. Two or three pieces 
of winter barley. Bleaching grounds innumerable, 
both within and without the ramparts. The cloth 
is woven in the country and fent to this and other 
large towns to bleach. The foil light and fandy, in 
fome places black. Going towards Oudenarde, rich 
garden grounds, aud fields full of peafe, beans, afpa- 
ragus, carrots, parfnips, fcorzonera, favoys, leeks> 
rye, winter barley, potatoes, wheat, tall kidney- 
beans J nurfery of plumb, cherry, apple, and pear- 
trees. N. B. Winter barley after oats. Oats with 
clover. — Carpinus hedges, quickfet ditro, a fpecies 

of 



5^^6 ANNALS OF 

o^ Intubusy or endive fown among beans, theftalk 
hairy, leaves riincinated. Along the road rows of 
oaks; groves of dirto and afli, poplars, willows, 
elms, alder-trees, arid alder underwood ; in wet 
places, broad ditches running between the planta- 
tions. Flax after oats ; flax with clover ; headlands 
Under potatoes ; buck-wheat. N. B. Boiled pota- 
toes and buck- wheat fatteh hogs. Between the Ou- 
denarde and Courtray roads, plantations of oaks, 
elms, beeches, thefe {lately. Here (and all over 
Flanders) t\\t Agrojiis Jpica I'^f/z/z feems the curfe at- 
tending winter corn. Wheat and rye, indeed, bid it 
defiance ; but it overtops the barley. Poppies, blue- 
bottles, fpurrey, Scleranthus annuuSy and Erigeron 
canadenje indicate the foil. Several acres of broom 
after rye, in order to give the land red. Teucrium 
Scorodonia in copfes* Old women and children with 
abroom and bafket gathering dung along the roads; 
•when they have raifed a heap of it equal to a cart 
load, a bough ftuck in, fliews it is to fell. Greens 
are brought to market in hampers on large wheel- 
barrows. • 

Lokerhem, }vi\y i. 

Between Ghent and this town, the foil is very 
Tandy j yet, its' colour and fertility indicate a mix- 
ture of fomething good. Harveft begun; flax 
pulling up ; barley reaping with the Hainault 
hand fcythe and hook. N. B. Turnips fown after 
colefeed. Not a nook left unoccupied j the 
wafl-e by the way-fide planted with various trees, 

the 



A G R I ,C U L T U R E. i-^ 

the ground being ditched every third and fourtli 
row; fine oats in great quantities ; potatoes, thole 
with purple bloffonns, in blow; others not yet 5 
flax with and without clover ; rye for ever ; little 
wheat; clover; fome barley; peafe; buck-wheat; 
hemp. N. B. The male plant of hemp, which 
here, as well as in England, is called the female, 
affords materials for matches better than deal. 
Campanula Speculum in the corn ; Campanula Ra~ 
punculus by the way-fide; oats and clover; near 
the town, bleaching grounds. 

From Lokerhem to Aninverpf July 2. 

Before you come to Wacfmunfler, the foil not fo 
loofe ; entering it, a nurfery of oaks, beech, walnut, 
* plane, Spanifli chefnut, larch, fycamore, Cratae- 
gus Aria, large beds of alder feedlings* Pafs Wael- 
munfter, flax pulling up; here and there clover in 
rye ; much wheat with clover. Paft Temfche, fine 
rows of ftately beeches; fmall patches of hop 
grounds ; the country hereabouts fwells above the 
ufual level ; foil much the fame as about Alofl: ; 
brick-kilns; fine v/heat with clover; rye ditto; 
beans and vetches together; oats, bai-ley, buck- 
wheat; in fome places carrots in beans ; meadow 
grounds and marflies. N. B. Between Ghent and 
Antwerp, obferved^ four or five flocks of fhe'ep 
grazing by the way-fide, about fifty or fixty in 
company. Hogs, long fhanked; horned cattle, 

* Platanus orlentahs. 

Vol. I, No. 4, R fmall; 



238 ANNALS OF 

fmall J horfes, air the world knows the Flemilh 
breed ; of thefe very few grow blind, which may- 
be attributed to their not keeping abroad at night. 
Cattle is kept in the liable in winter, and has very 
little liberty in funnmer. 

Antn.verp, July :;, 4. 

O Scheld ! O Antwerp ! Here refpeft is paid 
to hufbandry j for the beft hotel is the grand la~ 
honreur. Such elms 1 never faw before, as adorn 
the ramparts on the eaft and fouth-eaft. The town 
has a very gentle declivity to the river. One ox 
harnefled to each cart, brings vegetables to market, 
fuch as mentioned above ; full grown parfnips ; 
young kidney- beans. 

Trcm Ant^iverp to Brujfelst through Mechlin and Fil'vorde, July 5, 

Without the town, gardens full of plenty for a 
confiderable way, with neat hedges of Carpinus Be- 
tulus. The tall kidney-beans, to avoid the expenfe 
of ftrong poles, are fupported by flicks about ten 
feet high. Three of thefe being fet two feet afunder 
in the ground, with two or three beans at the foot 
of each, are tied together at the height of feven or 
eight feet ; by which means they acquire a proper 
degree of ftability againft wind and rain ; the beans 
run up to the ends, and thence hang down in f^^- 
toons ; of thefe are large plantations. The road 
is an avenue of beeches, tall and llnooth. The 
foil and produ6lion$ between Antwerp and Mechlin, 

nearly 



AGRICULTURE. 239 

nearly the fame as between Waefmunfler and 
Temfche. The oaks nipt with the late froil. Pad 
Mechlin, in open fields, kidney-beans, garden- 
beans, peafe, carrots, wheat, Papaver JomiferMn^ 
barley, meflin. Paft Vilvorde, fertility abates. 
A new capacious houfe of induftry {maifon forle) 
with one fmali hole to each cell. Here his Impe- 
rial Majefty propofes to have naughty people fhuc 
up, that will not work. Were I king, there is no 
command in the Icripturcs that I would follow 
more (Iriftly, than where they 



'Ignavumpecus a -prajephus arcent. 



faying — He that will not work, neither jhould he eat, 

BrBjthy July 7, 8, 9. 

The fweepings of the ftreets and the night-foil, 
are a very confidcrable article of trade, bringing in 
more than I dare fet down, though upon the fiith 
of unqueftionable authority. The inhabitants 
100,000. Near le quai aii fumier, or dung- quay, 
are large ponds or receptacles, where the more li- 
quid excrements are fermenting together, to be 
conveyed thence in cafks, on barges, to Temifche 
and Rupplemonde, for the ufe of the Pays de 
Waefe. The coarfer dung goes thither likev/ife in 
barges. The end of a new terrace in the Parc^, fe- 
cured with the Triticwm repens, frefli planted in the 
form of a quincunx. The garden productions at 
market, the fame as obferved above, brought moll 
cruelly in carts drawn by dogs. 

R 2 The 



240 ANNALS OF 

The face of the country between BrufTels and 
Aloft, moderately waving ^ higher ground than 
the part of FlanderS we have feen j foil ftone- 
coloured, and much the lame as near Aloft. A 
little way from this place (Aloft) near Afflegham 
Abbey, is a ftone quarry. The country more open, 
and the land not laid out fo exadly as in Flanders. 
Suppofing the country between Bruflels and Aloft 
divided into 204 equal parts, the following would 
be nearly the ratio of fuch parts under each reipec- 
tive crop, namely, 

under barley 5 

— peafe i 

— beans and peafe i 
— — beans and vetches 2 

meflin 13 

— — rye with clover 3 

— hops 5 

— fallow o 
— . buck-wheat 1 5 — -— 

All 204 

N. B. Scarce any oats without clover. In fe- 
veral places, ploughing after cole-feed for turnips, 
July 9. All the crops moftly fine, except upon 
the high grounds before you defcend to Aloft. 
The hops not far from this. Brick-kilns. 

The little plantations of hops, which embofom 
every hut, are not included in this account. The 
reader muft have remarked^ that the proportion of 

potatoes 



under wheat 


50 


— - rye 


40 


■ oats 


18 


— — clover 


18 


— - beans 


6 


flax 


2 


• potatoes 


IS 


— colefeed 


10 



AGRICULTURE. 241 

potatoes here and in Flanders, is very great. Herein 
appears the good fenfe of the inhabitants : for what 
foodful vegetable can contend with this ? Wheat 
mufl: be threfhed, winnowed, and reduced to 
flour. When this comes into the baker's hands, 
its indigeftible vifcidity is broken by fermentation ; 
and, to flop this fermentation, when its end is an- 
fwered, the oven receives the flour turned to dough, 
in lumps called loaves. See a diflertation de pane 
diatetico in Amanitat. academ. A potatoe is a lit- 
tle loaf, ready threflied, winnowed, and wanting 
no grinding nor ferncntation ; it pafies immediately 
from the hand of the hufbandman into that of the 
cook, to be boiled or roafted, or both. O the 
ridiculous prejudice of the vulgar ! O the abfurd 
procefs which fome authors have been at the pains 
to prefcribe, in order to bring this root into the 
fimilitude of a wheaten loaf! How many nations 
have never feen a loaf, and yet live ? I could go 
on to the fuperior quality of the potatoe in point 
of nourifhmenti but thefe loofe notes forbid. 

Aloft, July 10, II. 

The Denderj from Gramont to Dendermonde, 
is a fmall river, apt in winter to overflow the mea- 
dow-grounds that border it. Much fpinning and 
weaving here; mofl: of the cloth fent to Ghent to 
bleach. Here, as well as in every town I went 
through, numbers of female fingers lace^making 
at the door. 

R ^ At 



242 ANNALSOF 

At this feafon, much vifiting and procefTioning, 
it being Carmefs or Kermis^ now in this, now in 
that town. Kernnis is fomething like a country 
wake. The ftreets, upon thefe occafions, are 
llrewed thick with fedge. Sparganiuniy &c. out of 
ditches j but chit fly with the Acorus calamus j which, 
for many days after, diifufes a moft grateful fra- 
o-rancy. All this fwept off, increafes the dung-hill. 

Near Aloft — onions with fcorzonera ; one fitld 
of tobacco juft planted; parfnips; carrots; brick- 
kilns, the bricks in trine dimenfions, yf inches 
long, 24- wide, and lefs than two thick j wheat ; 
rye, much of this with clover ; meflin ; flax with 
and without clover ; oats with clover ; fome barley 
with clover, m^uch without fown on clover- lay; 
potatoes in rows, 2I feet afunder, 10 inches clear 
between the clumps in ridges made with the 
plough, fome clumps earthed up round ; colefeed 
carried off. The beds of winter corn here two or 
three yards wide, the trenches one foot deep; the 
beds of flax and of oats in general twice or thrice as 
wide as thofe for winter-corn, trenches (hallow ; the 
rye in greater quantity than wheat, and finer ; clo- 
ver in fome meflin, and in fome fields of colefeed; 
not an inch of ground lofl: '; the whole fcene raptur- 
ous. Some young clover looking very forward was, 
I was told, fown in November with the barley, and 
would be reaped once in autumn : I fay, reafed^ 
becaufe it is all cut in Flanders with the fingle- 

hand-fcythe. 



AGRICULTURE. 24J 

hand-fcythe, and carried to die ftable as there is 
occafion. About Nieukerke, fine orchards of ap- 
ple-trees; feveral fields of Trii'icum/peltay the cars 
feven inches long, with clover. The earth here, 
of which nonce has been taken above, under the 
article of foil, appears like potter's clay, where it is 
wet. The Tryfoiium agrarimni and Medicago Iwpu- 
Una, wild on every bank. Some butchers here wifh 
for catde fattened on parfnips, flieep, and oxen*. 

The crofs-road to Oudenarde and thence to Ghent, July ii. ' 

For fome way, much as juft defcribed ; the land 
rifes gradually above what has been feen hitherto 
of Flanders ; the foil not fo impalpable as near 
Aloft. At half way, wheat begins to predomi- 
nate, and beans, meflin more than fingle rye. 
As you defcend, barley four feet high ; fine flax. 
Within two or three miles of Oudenarde, carts 
(landing with each a cafk of the liquid and very 
fcctid manure mentioned above ; two men were 
drawing it out of the caflcs into a fmall tub, {^cu' 
'vette) which they carried afterwards between them 
with poles on their fhoulders, then ladled it very 
carefully on clumps of potatoes. 

At Oudenarde, I could get no vehicle acrofs the 
country to Courtray, without waiting an uncertain 
time, and therefore fliaped my courfe to Ghent j 

* Hogs and oxen fattened on boiled potatoes ; rye added a lit- 
tle before killing the hogs. 

R 4 not. 



244 ANNALS OF 

not, however, wichout taking a view of the ex- 
tenfive meadov/s adjacent to the town ; this view 
was only from the rampart ; the fallacious Holcus 
lanatus feemed to abound, at leafl in the parts near 
enough to the eye to be difcerned : I call this plant 
fallaciousj becaufe the fubftance and goodnefs of 
it anfwer not the promifing fhew it makes on the 
sround ; its panicles in blow, may teach the huf- 
bandman when to mow i but I know no other ufe 
this orrals can be of. 

In a room of the houle, where the court leets of 
the Chatellany of Oudenarde are held, is a map of 
the faid Chatellany, upon a fcale fufficient to fhew at 
large every farm and inclofure. The Scheld, in 
French I'Efcaut, is in this map written Les Cau. 
The Scheld hence haflens to Ghent (and fo did I, 
~ not well pleafed with the manners of the inhabi- 
tants), through a country much the fame as about 
Ghent itfelf. 

Betiveen Ghent and Courtray, July 13, 14. 

The foil fandy, and in fome parts very poor, 
with heath and broom ; it mends as you approach 
Arelbeke. Between this and Courtray, fome 
grounds planted, and planting with ChouXj or tall 
coleworts for kine in winter ; the leaves are ga- 
thered or picked one by one and carried to the flail. 

Near Courtray, brick-kilns; bleaching-grounds; 
in hedges, Lathyrus Aphaca^ Valantia cruciata, and 
about a mile out of town, on the left of the Menia 

road 



AGRICULTURE 245 
road Campanula -patula. The lime ufed here is 
fetched from Tournay ; of this manure I faw much 
fcatcering on clover, that had been reaped and was 
already near a foot high; fome upon ground jufl: 
made ready for turnips after barley ; fome grounds, 
whence the barley was jufl: carried off, were plough- 
ing for turnips s firft, a fhallow fcratching to kill 
the weeds ; then, ten inches deep with two horfes, 
guided by the man that holds the plough, and fhifrs 
the moulding- board at every turn, to throw the 
earth all one way ; after this, rolling and harrowing; 
a week or ten days after, ploughed, rolled, and 
harrowed again ; the feed fown, if no lime has been 
adminiftered before, receives inftantly a fhower of 
the liquid * manure, and is then left to the mercy 
of heaven. The drops which Jupiter let fall into 
the lap of Danae, could not be more prolific, nor 
more precious, if we may judge from the crops of 
flax, which, as foon as fown, has been impregnated 
with this golden Hiower. The flax here is ac- 
counted the fined in the country, three feet and a 
half high. Great quantities of beautiful wheat, 
beans, and barley; fome fields of vetches, with 
rye enough to keep them Handing, an impenetra- 
ble body above fix feet and a half high, to be chop- 
ped or cut as winter provender for fiieep and horfes. 
Horles in fummer and autumn eat oats, clover, rye- 
bread ; in winter and fpring, hay, oats, beans, car- 

* This manure is little lefs than a penny a gallon. 

rotSj 



246 ANNALS OF 

rots, cut-ftrawj this diet may admit of fome va - 
riations. iV". B. Clods at top hard and foundinc^ 
like ilonesj underneath moift. Meafured here fome 
beds of coleleedj after rye, eight feet wide, 1 2 or 
13 plants in each row acrofs the bed; the rows one 
foot afunder; the trenches between the beds 15 
inches deep. 

Bet'tveen Courtray and Meniny July 15. 

Rich in produ(ftions as about Courtray : flax fu- 
perlative. Pad Menin, in the way to Ypres, much 
•wheat and flax, for a little way ; then woods with 
patches of corn here and there, chiefly wheat. 1'a- 
iiacetmn vulgare every where ; fo in other places. 
About halfway, a fragment of the old foreft of Ar~ 
den , high ground ; Erica vulgaris, ^ E. cinerea. 
As you delcend to Ypres, with the chathedral in 
the centre of the vifla, the ground mends ; beanSj 
wheat, meadows. 

Ypres, June 16, 17, iS. 

Ypres, a compact town, not fo very populous as 
fome towns before. Amarenthus Blitum grows in 
the market-place; on the ramparts Medicago foly- 
mor-pha and hops wild (iV. B. Hops in fome hedges 
half way between Ghent and Lokerham.) In an 
excurhon to Poperingue, obferved orchards of ap- 
ple-trees about Viamertin. Hops, hops, hops; 
beans; wheat; potatoes; meadows; carrots; flax 
pulling up; and heaps of lime ready to be fcattered 
on the young clover that grew in it. The beds 

or 



AGRICULTURE. 247 

or ficilds here wider, and not fo high as ufual in 
other places ; wheat chilled and not fo fine. 

Seeing fo much fine ground under coflly hops, 
which, it mufl be owned, had very large and ver- 
dant leaves, I could not but repine at the expenfe 
of foil, poles, dung, and labour, beftowed on this 
plant; efpecially when there is great reafon to fup- 
pofe, that the ^eucriim Scorodonia would better 
anfwer the purpofe. That the reader nnay judge 
of the comparative merits of hops and of T. Scoro- 
donia, I have inflituted a parallel between hops 
and fome Teucriums, afTifted therein by Bergim's 
Materia Medica. 

Hiimulus Lupulus, Lin. In Englilh Hops. 

Properties. Smell, fragrant, narcotic, ftrong; 
ia/ie, very bitter, agreeing vv'ith the fmell, inherent. 

Virtues. Bracing, inebriating, anthelminthic, 
diujetic. 

Ufes. The table ; luxated limbs, worms. 

N. B. The narcotic, and of courfe hebetating 
quality of hops, is well known. Upon this fub- 
jeft, confult StenzeliiiSy touching the anodyne pow- 
ers of poifons. 

Audi alteram partem. 

Teucrium Chcin^p itys. Ground pine. 

Properties. Smelly fragrant, cephalic j tajie, bit- 
ter, aromatic ; ufed dry. 

Virtues. 



24B ANNALSOF 

Virtues. Bracing, ftomachic, emmenagogue, 
diuretic, refolvent. 

UJes. Arthritic and gouty complaints. 

'Teucrium Chamadrys. Germander. 

Properties. Smelly flightly fragrant ; /^7?^, bit- 
ter; dry and frefh. * 

Virtues. Bracing, ftomachic, emmenagogue, 
diuretic. 

UJes. Arthritic, and other complaints from an 
ill habit. 

N. B. Teucrium Chamaspitys and T. Chamse- 
dry, are the two principal ingredients in the famous 
Pulvus PortlandicuSy good againft arthritic com- 
plaints. 

1'eucrium Scordium. Water- Germander. 

Properties. Smell, alliato-cephalic, ftrong; tqfie, 
bitterifh, agreeing with the fmell, inherent; frefh, 
or dry. 

Virtues. Antifeptic, bracing, diaphoretic, diu- 
retic, refolvent. 

U/es. In gangrenous cafes. 

N. B. All thefe plants are of Englifh growth; 
and have their virtues extrafled by an aqueous and 
Ipiritous menftruum. 

* Teucrium Scorodonia. Wood-fage. Grows every 
where in the pooreft ground. "^*** 

* I am authorized to fay, that a figure of this plant will, in the 
courfe of the enluiiig fummer, appear in Mr, Curtis's Flora Lon- 
dintnfxs. 

Of 



AGRICULTURE. 249 

Of this plant, I can Co far fay, that in fmell and 
tafte it refembles hops. Its virtues remain to be 
afcertained by experience, and may in a great mea- 
fure be colle(5led from thofe of it congeneres. The 
name by which it goes in fome authors is Amlrofia, 
a name announcing fomething immortal and di- 
vine, and to this day Amhroije is the appellation, 
by which it goes among the common people in the 
ifland of Jerfey. Here, in years, when cyder, the 
common beverage, has failed, I have known the 
people malt each his barley at home, and, inftead 
of hops, ufe to very good purpofe, the Ambroife of 
their hedges. 

It is my ardent wifh, I own, to fee juftice done 
to the neglefted merits of this ambrofial plant ; 
but fhould indolence, prejudice, or private intereft 
obftruft the introdu6lion of it into ufe, let me at 
ieaft intreat brewers to honour it with their notice, 
in preference to any unpalatable and unwholefome 
fubftitute they may have occafion to ufe in lieu of 
hops. 

From the virtues and properties of all the fpe- 
cies preceding this laft, may its own, in fome de- 
gree, be conjedlured ; for though Virtus 



non omnibus una 



Non diveifa tamen 3 fed quam decet elTe fororum. 

Douun the Ypres Canal, July, 

Meadows under water in v/inter. Near Dix- 
fnude, beans ; mellin ; oats ; barley ; peat ; marfh- 

m allows 



250 ANNALS OF 

mallows on the banks; feme brick-kilns, the 
bricks pale and crumbling. A little below, chalk 
burning into lime ; lime lying in heaps, at the end 
of every piece of ground ploughed, or ploughing, 
for turnips. Approaching Nieuport, the marfnes 
grow poorer, foil fpungy, and fandy. 

Nieuport f July. 

On the ramparts, rye-grafs, fpontancous, and 
Medicago -polymorpha. The town has often thirty 
fifhing veffels out, with twenty inen in each. 

From Nieuport to Femes, July. 

Extenfive marfhes ; Poa aquatica in great plenty, 
mowing a fecond time for hay, beans, wheat, 
fome oats, barley. As you come near the town, 
every thing. 

N. B, A triangle, of which the bafe is a line 
extending from north of Nieuport to the fouthward 
of Furnes, with Dixmude for its vertex, is fup- 
pofed to contain the richefl paftures in all Flanders. 
The cattle is of a much larger breed than what is 
k^^n in the other parts. Dixmude is the mart for 
the butter of all the dairies, and, under the name of 
Dixmude butter, is difperfed all over Flanders, is 
exported to Paris, and, I was told, finds its way 
as far as Madrid in Spain. 

So great every where is the plenty, that, after 
what is necelTary for home confumption, you can 
fcarce name an article which is not exported -, even 

raw 



AGRICULTURE. 251 

raw flax, though linens are here the principal ma- 
nufaftiire, is, by being allowed to be exported, fup- 
pofed to be grown in greater quantity, and of courfe 
to come cheaper to the manufaclurer. P. L, 



EXPERIMENT ON WELD. 

By the Rev. Mr, Carter, of Flempton, 

/RESERVING, about Somnnerly, and between 
^■^^ Norwich and Yarmouth, that the farmers cul- 
tivated many acres of weld j I inquired minutely 
into the circumftances of the management j and, 
finding it not hazardous, and fometimes very pro- 
fitable, I determined to make a trial ^ the refult of 
which (in compliance with your requeft)! here fend. 
I fixed upon a piece of four acres in my glebe, 
the foil of which is a very light fandy loam, under 
v/hich, at the depth of three or four feet, is an 
imperfeft clay. The firft week, in May 1782, 
after fowing it with barley, under furrow, I thea 
fowed (in the fame manner as clover) rather more 
than half a peck of weld-feed per acre, harrowed, 
and finiihed by rolling. The cuftom in Norfolk, 
is, generally to fow clover with it, for a crop of 
ftover at the time the weld is pulled. They, how- 
ever, fometimes, omit clover, intending turnips 
after pulling the v;eld ; which, being my cafe, I 
fowed no clover. However, on mowing the bar- 
ley, 



252 ANNALSOF 

ley, I was much furprifed to find a tolerable plarft 
amongft the weld, from which I conclude the feeds 
were accidentally mixed, probably in the granary 
at Norwich, from whence they were procured. 
In Norfolk they feed any kind of ftock, during the 
winter and fpring, upon the clover, till necelTary to 
fpare it for mowing, afferting, that no cattle will 
touch the weld. This, I found not abfolutely the 
cafe, for my bullocks, in the winter, certainly 
browfed on many of the plants. No culture is 
given whilfl: growing. 

July 6th, (the plants turning yellowilli, and the 
feed being formed), began to pull the weld, bind- 
ing it (with itfelf ) into large handfuls ; and, at the 
fame time> cut the clover, the mower immediately 
following the pullers. The firft day, fet the hand- 
fuls up to dry, which, in doubtful weather, may 
be neceifary, fometimes, for three weeks 3 but I 
found the bunches dried fufficiently by turning the 
rows, whilft lying on the ground ; and, in this un- 
commonly fine feafon, were fit for carting into the 
barn in five or fix days. This may be known by 
the feed (helling, the crifpnefs of the leaves, and 
. the ftalks turning of a lighter colour. It Ihould 
be {lacked clofely in the barn, as wheat ; and left 
to fweat like hay, which improves the quality, and 
the more the better, if free from mould. In about 
three months (the fweat being over) tied the weld 
in bunches, of two ftone each, with pitched rope, 
in which cafe it is faleable. 

Pfoduce 



AGRICULTURE. 253 
Produce per acre 7 cwt. which, in Norfolk, is 
efteemed not half a crop. I attribute the defici- 
ency to the fmallnefs of the plants, from the ex- 
treme drynefs of the feaion, being too numerous. 
This, however, made the fample the better, and it 
was much liked by the dyers. The plants being 
thin (a foot diftance at leaft from each other) would 
be much to the advantage of the grower : and, I 
fuppofe, that one pint of feed, evenly fown broad -- 
cad, would be fufficient per acre. 

Sold at Manchefter, to be delivered at 
Hull for 1 61. a ton, or for 7 cwt. 
the produce per acre. 

To 13 cwt. clover-hay, at2s. 6d. 

Expences per acre. 

To feed and carriage from Norwich, 

To fowing, - _ . . 

To * pulling and binding into handfuls, 
mowing, making the clover, and cart- 
ing, - - - » - o 16 



5 


\i 





I 


\i 


6 


7 


4 


6 





I 




J 








3 



o 17 o 

* Norfolk, the pulling is done atjd. per ftone, by woinen ar.d 
children. The difference of price at different places is renaarlcable. 
At London, to be delivered there, the dyers ofFeied for a load cf 

15 cwt. - » - - £' 7 ° ** 

At Norwich, for ditto, - * - 3100 

At Manchefter, for ditto, to be delivered at Hull, 

100 miles diftani from Mancbefter, - • i6 o o 

Vol. L No. 4. S Brought 



254 ANNALSOF 

Brought over, £-0 ij 6 

To binding and weighing, - o i o 

To pitch rope, - - - o i o 

To freight to Lynn and Hull, is. per cwt. 070 
To {lacking and thatching clover, -016 

I 8 o 
Profit to balance, - 5166 

;C-7 4 6 

J.c. 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE FOOD 
OF PLANTS. 

By the Editor, 

EXPERIMENT, No. XX. 

A PRIL 28th, 1777, being in company with 
•^^ Mr. Arbuthnot, F. R. S. and dircourfing on 
the food of plants, and fuch fubftances as we con- 
ceived to be poifons to them, we made the follow- 
ing trial. We took 16 glafTes, about 12 inched 
high, and lefiening at the neck to a fimall orifice, 
in which we put the following fubflances, filling 
them with water, and placing fome cotton at the 
neck, laid oh it four grains of weighty barley ; alfo, 
in 16 correfponding flower-pots, each containing 
three pounds of good loam, we put the fame fub~ 

ftanceSj 



AGRICULTURE 255 

fiances, and planted them alfo with four grains of 
the fame barley. 

The fubftances we ufed were the following, viz. 
hog-dung, human ordure, fheep-dung, wood-afhes, 
€oal in powder, coal-afhes, common fair, falt-petre. 
Dr. Hunter's oil compofl, that is, train oil rendered 
milcible with water, by being mixed with pot-afii 
dilTolved in it, lint-feed oil cake, lime, urine, and 
three of the glalTes filled, one with the plain water, 
another with forge water, and a third with a calybi- 
ate water, which had a vitriolic fcum on it. 

The refult of the trial, till July 4th, after which 
it was neglefted, was, that the human ordure, 
wood-afhes, and efpecially Iheep-dung, had the bed 
cffeft. The common fait did good. The calybiatc 
water was ferviceable for a time, but afterwards de- 
clined ; May 25th it had a tolerable appearance, 
but July 4th it was very poor. Coal, on the fame 
day, was equal to coal-a(hes, but afterwards rather 
declined. The lint- feed cake did more good than 
the dung. The falt-petre, oil compoft, lime, urine, 
and foige water, all were abfolute poifons. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXI. 

Reflecting afterwards on the effect of the pre- 
ceding trial, I thought it extraordinary that coal 
fliould not have proved as poifonous as the other 
bodies, and not expefting that fait fliould have 
appeared beneficial, I wifhed for an opportunity of 
S 2 repeating 



256 A N N A L S O F 

repeating the trial; but going into another king- 
dom, and having bufinefs that prevented any at- 
tention to fuch inquiries, it was May 15th, 1779, 
before I could fnatch a moment for making fuch an 
experiment. Not thinking that the water and cot- 
ton, which my friend Mr. Arbuthnot had ufed in 
various trials^ well adapted for any purpofe, but fee- 
ing the progrefs of the roots, I filled fome pint bot- 
tles with the fame loam, from the furface of a poor 
field, and added to them the following fubftances. 
To No. I, one ounce of powdered chalk ; No. 2, 
one oz. lime; No. 3, one oz. of allum; No. 4, 
half oz. allum, and half oz. of lime; No. 5, two oz. 
of pigeon's dung ; No. 6, oneoz. common fea-falt; 
No. 7, one oz. of powdered coal; No. 8, one oz, 
coal, and one oz. lime ; No. 9, one oz. wood-aflies; 
No. 10, one oz. coal-alhes; No. 11, one oz. fper- 
maceti oil ; No. 1 2, one oz. ditto, and one oz. 
wood-afhcs ; No. 13, one oz. ditto, and one oz. fait; 
No. 14, the earth alone. Planted each with three 
grains of barley. 

The refult was, that the allum alone, fea-fak 
alone, and oil with wood- afhes, were the worfl:, prov- 
ing poifons. Mixing lime with the allum had the 
effect I expefted, preventing the mifchief it did 
alone. But the fame expeftation relative to coal 
was difappointed, for the addition of lime made the 
coal worfe. Oil, Ir the three modes, was very bad, 
but in that with wood-alhes the worfl. The chalk 

and 



AGRICULTURE. 257 
and the earth without addition were the bed, bet- 
ter even than the pigeon's-dung. 

I did not continue the trial longer, not approv- 
ing of theufe of bottles, in which the plants could 
not be watered, however, they might wane it. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXII. 

May 1 2th, 1779. In order to compare the ef- 
fefts of the fixed vegetable with the fixed foflil 
alkali, I put three pounds of poor furface loam 
into each of eight pots, mixing with them the fal- 
lowing bodies. 

With No. I, one ounce fal foda — 2, one oz. of 
pearl afh — 3, half an oz. of fait of tarrar — 4, one 
oz. cubic nitre — 5, one oz. of kelp — 6, one oz. of 
barilla — 7, one oz. of pot afh — 8, nothing. 

May 1 6th, planted each pot with three grains of 
barley and three of peafe. Oftober 20th, planted 
them with five grains of red wheat : Mc after that 
harveft, through autumn, to fee in what degree a 
fpontaneous growth would come. In April 178 1, 
planted each with a cutting of potatoe, and viewed 
them June 8th. This was during more than two 
years the condufl of the experiment; to avoid the 
prolixity of tranfcribing the regifter I kept, I fhall 
only give the general refuk. 

Refpefling the great objeft of the comparifon, 
the vegetable alkali was far more favourable to ve- 
getation than the fofTil. 

S 3 Sak 



25S ANNALS OF 

Salt of tartar fuperior to all the reft, and yet noc 
fo much fuperior to no addition as to authorife any 
determinate conclufions. 

Cubic nitre, was a poifon at firft, but the ill ef- 
fects Teemed afterwards to wear off. 

Pot-alh and pearl-adi appeared to be prejudicial 
on the whole, to the vegetation of the plants. 

Bur, on the other hand, fal foda, kelp, and ba- 
rilla, were all uniformly mifchievous. 

Some other circumftances, befides the progrefs of 
vegetation, deferve to be noted i in a few days after 
the experiment was begun, the pot, which contained 
the cubic nitre, was covered on the outfide with a 
white frofty efflorefcence. July 26, 1779, after 
three days of rain, the water was evaporated from 
all the pots, except thofe of fal foda and barilla, 
September 17 th, following, ftirred the earth of 
them, that, with the fal foda, was fo hard, I could 
fcarce penetrate it, breaking in clods, refembling 
iron J the barilla one almolt equally bound, but 
not coloured like the other, 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXIII. 

May I 2th, 1779. To compare animal and ve- 
getable oil, and the effe6ls of Dr. Hunter's oil com- 
poft, I put three pounds of poor loam in each of 
four pots. _ 

No. I, mixed with one oz. of olive oil — 2, with 
one oz. of fpermaceti do. — 3, with one oz. fperma- 
ceti do. mixed with one oz. pearl-afh and fome wa- 
ter — 4, the earth alone. 

The 



AGRICULTURE 259 

The 16th, planted each with three grains barley 
and three of peafe. 06tober 20th, 17795 planted 
each with five grains of wheat, and after that was 
cut, left the pots through the winter to fee in what 
degree a fpontaneous growth would conae. In the 
Ipring of 1781, planted each with a poratoe, and 
viewed the plants June 8th, when I put an end to 
the trial j the froft of the preceding winter having 
broken one of the pots. The refult, upon the 
whole, was, that all the additions, frona firft to laft, 
did mifchief, as the pot No. 4, was always the befl. 
The reft were fo bad as to afford little opportunity 
of faying which was the beft i if any thing, the 
olive oil, was the leaft prejudicial. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXIV. 

In May 1779, '^'^ '3 P^^^ of poor loam, com- 
pared chalk, lime, falt-petre, barilla, water mixed 
with oil and pot-afh, magnefia, and glauber's fait, in 
the proportion of ounces, and half ounces to 2|lb. of 
earth, continued it till June 8th, 178 i. The refult 
was, that the barilla, falt-petre, and the oil and pot- 
afli were poifons. The lime, magnefia, and glaub- 
er's fait, not equally bad with thole fubftances, but 
did mifchief. The chalk beft, but did little good. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXV. 

May T5th, 1779. In order to examine the ef- 
fedts of nitre more attentively than in the preceding 
experiments, and to compare the three mineral 

S 4 acids 



26o ANNALS OF 

acids, with faturated fixed fofiil and fixed vegetable 
alkalies, I put four pounds of poor furface loam 
into each of 1 1 pots, and added to thenn, 

No. I, one ounce oil of vitriol — 2, oneoz, oil of 
vitriol, one oz. powdered nitre, and 2 oz. water 
mized, a violent fernrientation took place, and a 
great heat generated — 3, half oz. fait of tartar, and 
ftrong fpirit of nitre — 4, the fame, with one oz. 
of lint-feed oil, added, which was mifcible with 
water — 5, one oz. pearl-afh, with fpirit of fait — 
6, nothing added — 7, one oz. fpirit of nitre, and 
one oz. oil of olives added — 8, one oz. barilla with 
oil of fulphur — 9, one oz. vitriolated tartar, and 
one oz. fpirit of fait — 10, one oz. fulphur. 

The 1 6th, planted each pot with three grains 
barley, and three of peafe. O(5tober 20th, planted 
each with five grains of wheat ; after cutting, left 
through the following winter to fee the fpontaneous 
growth. In April 178 1, planted each with a po- 
tatoe-cutting. Left again through the winter to 
fee the fpontaneous growth, and viewed May i6th 
1782, when I put an end to the experiment, hav- 
ing lafted juft three years. The refult has been, 
the pots to which oil of vitriol, and oil of vitriol 
and nitre were added, were intirely poifoned from 
firft to lafl, as to any feed fown ; nor did they yield 
any fpontaneous vegetation till the laft winter, when 
a little began to appear. 

The fulphur, for the firft crop, feemed to be a 
llimulus to the plants till a little before harveflr^ 

bu: 



A G R I C U L T U Pv E. 261 

but then they declined and died, without pro- 
ducing any thing j after that the pot feemed to be 
as much poifoned as thofc widi the oil of vitriol. 
The addition of barilla to the oil offulphur, at one 
period of the firfi: crop, feemed to have made it 
lefs pernicious, but afterwards no difference was 
perceivable. 

Hence, therefore, the vitriolic acid, in what- 
ever manner applied, has proved poifonous. 

Pearl-afh and fpirit of fait, and vitriolated tartar 
and the fame fpirit, were prejudicial throughout, 
but not poifonous. 

Salt of tartar, I^iturated with the fuming fp. of 
nitre, had a remarkable effect upon vegecation ; 
for, though it retarded it a little at firft, yet, foon 
recovering, it became the bed, and continued fo 
till the end of the experiment. The addition of 
oil to the fame mixture, leflcned the efFeft to the 
firft crop con fiderably; but the pot being broken 
by the firft winter's froft, I could not fee the effect 
any longer. 

Barilla, fp. of nirrc, and oil, were intirely poi- 
fonous to the firft crop, though, if any thing, ra- 
ther advantageous to the fecond, and afterwards 
beneficial. 

In examining the earth, at different times, I 
found that the oil of vitriol, and the vitriolated 
tartar, with fpirit of fait, made it remarkably dry 
and friable, even foon after preat rains. . And the 
pot in which pearl-afh and fpirir of fait were our 

was 



262 ANNALS OF 

was always wet, and at three years end, held water 

remarkably on the furface. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXVI. 

May 17th, 1779, formed a trial of 13 divifions, 
by adding various fubftances to the pooreft running 
fand I could procure, and found that fait, oil, oil 
vA fulphur, pot-afh, lime, aquafortis and lime, 
crude fal-ammoniac, kelp, fpirit of fait, fulphur, 
gunpowder, magnelia, and v/ood-afhes, were ail 
prejudicial, and fome of them poifonous, but com- 
mon foap beneficial. Common fait made the fand 
moift, and in hoc burning weather kept the furface 
covered with dew fome time after it was quite eva- 
porated from the others. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXVII. 

May 22, 1779. In order to fee the effedl of fire 
on various bodies, I put four pounds of poor fur- 
face loam into each of 1 1 pots, and compared coal 
with coal afhes — earth, with the fame earth burnt— 
marie, with the fame marie burnt — chalk, with the 
fame chalk burnt into lime — oak faw duft, with 
the oak afhes, two ounces of each fubftance. — 
Continued the experiment till May 1782, fowing 
them thrice. The refult was. 

Of all the pots, that which had the lime was, 
during the firft year, the worft ; much worfe than 
one which contained only the plain earth, but it 
improved afterwards and appeared beneficial. 

Coal 



AGRICULTURE. 26? 

Coal was injurious, but coal-aflies did fome good. 

The burnt earth was better than the earth un- 
burnt, frona firft to lad. 

The marie and the burnt-marle were equal. 

The faw-dufb was, if any thing, rather preju- 
dicial, but the aflies were beneficial, being through- 
cut the trial, the beft of all the pots. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXVIII. 

June 30th, 1779. Having often obferved that 
falts and oils, when applied by themfelves, or 
mixed with each other, proved generally preju- 
dicial to vegetation, I formed a trial to fee what 
would be the effeft, when mixed with an anim.al 
manure. Put feven pounds of poor furface loam 
into each of feven pots, mixed with the fol- 
lowing. 

No. I, one ilb. offrefhhorfe-dung, and oneoz. 
of common fait — 2, one lb. of horfe-dung — 3, do. 
and one oz. of wood-afhes — 4, the earth alone — 
5, one lb. of dung, and one oz. of fpermaceti oil 
—6, do. and two oz. powdered clay marie — 7, do. 
undone oz. nitre. 

Sowed them with turnip feed j then with wheat ; 
and afterwards with potatoes j continuing the trial 
till May 1782. The refult was, that for the firft 
crop, the pots that had the dung alone, and no 
manure at all, were by far the belli fo that the 
additions of fait, nitre, oil, marie, and afhes, had 

done 



264 ANNALS OF 

done confiderable mifchief. This is very remark- 
able, and deferves further attention. This refult, 
however, did not continue, for, in the fecond and 
third crops, the fait and dung feemed rather better 
than the dung alone; and, in the fpontaneous 
growth of the fecond winter, the nitre, and dung 
were the beft, 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXIX. 

July 8th, 1779. In order to fee the effed of 
the fun on dung, I put into each of two pans, 
three pounds of frefh horfe-dung, and placed one 
of them in a vaulted cellar, and the other on a 
ftand expofed to the weather. Kept them fo till 
November 1 1 th, then filled three pots that held a 
peck, with poor furface loam, manuring two of 
them from the pans, and planted each with fix 
grains of wheat. I n April 1781, planted each with 
potatoes. May i6th, 1782, put an end to the ex- 
periment. The refult was, that the pot manured 
from the cellar was the beft throughout j but the 
fuperiority in the lafl crop very little. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXX. 

' June 8th, 17P2. Put a peck of newly broken- 
vp fandy loam, that had yielded only a crop of po- 
tatoes, into each of^three pots, taking the greatefl 
care (as I have done in all thefe experiments) that 
the pots fhould be exaftly fimilarin foil. 

No. 



AGRICULTURE. 265 

No. I, placed in a vaulted cellar, where beer waa 
kept — 2, in the open air expofed to the fun — 3, in 
the fliade of the houfe, where the fun never comes. 

September 25th, planted No. i and 2 with fix 
grains of wheat ; No. 3, was broken, by accident, 
in Auguft. 

April 1 2th, 1783, viewed ; No. 1 has fix plants. 
No. 2 five, not quite fo good as the others. 

June 4th, the plants of No. i are of a deeper 
green than thofe of No. 2, which are, however, as 
high as the others. 

Auguft the 3d, reaped. 

Wt. ftrawr. 
Pots. Grains. dwt. gr. 

No. I, — 107 — 3 12 

2, — 77 — 3 9 

Sowed [direftly with fix grains turnip-feed. 
Viewed the 25th of September; No. i the beft. 

I fhall not be too ready to draw conclufions from 
an experiment which muft be often repeated, and 
under different circumflances, before it is polTible 
to afcertain the real effedt of the fun's rays on land. 
I fhould have been better fatisfied with this trial 
had the vaults been free from liquors. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXXI. 

November 8th, 1782. Common fait was attend- 
ed with a good effedl in one experiment, and though 
prejudicial at firft, yet beneficial at laft in two-othei s; 
k was, however, mifchievous in tv/o more. I was 

not 



266 ANNALS OF 

hot at that time fully mafter of- this experience, biitr 
that I might difcover the real efFecfl both alone and 
united with dung, I formed an experiment purpofcly 
to afcertain it. Filled 1 1 pots, fome with loam (the 
fame as before) and others with poor fand. The pot 
and earth weighed 1 61b. and the pot and fand 1 81b. 

No. I, loam without addition — 2, fand ditto— 
3, loam, and one oz. fea fait — 4, fand and ditto — 
5, loam, and half oz. ditto — 6, fand and ditto— 
7, loam, and qr. oz. ditto — 8, loam and four oz* 
poultry-dung — 9, ditto, and ditto with one oz. fait 
— 10, ditto, and two oz. fait — 1 1, ditto, and three 
oz. ditto. 

Planted each with five grains of wheat. April 
17th, viewed. 

No. 8, exceedingly fine ; quadruply better than 
any other — 5 next — 7 ditto — 3 ditto — i ditto — 2 
ditto — 6 ditto, poor — 4, 9, 10, 11, nothing. 

Wt. ftiaw. 
Pots. Grains. 

No. I, -^ 71 — 

2, — 2 — 

3, — 85 ^ 

5, — 74 — 

6, — . o — 

7> — 77 — 

8, — 64 — 

4, 9, 10, I!, nothing. 

I muft, inthe firft place, remark, that No. 8, mufl: 
here, on account of the ftraw, be reckoned the beft 

to 



dwt. 


g'"- 


3 





I 





4 


11 


3 











4 


II 


S 


18 



AGRICULTURE. 26; 
to the lafl, notwithftanding the inferiority of grains* 
The manure pufhed on the plants to a degree of 
luxuriance not to be fupported by this quantity of 
earth in fo burning a fummer, and they declined 
latterly becaufe of their former vigour. 

In this trial, the fait alone has a good efFeft on 
loam, but is pernicious on fand ; added to dung it 
has proved an abfolute poifon, which, compared with 
the reft of the experiment, is very extraordinary. 

Planted each pot with fix grains of turnip-feed« 
September 7th, viewed. 

No. 9, better than any of the reft, at leaft 6 timta 
over — 8, next and good — 10, do. — 5 do. — i, do, 
— 3, do. — 7, do. — 1 1, do. — 4, do. — 6, do. — 2, do. 

The refult is very extraordinary. The fait in 
No. 9 rendered the dung adlively pernicious for the 
nrft crop, but in this fecond it has given an amazing 
degree of fertility to it. Salt alone has contradic- 
tions in the refult that make it not eafy to form a 
decifive judgment. One ounce is worfe than none 
at all, yet two ounces and half an ounce are better. 
In the former part of the trial it did mifchief uni- 
formly on fand ; now it uniformly does good. 

Sept. aoth viewed, and again O6lober lad. 

No. 9, much the beft — i o, next— 8 , 1 1 , next — 7, 
ditto — 5, ditto — 3, ditto — i, ditto — 6, 2, miferable. 

Here the fait is rifing very rapidly indeed. Little 
did I exped to fee No. ro, fait alone, exceed No. 8, 
the dung alone. It will be inftrudive to attend ro 

ths 



268 A N N A L S O F 

this exeriment in its future progfefs, I fhall furiil 
-mother for varying the inquiryj 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXXII. 

November 8, 1782. In order to difcover if 
wood-alhes contain in their alkaline fait the food of 
plants, or ad mechanically, a point of confiderable 
importance in agriculture j I put into five pots^ 
weighing, when full, i61b. earth, and i8lb. fand. 

No. I, the loam without manure — 2, fand with- 
out manure — 3, loam, and one oz. wood-alhes-— 
4, fand and do. — 5, fand and one half oz. do. 

Planted each with five grains of wheat. June 
4th viewed. 

No. 3, the belt — i, next — 2, 4, equal and next 
—5, next. 

The refult is not intlrely fatisfadory, but feems 
in favour of the mechanical aftion of the manure* 
Auguft 4th, reaped. 

Pots. Grains. Dwt. gr. 

No. I, — 71 3 o ftraw. 

2, 2 — I O 

3, 48 5 O 

4, I I I o 

5, . — IJ I II 

This refult is much againft wood-aflies in gene- 
ral. Planted with fix grains turnip feed. Sep- 
tember 7th, viewed. 

No. 3, die bell — i, next— 5, do. — 4, 2, equal. 

Odober 



AGRICULTURE. 269 
Oftober 20th, No. 3, beft — i, next — 2, 3, 4, 

ttiiferably bad. 

All we can learn from hence is, that the manure 

operates as it ought to do on the loam, but fails on 

the fand, fo as to be rather prejudicial. Itdeferves, 

however, a further inquiry. 
The experimeht continues. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXXIII. 

May 2, 1783. Having often obfcrved the ex- 
peftation from ufing mud as a manure difappointedj 
and no benefit refulting from it, and fufpecfling 
that this might refult from a vitriolic acid being 
imbibed by it, I tried an experiment on pots, 
before I ventured in large on a heap I had lately 
thrown out of a pond. Put into [tven pots as 
follow : 

No. I, filled with poor fand, manured with two 
oz. of mud dry, beat to powder and fifted^— 2, filled 
with the mud broken in fmall pieces, and two oz. 
of wood-afhes added — 3, filled with the mud alone 
beaten and fifted — 4, the mud alone in fmall pieces 
— 5, the mud beaten and fifted, and mixed with 
two oz. of powdered unflacked lime — 6, the fand 
alone — ^7, good loam alone. 

Planted each with four grains of oats. Watered 
all equally. 

The 1 6th, four plants up in No. 7, none in any 
of the reft. 

The 26th, viewed. 

YoL. I.No. 4» T No, 



2yo ANNALSOF 

No. 7, much the bell — i, the next — 3, next—* 
5, do. 6 do. 2 do. only two plants — 4, nothing. 

June 4th, No. 7, trebly beft j then they rank 

3> i> 5> 2, 6, 4. 

Auguft 15th, cut them. 

Pots, Grains. 

No. I, — o — 

2, — 59 — 



3 



I 



Wt. 


firaw. 






3 


2 


12 





9 





6 





II 





I 


I 


15 



4, — 10 — 

5, — 27 — 

6, — o — 

7, — 37 — 
The refult of this firft crop is remarkable. It 

has been ufually recommended by writer's on huf- 
bandry, as well as by pra6tical farmers, to mix 
mud and lime together, as the beft means of mak- 
ing the former a good manure. Till the very end 
of the trial, the lime, comparing 3 and 5 together, 
did mifchief; at laft it changed and did good; 
but the ftraw fhews the effed: to have been but lit- 
tle. But comparing 2 and 4 together, the refult 
is extraordinary -, the mud alone is miferable, but 
t\\t addition of wood-aflies makes it more than 
quadruply better, and much exceeding even good 
loam. This is a valuable article of knowledge, 
for it may be found more advantageous to add 
afhes to mud, than to ufe them alone. 

Auguft 1 6th, ftirred the earth and fov/ed turnip- 
feed. The 29th, viewed. 

. No, 



A G R I C U L T U R Eo 271 
No. 7> much the beflj then 2, 4, 3, 5, i, 6, 
The experiment continues. , 

EXPERIMENT, No. XXXIV. 

May 20th, 1783. Having obferved in fevefal 
of the preceding trials, that apparently fmall pro- 
portions of various fubftances proved injurious at 
firft, but afterwards were beneficial j I formed a 
trial upon fome of the mofl: interefting objefts, dif- 
folved in, or mixed with water, to be given gra- 
dually. Filled eight pots equally with the fame 
eood loam, and added. 

No. 9, the loam alone — 10, common fait one 
oz. in a quart bottle of water — 20, nitre one oz. in 
ditto — 21, clayed fugar one oz. in do. — 22, fpirit 
of wine one oz. in do. — 23, fp. of nitre one oz. in 
do. — 24, fp. of hartfliorn one oz. in do. — 25, 
hard foap one oz. in do. 

Planted each with four grains barley. Watered 
them out of the refpe(5tive bottles, emptying them 
by June 25th; an equal quantity of plain water 
to No. I. May 27th, after fix hours rain. No. 
10 holds water, but none of the red. June 4th, 
viewed. 

No. 9 and 25 equal, and thebeftj then they rank 
10, 20. 23, 24, 21 i and 22 has no vegetation. 

June nth, the order is 9, 20, 10, 25, 24, 21 j 
22 and 23 dying. 

Auguft 15th, reaped. 

T 2 Pot", 



^72 ANNALS 


p 


Pots. Grains. 


Dwt. gr. 


No. 9, 9 


I 8 {lra\V. 




2 


20, ' O — 


10 


24, 9 


I »5 


25, — 13 — 


I 4 



The reft nothing, or too poor to take account of. 
Thus, we find that every thing has done mifchief, 
though diluter", except the foap and fpirit of hartl- 
horn. Auguft 16th, ftirred the earth, and fo wed 
turnip-feed. 29th viewed. 

No. 24, much the beft; then 9, 20, 21, 22, 25, 
very poor J 23 and 10 nothing. September 7th, 
and October 20th, the refult was the fame. 

The more we experience the volatile alkali, the 
more remarkable the effeft appears; foap, from 
being rather beneficial the firft crop, feems to be- 
come a poifon to the fecond, which is fo uncom- 
mon an efFeft, that I muft try it again under va- 
riations. I eXpedt the common fait will recover it- 
felf next year, and prove beneficial. It is remark- 
able, that I have not yet been able to apply this 
fubftance in any way whatever, without its proving 
a poifon always for one, and fometimes for two 
crops. Spirit of wine continues in this as in fo 
many other inftances, a very adive poifon. 
The experiment continues. 



ON 



AGRICULTURE. 273 

ON MANURES, PARTICULARLY 
GOOSE-DUNG. 

By Richard 'Town ley y E/g. of Be (field, 

SIR, 

THE Iheet of obfervations which attends this 
letter was intended for my friend Dodlor 
Hunter's perufal, had he continued his excellent 
publication ; if it would operate as a flimulus to 
the farmer's induftry, in feeking out for new ma- 
nures, and endeavouring to procure them, from 
fources that have been hitherto overlooked or ne- 
gledted, it might then have fome little claim to pub - 
lie attention, I lubmit it to your friendly perufal ; 
and then to difpofe of it as you think proper. I wilh 
well to your generous difinterefted defign^ as I much 
approve the plan. You will poflibly hear from me 
again, when prepared with any ufeful materials, 
fuch as may not difgrace your Annals, 
I am. Sir, &c. 

Belfield, near Rochdale, Lau' -n nrOWTsIT FY 

ca/birgy March ijyij^^. 



iroprobus anfer. 



Strymoniapque grues, et amaris intuba fibris, 
Officiunt, aut umbra nocet 

ViRG. Georg. Book I. V. 119. 

A/TR. HOLDS WORTH, in his very judicious 
remarks upon Virgil, makes the following 
obfervaiion upon the above paflage. 

" Virgil fpeaks of geefe as a very troublefome 

bird, and very pernicious to corn. They are ftill 

T 3 b, 



£74 A N N A L S O F 

iW, in flocks, in the Cainpania-Felicc, the country 

which Virgil had chiefly in his eye when he wrote 

the Georgics." In that remarkable long and fe- 

vere frofl:, which happened in the year 1739-40 *, 

vafl: flocks of wild geefe came and fettled upon the 

green corn in many parts of Cambridgefhire and 

Huntingdonfliire, which were neareft to the Great 

Bedford Level. The farmers, it being quite a new 

vifitation, were very greatly alarmed, thinking their 

crops would be intirely ruined by the depredations 

of thofe voracious birds i but very foon after their 

departure, all thofe fears fubfided, and they were 

agreeably furprifed in finding, that thofe corn lands 

''"hich had been preyed upon by fuch new vifltants, 

gave as pleafmg a profpeft for a plentiful crop, as 

thofe that had not been touched at all by them. 

The very uncommon feverity of that remarkable 

winter, locking up all thofe watery refources for 

food, within the lower and interior parts of the great 

level, obliged the birds to migrate in fearch of it 

elfewhere; and having found a new and palatable 

fupply from the green corn, they have ever fince 

come up in vaft flocks upon the fetting in of fevere 

frofls, and feed upon it, undiflurbed by the farmers, 

as long as the cold weather lafis i their dung and 

* According to Mr. Egede's Journal of Greenland, the wfea- 
ther was fo mild at that time, in Dilko Creek, that wild geefe came 
from the temperate to that part of the frigid zone, to fcek ftr 
warmth and food in January, 

their 



AGRICULTURE. 275 

their trampling, being found, from experience, fer- 
viceable, and nor, in any refpeft, prejudicial. It 
muft be otferved, that they chiefly reft upon the 
out-laying lands, or thofe at a good diftance from 
the towns or villages ; and that thofe lands are ge- 
nerally of a lighter nature of foil, and alfo poorer, 
than thofe in the lower parts of the common fields, 
which come in for more than a proportionate Hiare 
of the yard dung. The green corn, efpecially the 
rye, being alfo commonly depaftured, in thofe lower 
parts of the field, with ewes and lambs; a moil 
noble advantage^to the farmers, where the land is in 
fufficient heart and ftrength to allow it. What^ I 
would wifh to infer from the above obfervations, is, 
that general rules, in regard to praflices in huf- 
bandry, will feldom hold juft and true; I do not 
doubt, but the wild geefe coming in fuch vaft flocks 
upon the green corn in the Campania- Felice, might 
in the time of that very accurate and judicious 
writer, ;be found to do injury to the crops ; ant.1 
pofllbly, the fame obfervation may ftill hold true — • 
much depends upon the nature of the foil, 'much upon 
the climate, and, ^rohdbXy^ ftill much mere w^on the 
7?^^«? of growth the corn is in when it is preyed 
upon by thofe devouring birds. Dodlor Martyn is 
pleafed to obferve upon this paflfage, " Thac the 
goofe is injurious wherever it comes, by plucking 
up every thing by the roots." Columella quotes 
Celfus much to the fame purpofe, ^dd quid tem- 
rum contingere potejl, carpit. Palladius fays, Zy^/j 
T 4 confttisy 



276 ANNALS OF 

confitisy inimicus eji, quia fata, et morfu ladit et Jler^ 
core. This notion, of the dung of geefe injuring the 
grounds where they feed, ftill prevails amongfl: 
fome few country people -, but experience will con- 
vince us, that grafs grows as well under the dung 
ofthofe animals as moil others. As to thofe bare 
places which are obfervable where geefe very much 
frequent, they are occafioned by their drawing up 
fome of the grafs by the roots, and not from any 
noxious quality in their dung, as there is great reafon 
to believe it to be of a very fertilizing nature *, 
though not fo much fo as that of the fea birds. 

There is a fmall ifland, at the entrance of the 
Lancafter channel, called Fowlly Ifland, a name 
fuppofed to be given it from the immenfe quantities 
of fea-fowls, or birds, that conftantly fjequent it ; 
the grafs upon it is uncommonly fweet and nou- 
rilliing ; the beef and mutton fed there being re- 
markably fine flavoured as well as fat. This ifland 
"maintains an unufual quantity of flock, for the 
fize of it, both fummer and winter ; and its fer- 
tility, as well as the excellent quality of the grafs, 
are feemingly owing to the vafl; quantities of dung 
depoflted there by thofe marine birds. The far- 
mers are fo much convinced of it, that they will 
not fufl^er thofe birds to be difturbed, if they can 
prevent it, at any time; but, efpecially at the 
breeding feafon, when the whole ifland is covered 
with nefts of various kinds. 

* SeeGeorgical EfTays, large o.flavo edition, p. 391* 



AGRICULTURE. 277 
Certain I am that confiderable quantities of moft 
valuable manure might be raifed by farmers who 
live near large commons, and keep great flocks of 
geefe, if they would ufe the beft methods of ob- 
taining it. It is obfervable, that the goofe being 
a domeftic bird, generally makes towards its own 
homeftall, or place of breeding, about the clofe of 
day, and remains there till about fun rifing. If 
they were to be regularly houfed at night, in fome 
empty out-buildings, and the place, every four or 
five days, littered with draw, or weeds cut down 
before they perfefl their feeds, much valuable ma- 
nure might be obtained from that neglefled fource. 
The fame advantage might be reaped by littering 
the places where other kinds of poultry regularly 
go to rood, or ftrewing the places frequently with 
faw~duft, or coal-aihes finely fifted. Every three 
or four weeks the places (hould be cleaned out, 
and the dung laid up in heaps to ferment, either 
by itfelf, or mixed with foil, or fcouring of ponds 
or ditches, which would confiderably increafe the 
quantity, and, for fome ufes, improve the quality 
too. By fuch attentive managements, farmers 
would probably obtain feven or eight additional 
loads of excellent manure annually, an obje(5l that 
will not be contemned or neglefted by any farmer 
that underftands his bufinels well; for the great 
difference that is found or obferved between the 
management of difl^erent perfons in that ufeful bu- 
finefs, arifes more from the very different attention 

paid 



27S ANNALS OF 

paid to the minutia of it, than to the great out- 
lines or general practices ; for, he that does noc 
pay daily and hourly attention to the latter, does 
not deferve the name of a farmer, nor will he con- 
tinue one long, at leaft to any beneficial purpofe ; 
and he that pays ftritft attention to the former, will 
foon experience the manifeft advantages refulting 
from it i his fields, his crops, will evidently fhew 
it. Any one verfed in the valuable writings of the 
ancients upon hufbandry fubjefts, will foon per- 
ceive the very great ftrefs that is laid by them upon 
an uremitting attention to every pofiiblc method 
of procuring manures. The great advantage of 
folding flieep upon ploughing grounds, is too well 
known to require noticing ; yet, there are many 
fenfible writers and farmers too, that think it more 
eligible to houfe the fheep every night in proper 
buildings for the purpofe, which are littered with 
ftraw, or covered frequently with layers of frefii 
dry mould, and that the advantage procured by 
fuch practice, in the quantity of rich manure ob- 
tained by it, will far more than compenfate for the 
additional trouble and expenfe. . There are many 
good farmers alfo, in the grazing way, who con- 
ftantly k-?cp coliefting the dung or droppings of 
their cattle j laying them up in heaps, mixed with 
ihavv or other vegetable fubftances, or with foil. 
And when the heaps have lain for fome time to 
meliorate, turn them over, mixing with them lime, 
or fifted dry coal-afhes, or both. This excellent 

, compoft 



AGRICULTURE. 279 
compoft: is afterwards regularly fpread over fLicfi 
parts of their grafs grounds as lland mofl in need 
of fuch afTiflance. Such a praftice contributes 
much to the neatnefs, as well as improvement of 
fuch grounds, by preventing partial ranknefs, as 
well as poverty ; a defe6l that is vifible in mod, 
where fuch necelfary attention is not paid to them. 

R. T. 



ON THE USE OF THE CLUSTER PO- 
TATOE IN FEEDING FIORSES. 

By Sir William Fordjce. 

Warwick-ftreet, Weftminfter, Sept, a. 1783. 

Dear Sir, 

T happened by your obliging letter of the 2 2d 
ult. having been addrefled to me at Hyacinth- 
hill, that it only came to hand laft night. I am 
extremely obliged to you for it, and feel properly 
all your partialities for me. If the Britifli empire 
felt as I do on your fubjedl, they would acknow- 
ledge, by fome public aft, your fervices, as one of 
her mod defer ving fons ! 

In anfwer to your queries about the Surinam po- 
tatoes. 

I. They were boiled daily with the fame fife thar, 
cooked the viftuals for my table ; and they wer- 
boiled in the ufual manner, but not into a mafiv 
each horfe had a quarter of a peck daily ; and they 

never 



2Ho ANNALS OF 

never fluxed them. My horfes are always in a 
hurry, and fo is their mafter. I never gave thein 
the potatoes raw, neither to them nor to my poul- 
try, who, with pollard, live entirely on them ; as 
did my hogs, excepting the laft ten davs, when I 
gave them peafe. I had heard that poik fattened 
With them, loft the fat in boiling j but treated as 
above, I did not find it fo. 

I have given my horfes in tov^n, /ometimes chafF; 
but, having other affairs to mind, I can only fay, 
that fbme of my horfes in the ftable (the young 
ones), and not much workf^d, have occafionally 
ftraw in rack, in general good hay, 

I have to add, that nothing could give me more 
pleafure than to vifit you and your farm, but my 
time is generally devoted to phyfic. 
I remain, with particular efteem, 
Your's, &c. 

WM. FORDYCE. 

Your communications will always afford me the 
mofl fenfible pleafure. 

Arthur Young, Efq. at Bradfield- 
Hall, near Bury, Suffolk. 

George- ftreet, Hanover- fquare, March az, 1784.. 

Dear Sir, 

N unufual nurhber of engagements will, I 
truft, plead my apology for not having paid 
an immediate attention to your obliging letter of the 
soth of laft month, and to your requeft: of com- 
municating 



AGRICULTURE 2S1 

inunicating what I knew of the culture of the 
Clujlery or Surinam ^potatoe, and its application for 
feeding horfes, as one means of lelTening the enor- 
mous innportation of oats. 

It gave me, as 1 perfuaded myfelf it has given 
every lover of his country, who is at all acquainted 
with agriculture, a very fenfible pleafure to fee an- 
nounced in the news-papers,j(?«r intention of pub- 
lifhing Annals of Agricultur>>\n numbers, with libe- 
ral invitations to communicate to you any thing new 
or ufeful on that fubjedt, and through your channel 
to the public : indeed. Sir, you was called, with 
peculiar propriety, to a poft of fuch honour from 
your perfcft acquaintance with the general ftate of 
agriculture in every part of England and Ireland, 
and your perfonal experience of every thing relating 
to it, in which it is acknowledged that you ftand 
unrivalled. I heartily join the public fuffrage, and 
wifii you fuccefs in a caufe fo intimately conne6ted 
with the bell interefts of our country. Your plan 
appears to be admirable, as explained and exem- 
plified in your firll and fecond numbers. 

I had long adopted an idea that we wanted a 
fubftitute for barley and oats to feed our horfes, 
cattle, pigs, and poultry. The expenfc of feeding 
horfes efpecially is become extreme about London. 
The returns which the clufter potatoe yields, if cul- 
tivated on lazy- beds, or by trenching, according to 
my experience, compared with the common pota- 
loej naturally led me to make a trial of the culture 

in 



2^2 A N N A L S O F 

in trenches, from the opinion that unlefs fo large a 
root as it grows to (oftentimes from a pound and a 
half, to three, four, and five, and fometimes to 
fiXj or even eight pounds weight each) was lightly- 
covered with earth on the top of the trench, and 
more earth thrown upon the plants occafionally, 
tiiey muft be cramped in their growth, where the 
ground is not remarkably loofe. 

Having, in the month of April 1775) ploughed 
half an acre of land which had been formerly 
trenched, which produced a good crop of turnips 
the preceding feafon, I fpread upon it a quantity 
of litter immediately from the ftable. The, cut-^ 
tings of the potatoes (with one or more eyes to 
each cutting) were laid at fix inches diftance from 
one another, on beds four feet and a half broad, 
and covered lightly with earth from trenches of 
two feet and a half. As foon as the plants ap- 
peared, three inches more of earth v;ere thrown 
upon them. The plants had greater verdure, and 
larger leaves, than any of the comm.on efculent fort; 
':-ircumfl:ances which probably contributed to the 
largenefs of their growth. You could fcarcely put 
down your finger on beds without touching the 
roots, they were fo numerous j and, in fome places, 
were feen like turnips above ground, 

I had the curiofity to cut one of fix pounds 
eight ounces into 24 pieces, and planted them in 
my garden (Mr. Brittingham, of Norwich was 
prefent -,) the produce was taken up and weighed 

before 



AGRICULTURE. 283 
before him i it yielded 165 pounds weight from 
this one potatoe. The feafon was the drieft 1 have 
known, and thought the crop but fmallj the ground 
was very light, and but juft taken ofr the common. 

1 fent a potatoe of eight pounds weight and up- 
wards (by fix ounces) for the Emperor Jofeph, by 
a friend. 

I had a peck boiled every day after the dinner 
was cooked in the kitchen, and gave my faddle- 
horfes and my coach-horfes (afterwards) a quarter 
of a peck each daily, on which they did their work 
well as long as they lafted, that is upwards of two 
months, inftead of oats, only a trifling quantity of 
which were now and then given. I doubt if they 
would be hearty enough for a long draught; bur, 
from my obfervation in the ftreets, and to the five 
mile-fi:one, I never found the horfes to flinch in 
the draught, or under the faddle. If they were 
roafi:ed * on kilns, as I underfl^and other potatoes 
are done in fome parts of England, particularly in 
Northumberland, and mixed fome ground oats, it 
would, I imagine, be a great faving in oats, and 
more hearty food. I found out, after a great ex- 
penfe in grain in my poultry-yard, that all forts of 

* This obfervation dcferves great attention ; I know fcarcely 
any thing more wanted than a cheap method of baking potatoes 
Will no Northumberland gentleman fend me an account of the 
method here referred to ? A. Y. 

poultry 



284 ANNALSOF 

poultry thrive extremely well on them when mixed 
with pollard. 

I remain, with much efteem, 

Your's, &c. 

WM. FORDYCE. 

N. B. My not having had my farm in my own 
hands of late, has interrupted any farther experi- 
ments, as they are not to be found in the market 
of London *. 



—a 



I 



EXPERIMENTS ON POTATOES. 

By John Kirhy, Efq, of Ipfwich. 

N the fpring 1782, an old lay near Ipfwich was 
ploughed : the firfl: plough fkimmed off the 
turf about an inch and half deep ; women followed 
and laid the potatoe fets (the Glohe-whitey called 
alfo the Champon) in that furrow; then came 
another plough that cut as deep as pofllble, cover- 
ing the fets nine inches deep. There is no danger of 
burying them as they rife freely. In this manner, 
without any manuring, planted every third or 

• Sir William Fordyce was the firft perfon publicly known in 
England to apply this root to feeding horfes : there was great 
merit in the thought, and the experiments that have fince been 
made on this application (of which various inftances will appear 
in the next number of this work) have confirmed, in the ftrongeft 
manner, the importance of this intelligence. 

fourth 



AGRICULTURE 285 
fourth furrow j part one, and part the other : in the 
firft, the rows were 27 inches afund&r ; in the lat- 
ter, three feet. The former yielded the greater crop. 
They were all kept clean by horfe and hand- hoeing j 
were taken up with three-pronged forks, at the ex- 
penfe of a halfpenny a bufhel. The crop 400 
bulhels an acre j and lold at 2s. a bufbel, or 40I, 
an acre, gained at a very trifling expenfe. 

Not having any clufter potatoes of my own, I 
bought fome of a neighbour, to try them in horfe- 
feeding, and from the refult, prefer ihem to carrots. 
They were given raw, butwafhed,tofaddIe-horfeSj, 
each having a peck a day, and no oats whatever. 
The horfes were worked moderately, the fame as 
on oats, did their work very well, and were in good 
order. At firft they fcoured, but it foon went off, 
and did no more than keep their bodies gently open. 
To afcertain from this trial, the value of the pota- 
toes, that of oats will decide it ; reckoning half a 
peck of oats a day to be equal feeding, and the 
price 1 6s. a quarter, the value of the potatoes will 
be IS. a bufhel. 



ARTIFICIAL YEAST, 

By the fame. 

BOiL potatoes of the mealy fort, till they are 
thoroughly foftj fkin and mafh them very 
fmooth, and put as much hot- water as will make 
Vol. I, No. 4, U the 



286 ANNALS OF 

the mafli of the confiftency of common beer yeafl, 
bur not thicker. Add to every pound of potatoes, 
two ounces of coarfe fugar, or treacle ; and when 
juft warm, £lir in, for every pound of potatoes, two 
fpoontuls of yeaft. Keep it warm till it has done 
fermenring, and in 24 hours it may be ufed. A 
pound of potatoes will make near a quart of yeafb 
and when made, will keep three months. Lay 
your bread eight hours before you bake it. 

I have feveral times tried this receipt in the 
hard froft, when yeaft was fcarce, and found it to 
anfwer the purpofe fo well, as not to be able to dif- 
tinguifh the difference between the bread made 
from the one or the other. 

I^/wichy Feb. 2'] J 1784. J. K. 



ON CLAYING AND MARLING, AND 
THE TREATMENT Or NEW 
IMPROVED LANDS. 

By Mr. W. Macro, of Barrow, Suffolk. 

FROM different trials of my own, at a very great 
expenfe, and the obfervations I have made on 
my neighbours and the Norfolk farmer's manner 
of improving light fandy lands, by clay and marie, 
I am clearly convinced, that about 70 fquare yards * 
is the properefl quantity to be laid upon an acre of 
land, pole nneafure. If more belaid on, the longer 

* A fquare yard is as much as is generally carried for a load. 

it 



AGRICULTURE 287 

It will be before it incorporates with the foil, and of 
courfe the longer before any ber;^ fit can be received 
from it. I once faw an inftance where a farnner 
laid 1 20 loads, or fquare yards, per acre, and gave 
this reafon for it, that the land was fo very poor, 
that he was fure he could not hurt it. But the con- 
fequence of it was, that after an expenfe that would 
have purchafed the fee-fimple of the land, I could 
not fee, for many years, that he had done it any 
good, as it produced no better (if fo good) crops, 
as lands by the fide of it, that had not been clayed 
at all, but otherwife farmed the fame. It has now, 
however, evidently the advantage of the other 
lands, having been done above twenty years. 

This trial was in the middle of a fhiftable field, 
where, by the courfe of hufbandry, two crops are 
taken to one fummer- tilth ; and where this is the 
cafe, clayifig, &c. feldom (or never, I might fay) 
anfwers the expenfe ; for claying and marling being 
only a firft, or beginning of improvement *, by 
going on dire6lly with a courfe of ploughing, which 
cannot well be avoided in fhiftable fields, it is often 
buried and lofl, before it mixes properly with the 
foil, efpecially if turned in too deep the firft earth, 
of which great care fhould be taken. I would, 
therefore, recommend claying or marling only upon 
inclofed lands, unlefs where large breadths lie toge- 
ther, that can be farmed in any manner the occupier 

* An excellent obfervation. The whole paper is full of truly 
Pi'adical knowUdge, A. Y. 

U % plealcsj 



288 ANNALS OF 

pleafes j and, in that cafe (as well as in inclofures), 
I would advife, that the lands fhould be laid down 
with clover, rye-grafs, and trefoil, the fpring 
twelve- month before laying on the clay, or marie* 
and to remain at leaft fix months after it, that it 
may have time to fink and eat itfelf into the flag, 
before it is ploughed up ; and then there will be 
little or no danger in loofing it, as it will already be 
in fome meafure incorporated with the foil. 

No pains (hould be fpared to break all the lumps, 
and get it fine by repeated harrowings and rollings, 
and having all the ftones picked and carried away, 
that the grafs might get through as foon as poflible, 
for {lock to be grazing upon it, which is the great 
and finifhing improvement; for, as I obferved 
above, claying or marling feldom or never anfwers^ 
where you go on immediately with a courfe of 
ploughing in the John Trott way. 

In my opinion, as much, or more, depends on 
the management of lands after claying or marling, 
than in the mere laying it on ; which, however^ is 
very expenfive, and therefore a very perfuafive ar- 
gument in favour of that fort of management, that 
will be themoft likely to make it lading. 

I would, therefore, recommend the following 
mode of culture for fome years. 

After it has been got fine, and laid fix or eight 
months, or longer, in the month of February, or 
beginning of March, break it up, and plant it with 
peafe, by dibbling j the white, or Marlborough 

dun 



AGRICULTURE. 289 

dun pea, are the moft likely to fucceed. After the 
crop of peafe fallow for turnips, ploughing it the 
firft time before Chriftmas, and giving it, in the 
whole, four or five earths, with harrowings, &c. as 
wanted. After feeding off the turnips upon the 
land, fow barley, and lay it down again with clover, 
trefoil, and rye-grafs, for fummer- grazing the fol- 
lowing year ; 10 lb. of good clover and trefoil, that 
is, 51b. of each, with about one peck of the beft 
rye-grafs, will be fufficient for an acre. 

Let it lay two fummers, after which, by either 
folding or dunging it, if not too poor a fand, there 
will be a good chance for a crop of w^eat ; after 
which fallow again for turnips and barley, or rape 
feed and oats j and fo on, always bearing in mind, 
that taking two following crops of corn (without a 
fallow, or fummer-grazing), will foon bring new 
improved land to its former impoverifhcd (late. 

Little need be faid about the different quality of 
clay or marie, as every one muft be content to ufe 
fuch as is found on his own premifes, for I never 
heard of any in the counties of Suffolk or Norfolk 
that would anfwer long carriage * j clay that is 
freeft from fand, and marie that is foft and grcafy, 
are certainly the moft valuable. And even blue 
clay, that is condemned by moft farmers, I have 
found anfwer very well on light fands, but they 

* In tlie county of Kent I have feen a fort of rr.arle that the 
EiTex farmers buy, which, after being fent many miles by water, 
Jam informed they iind anfwers carrying five or fix miles by land. 

generally 



290 A N N A L S O F 

generally lie at too great a diitance from each other 
to be prudently got together. 

Where thtre are different forts of manure equally 
convenient upon the fame premifles, which is fome- 
times the cafe, viz. pure clay, white foapy clay 
marie, clay with much marie in it, loamy clay, or 
cork ; I (hould certainly prefer the former, for light 
fandy lands. When I fay light fandy lands, I would 
not be underllood to mean the yellow driving fands 
that will blow away with every wind, nor the black 
or dark afh coloured fands which will blow like- 
wife J for, I own I lliould be afraid to fink two or 
three pounds per acre on fuch fort of foils, I mean 
fands worth about five fhillings per acre, that are 
eafiiy pulverized, and do not (lick much to the 
plough. On fands of a flronger nature, that have 
a mixture of loam with them, I fhould chufe the 
foapy marie, or that mixed with clay marie, which 
ever was moft convenient ; but any of the inferior 
ones muft be ufed rather than fubmit to long car- 
riage, efpecially on a large fcale. 

I will not. Sir, trouble you or your readers with 
any more on this fubjeft at prefent, but may, when 
I have another leifure hour, lay before thern fome 
of the grand obdacles that deter many a common 
farmer from purfuing this mode of improvement. 

I have a fcheme in agitation, on a fmall fcale, 
which I mean one day to execute, and which I ex- 
pect to be very much condemned for; that is, to 
fmk a pit upon a ftiif clayey foil, and carry it 

about 



AGRICULTURE. 291 
about half a mile to a light Tandy foil ; to keep a 
Handing cart at both places, and fkim off as many- 
loads. from the furface of the latter to bring back, 
as I carry loads of the former to that, fo that when 
I have clayed a few acres of fandy land, I Ihali 
have fanded about the fame number of acres of 
clay lands. I am well aware of the many objec- 
tions that will be made to it, fuch as the robbing of 
land that was too poor before, the additional la- 
bour to poor horfes, and the like. Bur in-anfwer, 
I do fay, that if nobody has ever tried it, nobody- 
can be certain it will not prove fuccefsful; and if it 
fhould, it is the only way I know of, that a farmer 
can be paid for giving fuch heavy manure long 
carriage. 

I am your's, &c. 

W. M. * 

Barroiv, i2ih March, 1784., 
A. Tiiung, Efq. 



* Mr. Macro is one of tlie moft conluierable farmers in this 
part of Suffolk -, his obfervations are the refult of great experience 
and clofe attention. I need not, therefore, add, that they aie 
particularly valuable. I wifh for the correfpondence of fuch truly 
practical farmers. They never take the pen in hand, but the ai^ 
is the better for their exertions. A. V. 



EX 



292 A N N x\ L S, &c. 

EXPERIMENT ON MARLING LAND 
BY DEEP PLOUGHING. 

By Hut chef on Mure, Efq. of Great Saxham^ 
Suffolk, 

' I ^HE foil of the furface a wet loam, inclining 
to clay, immediately on a marie bottom, 
which was termed dead foil, by a farmer who was 
advifed to plough deep in a common field, in or- 
der to bring it up. Ordered my own ploughs in 
another part of the fame field to do it, by one 
plough following another in the fame furrow ; the 
wheat there was better than in any other fpot of 
the piece. Convinced by this, that the conjefture 
was founded on a juft theory, a flout plough for 
great depths was procured, which flirred i6 inches 
deep. The praftice in large anfwered as well as 
in the firfl: trial ; and, on fimilar foils, deferves the 
attention of fuch farmers as wifh to go the cheapefl 
way to work *. 

H.M* 



* All Mr. Mure's obfervations are truly philofophical and 
juft. Here, in very few words, is contained a leflbn that may 
be of vaft importance to great number of farmers, A. Y. 



ANN 



O F 



AGRICULTURE. 



A METHOD OF REARING YOUNG 
CATTLE. 

By his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, 

g J J^ Northumberland-Houfe, Jan. 29, 1782. 

I AM to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
on the fubjeft of rearing calves in a lefs expen- 
five manner than has hitherto been praftifed, and, 
in anfwer to it, I muft defire to acquaint you, that 
I have for fome time entertained an idea that fkim- 
med milk might be prepared with proper ingredi- 
ents effedually to anfwer that purpofe, at about a 
third of the expcnce of feeding calves with new milkj 
the articles to be added to the blue or fkimmed milk, 
are treacle and the common linfeed-oil cake, ground 
very fine, almofl to an impalpable powder, and the 
quantities fo fmall, that to make 32 gallons would 
cofl: no more, exclufive of the milk, than about fix- 
pence. It mixes very readily, and almoft intimately 
with the milk, making it more rich and mucilagin- 
ous, without giving it any difagreeable tafte, 
VoL.I. N0.5. X I have 



294 ANNALS OF 

I have fentyou the receipt for making the linfeed- 
milky which may be varied at difcretion; and, though 
I have not yet had much experience of its good ef- 
fe6ls, I am inclined to believe, that under your care 
and dire(5lion there is a very great probability of 
its fuccefsj it will afford me great pleafure, if the 
hint I have here given fhould be found any way ufe- 
ful in promoting your laudable wifhes to ferve the 
public; and be afilired I fliall find great fatisfacftion, 
on all occafions, in tcftifying t<he great regard and 
efteem with which I am, Sir, 

Your moft obedikjnt, 

and mod humble fervanr, 

NORTHUMBERLAND. 

To Arthur Young, Efq. 

TAKE one gallon of fkimmed milk, and in about 
a pint of it add half an ounce of common treacle, 
ftirring it until it is well mixed ; then take one 
ounce of linfeed'Oil cake finely pulverifed, and with 
the hand let it fall gradually, in very fmall quanti- 
ties, into the milk, ftirring it in the mean time with 
a fpoon or ladle, until it be thoroughly incorpo- 
rated j then let the mixture be put into the other 
part of the milk, and the whole be made nearly as 
warm as new milk when it is firft taken from the 
cow, and in that ftate it is fit for ufe. 

iV. B. Thequantity of theoil cake powder may, 
from tirifie to time, be increafed as occafion may re- 
quire, and as the calf becomes inured to the flavour 

of it. 

OBSERVA- 



AGRICULTURE. 295 
OBSERVATIONS. 

By the Editor, 

T^HERE are two objeds in rearing calves, each 
of which is of great innportance : Jirjiy to ef- 
fect it without the afTiftance of any milk at all} and, 
Jecondy to innprove Ikim-nnilk in fuch a manner as to 
render it more nutritious, it being well known that 
there is a prodigious difference in the growth and 
thriving of the animal when fed with new or fkimmed 
milk. The Society of Arts at London offered for 
fome years premiums for the firft of thefe objefts, 
and rewarded an account from Mr. Budd, of Wand- 
borough in Surry 1 his method was to feed them 
with a gruel made of ground barley and oats, the 
particulars of which are to be feen in the third vo- 
lume of Doffie's Memoirs of Agriculture. On this 
method 1 fhall only obferve, that I followed it with 
the greateft exacflnefs laft year with two calves, both 
of which, fo far from being reared, were fo reduced, 
that, though I changed their diet to milk upon find- 
ing it would not do, yet I was too late with the 
change, and they both died. I will not generally 
condemn the method from one experiment, but, I 
mult own, I have many doubts of its ever proving 
a real and entire fubflitution for milk. 

During my refidence in Ireland, I had the op- 
portunity of buying calves at three days old for the 
low price of 2od. to 2'^. which induced me to make 
many experiments on this inquiry. Knowing before 
X 2 I went 



296 ANNALS OF 

I went the cheapnefs of calves^ I had colleded va- 
rious receipts for weaning theirij among others hay- 
tea, bean-meal mixed with wheat-flour, barley and 
oats ground, nearly, but not exadlly, in Mr. Budd's 
proportion, but principally flax-feed boiled to a 
jelly and mixed with warm water, this being recom- 
niended more than the reft, I tried it on more calves. 
f The refult of the experiments on above thirty calves 
was regiftered regularly, but the minutes loft, with 
other papers, in packing up and moving fronti one 
kingdom to another : the general refult, however, I 
well remember. In above thirty calves, I reared not 
above three or four, and I was convinced, as ftrongly 
as the experience of one feafon could convince me, 
that none of the methods tried deferved reliance. 
Barley and oat-meal, with a very fmall quantity of 
flax-jelly, reared the few that efcaped, except one, 
on which a trial was made at the fuggeftion of my 
coachman, v/ho had reared many calves. He defired 
to mix two-thirds (kim.-milk, and one-third water, 
with a fmall addition of flax-jelly, well dillolved; 
that calf recovered quickly from the low condition it 
had been reduced to, and afterwards throve well. 

Upon the whole, 1 have no flight reafon to think, 
that this nrft object rem.ains nearly in as great a ftate 
of uncertainty as ev^er : I am far from pronouncing 
that it cannot be done, and intend multiplying my 
experiments in the enquiry as often as I am able ; 
all I can aficrt is, that I have hitherto had no fuc- 
cefs. 

I now 



AGRICULTURE. 297 

I now come to the fecond object, that of im- 
proving fkim-milk, a defideratum as much to be 
defired as the former. 

The moment I rt-ceived the above very fatisfac- 
tory communication from that great patron of every 
patriotic endeavour to ferve the public, the Duke 
OF Northumberland, I tried it exaflly according 
to the receipt, and, at the fame time, recommended 
it to two farmers in different parts of the kingdom, 
who I knew were fohcitous for difcoveries of this 
kind. It anfwered with rne as well as 1 could wifli 
the firfl feafon, and has fiood a fecond teft * : the 
farmers to whom I communicated, report alfo fa- 
vourably of it: in all cafes it has appeared to do 
better than fkim-milk alone. Thus one material flep 
is gained J not the complete eftablifhment of the 
method, which can only follow mukiplied and varied 
experiments ; but a proof that it may very fafely be 
recommended to thofe who are the moft cautious, 
and the mod fearful of incurring expenfe. 

Being able to declare thus m.uch in its favour, I 
lately wrote to his Grace, informing him of the fuc- 
cefs, and requefting his pcrmilTion to publifh it, 
which, by another letter conceived in the handfomeil 
teiTns, he allows me to do. I can only add, that fuch 
a liberality of fentiment gives a iulhe to exalted 
rank j fets an example of attention to the welfare of 
the lowefl clalTes -, and connefts greatnefs with its 
right bafis, THE people's good. A. Y. 

* It would have had further trials, but I was unable to procure 
pil'C^lUe in time. 

X 3 OB-. 



298 ANNALS OF 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTURE 
OF LUCERNE. 

By TFilliam Belcher j Efq. of Ulcomhey near Maid- 
fioney Kent, 

S I R, 
T Have read the twofirft numbers of your Annals 
of Agriculture with great pleafure, which I highly 
approve, and am convinced of the found, fubflan- 
tial, and prodigious benefit the home-plantation- 
plan, projeded in the former, would be to the nation 
on a variety of accounts, if God would grant a per- 
manent peace j though the calculations therein con- 
tained are above my comprehenfion. But to em- 
brace more than one (lamp of readers, would it not 
be ufeful to enlarge the title and plan of contents ? 
I apprehending that a periodical publication can 
hardly fubfift, unlefs the alliinentary provifion be 
made palatable with the feafoning zeft of the times, 
and the flores of knowledge be rendered inviting. 

Deeming it incumbent on every true patriot to 
contribute his mite to the genius of a work, the fir ft 
of the kind, far above fordid, felfifh, narrow con- 
fiderations, I have fent you a fpecimen in two letters 
to a friend, which cannot be better employed than 
in the hands of a gentleman confummately conver- 
fant both in the theory and praflice of agriculture. 
With the fincereft willies for fuccefs, I am. 

Yours, &c. 

JCent, March 1784, W. B. 

Reafon 



I 



AGRICULTURE. 299 

Reajon without experience can do nothing j being 
nothing but the mere dreams, phantafmSi and meteors 
of ingenious men who abuje their time. 

Stilling, ap. Lin. 



L E T T E R I. 

Dear Sir, 

I MADE you a promife of committing to writ- 
ing, fome experiments on the culture of lucerne : 
I have likewifc made fome on fainfoin, burnet, and 
other matters. 

After various difappointments and vexations, ow- 
ing chiefly to my paying too great deference to writ- 
ers, I think it is in my power to grarify you. But, 
if 1 have fuffercd, both as to patience and pocket 
thereby, I muft confefs, that I have reaped great ad- 
vantage from feveral j principally from TuU, Miller, 
Hart, Rocque, and Young: and from an anony- 
mous author of a treat ife on the three great graffes, 
meaning lucerne, fainfoin, and burnet. Tull is the 
principle writ(fr on the horfe-hoeing husbandry dif- 
tindly, though not the firft, according to Mr. 
Young ; but I apprehend he was on his fpacious fcale. 
He writ a confiderable part of his book exprefsly on 
fainfoin and lucerne, ftrongly recommending that 
culture for them in fo mafterly a manner, that all his 
fucceffors in that walk are extremely obliged to him. 
The French writers, Du Hamel and Chateauvieux, 
X 4 are 



300 ANNALS OF 

are his apes. However, the method he recommended 
of cleaning the ground, was too operofe; and the loil 
wrong. Miller hit on the right diftance of the rows, 
as I have found from the molt diligent inveftiga- 
tions, viz. two feet, in the folio edition of the Gard- 
ener's Diftionary, though afterwards, in the abridg- 
ment, he advifed eighteen inches. But, from two cir- 
cumftances, I am convinced he had no real experi- 
ence of its culture. One, that he prefcribes a method 
of cleaning it imprafticable, after the firft year, 
when the ground becomes hard and graffy, without 
the winter-ridgingjwhich he knew nothing of,though 
a kitchen plant, the artichoke, is treated in the fame 
manner. But he trulls entirely to the Dutch hoe, 
which is ufeful only when the furface is loofe. 
Moreover, he, after Tull, recommends a foil almoil 
totally different from the right; that which he feleds 
being a light, dry, loofe, fandy land ; when I can pro- 
nounce, from experience, a ftifFfoil is the bed, pro- 
vided it be not wet. Lucerne coming from a warmer 
clime, Tull and Miller took it for certain, that a hot 
foil muft fuit it in England i one of the numerous 
proofs of the ufe and neceflity of experience in huf- 
bandry. Harte (fee his Effays on Hufbandry) di- 
refts too great a diflance, both for the rows and the 
plants in the rows, viz. the rows to be 40 inches 
apart, and the plants a foot afunder in them, and 
likewife errs in regard to the foil. But it is from his 
tranfplantation-method we learn the very ufeful 
knowledc;e of filling up vacancies in the rows, in a 



O" V' *XJXl,,j^ 



'? 



fafe 



AGRICULTURE. 301 

fafe and expeditious manner; the plants feldom fail- 
ing, when removed in the fpring, or a moill: feafon \n 
fummer. A niirftry fhould be provided for this pur- 
pofe, from which plants may be occafionally taken, 
from one to feveral years growth. I fet two in a 
hole, made with a hop-pitcher or crow, and it is per- 
haps a better method than fowingfrelh feed, becaufc 
a quicker. I do not thmk the broad-cafl-hufbandry 
nearly equal to the drill for lucerne, but believe 
Rocque's mode the beft in its kind that can be de- 
vifed (fee his Treatife), and the beft of all, were it 
not for the earthing the rows in winter. He indi- 
cates ftrong marks of an inventive genius. Broad- 
caft is a very poor method for it, without flirring 
the ground during its growth, as trumpery, and 
above all, the natural gral's will, inevitably, im- 
pede it in a few years, juft when it fhould arife to 
perfeftlon. Mr. Young, in following his diredlions, 
omits the ploughing, the principle and efficacious 
part of the broad culture. His (Rocque's) diredions 
to manure with dung before fowing, is undoubtedly 
right, but it fhould be rotten, as, if rough, it will be 
apt to adhere in lumps, and render the crop patchy, 
which promotes the quick growth of the plants, and 
pufhes them from the flea, which fometimes fpoiU 
the crop, as I have experienced to my cofl. Indeed, 
drought after fowing, and this infeft, are the only 
enemies I fear. The flea, though the Aug may, does 
not meddle with fainfoin. Mr. Young (fee his Fx- 
perimc ntal Husbandry ) in his numerous and accu- 
rate 



302 A N N A L S O F 

rate experiments, wherein he has fhewn great induf- 
try and judgment, has been extremely uleful to me; 
but I do nor well approve of the particular mode he 
fixes on as the refuit of them, a treble rovv on five 
feet ridges; chiefly becaufe of the difficulty of keep- 
ing the ground in the narrow intervals in a (late of 
pulverization, as the plough cannot well pals there- 
in, and the hand- hoe cannot work, but when that 
has gone oreviouflv. Befides. were there not thisob- 
jeiftion, the cultivation of fmgle rows is more fimple 
and eafy, and after the firft fummer I truft to horfe- 
tillage entirely, unlefs it be to cut up fome large 
weeds with a ftrong fpud, or draw them up by the 
roots after rains: this is to be underilood of con- 
fiderable plantations, as flnall ones may be managed 
entirely by hand, and it is afionilhing what a plot will 
produce. It is remarkable that this penetrating 
pra6titioner, notwithftanding he mentions the rows 
being fometimes incidentally covered by the autum- 
nal ploughing (of which more hereafter), to its im- 
provement, by the viciffitudes of the weather ading 
on the expofed foil, never proje6led the earthing, of 
fuch fingular benefit in fmothering the natural grafs, 
that arch enemy of lucerne and fainfoin, the former 
cfpecially, in our moift clime. I come now to the 
anonymous author, whofe excellent fagacity difco- 
vered the ufe of earthing in winter, and put me upon 
it; for which he has my hearty thanks. Tull, as 
well as Young, likewife (truck this nail obliquely, 
feut^ unfortunately not on the head, as appears from 

this 



I 



AGRICULTURE. 303 

this pafiage, where, fpeaking of the ploughing be- 
tween the rows of lucerne, he fays, " Take care the 
furrows do not lie long enough on the rows to kill 
the plants, which will be much longer in winter 
than in fummer." To thofe who wifh to be in- 
fornned of the rationality of the thing, why lucerne 
and fainfoin do not fufPer by being covered all the 
winter, like the grafs and other weeds meant to be 
deftroyed thereby ? I anfwer ; Vegetation being 
at a (land in thefe plants, during that fcifon, they 
confequently do not fuffer fiom the exclufion of 
the air j and thus a ftool of wood might be treated, 
and artichokes and afparagus are. It is on the 
fame principle, that afhes laid on broadcaft fain- 
foin at Michaelmas damaged it, but early in the 
fpring improved it j in the former cafe, the fain- 
foin which does not grow in the winter, fuffered 
from their ftrengthening the grafs. This pheno- 
menon ftruck me on the fpot, which I was at a 
lofs to account for, till a gentleman explained it to 
me. This winter-earthing of lucerne I hold 10 be 
the corner-flone on which this profitable cultiva- 
tion in moift climates depends; as otherwife I ap- 
prehend Kocque's broad-caft preferable. In my 
next I propofe to acquaint you with my procefs in 
both modes, but particularly the horfe-hoeing, 
which I advife for lucerne, or a fmall fpace of fain- 
foin for early provifion, if a fuitable fpot be conti- 
guous, and you have none proper for lucerne. 
What I ihall fubjoin refpeding the broad-caft huf- 

bandry 



3C4 A N N A L S O F 

bandry for the latter, is the common and very good 
pracflice of the Ki:friti(h farmers. I lliall alfo mention 
a middle method of raifing the latter; remembering 
always the noted piece of advice to Phaeton, appli- 
cable here, medio tutiffimis ibis. For, hov/ever 
whimfical it may appear to compare his driving the 
fun's chariot to farming, it is dangerous in extenfive 
defigns to make too free with the earth, as well as 
the (ky : however, Phaeton died nobly. That you 
may live to make a variety of ufeful and fuccefsful 
experiments, is the hearty wiOi, of 

Yours, &c. W. B. 

P. S. Miller aflerts, " lucerne feed faved in Eng- 
land is much preferable to any brought from abroad, 
as I havefeveral times experienced; the plants pro- 
duced from it having been much ftronger than thofe 
produced from French, Switzerland, and Turkey 
feeds, which were fown at the fame time, and on the 
fame foil and fituation." Gardener's Di6t. This 
eafy trial I recommend to every cultivator to make. 



Letter II, 

Dear Sir, 

T O enter on my method of cukivation particu- 
larly, you fliould chufe for lucerne a clofe, firm> 
found foil, if you have any anfwering this defcrip- 
tion, for it is not nice : but it will not thrive on a 
)ight dry one, and a wet one is not convenient: ma- 
nure 



AGRICULTURE. 305 

nure will correct its other failings ; and indeed fome 
kinds of wetnefs, as when it is caufcd by fprings, 
may be remedied by drains under ground. If there 
■be large ftones they nnuft be picked off. When you 
have pitched on the ground, be not in too greac 
hafte, as the more the ivorfe J-peed is applicable, un- 
lefs it be already in connplete tillage. The ground 
fhould have been laid in baulks the autumn pre- 
ceding, for the frofts, &c. to mellow it, and during 
one, if polTible, dung carried on, unlefs it be in high 
heart. When it is ready, which may be at any 
time in May, let very fliallow furrows be made two 
feet afunder, which, from the mod attentive obfer- 
vation, I pronounce as good a diftance as any, with 
the plough (unlefs it be a fmall fpot, where it will 
' be proper to employ a gardener) which a good 
ploughman will ftrike as true as a line, and the feed 
fcattered therein out of a flat bottle with a notch in 
the cork, at the rate of twelve pounds, about a gal- 
lon and a half per acre. If the field has adefcent, 
the rows muft be made up and down, unlefs it be 
quite dry, in which cafe it is not material. This 
quantity of feed I know will be condemned as too 
large; but I make allowance for the deflrudtion by 
the flea and other accidents, the operations of har- 
rowing, &c. and recommend twenty broad-caft. If 
the furface be dry, it may be rolled after rh-e feed is 
drawn in with the harrow, efpecially if cloddy. In 
dry weather, not an hour fhould intervene between 
ibwing and covering the feed; it fiiould not be har- 
rowed 



3o6 ANNALSOF 

rowed croflways, for fear of difplacing the feed. 
When the weeds rife, the rows fhould be hand- 
weeded, and the intei vals hand-hoed. If the plants 
Ihould not feerrl to come up to your mind, do not 
be in hafte to plough them up, as I have had a crop 
fucceed after giving it over. If water be fprinkled 
on the ground, you will the more readily perceive 
if there are any plants or not. Should they be de- 
ftroyed, the ground may be reploughed and fown 
again, or vacancies fupplied, as late as July. When 
a flight crop has been mown (I give up the ufe of 
the fickle as tedious, though ftrongly recommended 
by many), which will be probably in Auguft, or 
perhaps not till September, as the feafon proves ; 
the horfe-hoes may be introduced. In the end of 
October, or beginning of November, or later, the 
rows muft be earthed to as great a depth as pofllble, 
by drawing the plough with a fhare as broad as the 
intervals will admit, 1 2 or 15 inches, with a double 
mould-board, to fmother the weeds, and efpecially 
the natural grafs, the bane of lucerne, lay the foil 
dry, and expofe it to the winter atmofphere. On 
which operation, as has been obferved, we muft rely 
for keeping it clean in an effedual and compendious 
manner. In this ftate it is to be left for about four 
months, viz. to the end of February or beginning 
of March j at which time, or later, it muft be tho- 
roughly worked down with a heavy harrow. If a 
fnake- headed one, as it is called in Kent, be ufed 
for this purpofe, and found not to damsge the plants, 

it 



AGRICULTURE. 307 

it will be very efBcacious. Where a perfon is curi- 
ous, or his plantation fmall, he may dig it a month 
after, which will be greatly facilitated by the winter- 
ridging; ordering the workmen to eradicate large 
perennial weeds, as they proceed ; and generally it 
will be proper, once in two or three years, to plough 
the ground, turning a furrow from each fide of the 
rows: this will keep it in effedtual tillage. If chofen, 
tares or oats, or a mixture of both, may be ftrown 
in the intervals at the fpring operations, to come in 
at the fecond crop. The ground ihould be always 
levelled with the roller at a proper opportunity. 
Thefe tares and oats will not come in till the fecond 
cut. Black oats are beft, as white will be too late 
for the firft, and too early for the fecond. 

Broad-caft lucerne fhould be either fown alone 
without corn, or the corn fhould be mown green 
and given to cattle, and thus fainfoin would be alfo 
much benefited. The befl way to meliorate broad- 
cafl, likewife, is, in autumn to flrike the ground up 
into fharp ridges with a pointed fhare, that the 
plants may be injured as little as pofTible. Then, 
in the fpring, it fhould be ploughed without a coul- 
ter, crofTways, with a pointed fhare, or only flruck; 
and afterwards harrowed down. When the lucerne 
fhoots, if there are any vacant fpots, they fhould 
be fown afrefh, and the feed raked in : which may 
be alfo pradlifed in the rowed, unlefs they be re- 
plenifhed with plants. This autumnal flrike-baulk- 
ing, as it is termed in Kent, is of exceeding ufe for 

winter- 



i8o ANNALS OF 

winter-fallows, alfo on wet fu miner-lands, to fecurc 
a wheat feafon j for both which purpofes I ftrongly 
recommend it. When the ground is mellow, this 
operation will not much injure the lucerne, whofe 
roots are very flringy and cough, whence the pointed 
ihare flips by them ; but thofe of fainfoin are much 
tenderer. But all the plants will not be fo equally 
covered in the broad-caft mode as in rows, over 
which each ridge is centered. The fnake headed 
harrow, i, e. with the bottoms of the tines bent for- 
ward, and refembling that animal's head, would, if 
any could, tear out the grafs from broad-caft crops, 
without the ufe of the plough : the time to ufe it 
would be in winter and wet weather. If the vacan*- 
cies are negledted in April, at which time the plants 
fhoot,they may be fown after the fiift cutting. Lu- 
cerne, where it has room, and is not obfcrudted by 
weeds, will increafe amazingly in the crown of its 
roots. Miller affirms that he had a plant in his pof- 
icflion, whofe crown was i8 inches diameter, from 
which he cut near 400 fhoots at one time. Tull 
fpeaks of plants 60 years old, and ftiil improving; 
fo that a crop rnay be called everlaiting, like cop- 
pice-wood. Young fays a plantation will be at 
lead fiv^e years before it comci to maturity, which 
tallies with my experience. 

Nothing can more clearly Ihew the inadequate- 
nefs of the common method of cultivating this ve- 
getable, in which it never arrives at pcrfcilion, 
but is choaked in its infancy. Though nine loads 

of 



AGRICULTURE. 309 

of hay were made of an acre in that method at 
three times in one year, the grafs foon afterwards 
deftroyed it, which it will always do if fed with 
fheep efpecially. Thrice is as often as I would ge- 
nerally advife to cut it in rows, and fome feafons 
perhaps not above twice broad- caft, on middling 
land J but then the produft will be great. There 
is a thing very remarkable in lucerne, rendering it 
unneceffary to do it often : which is, that a fuc- 
ceflion of flioots will rife from the roots whilfl: the 
firft are growing, and even a third under that j fo 
that I have in a manner had three crops at once. 
But then there is reafon to be obferved here, as it 
does not fpring fo quickly again if it remain on the 
ground too long. It generally does not flower till 
June, which, however, need not be much regarded, 
unlefs when given to cows. It affords very good 
butter before it blows, but as indifferent afterwards : 
the milk and cream is never bad. If the flock, 
horfes, bullocks, or hogs (for which lafl: it is an ex- 
cellent green food, and whofe dung is very fertile 
and kindly) that eats it, is pounded and well littered, 
a hufl^andry always to be regarded as moft mate- 
rial, it will richly manure itfeif. Horfes fliould be 
generally confined in the ftable. It is fo rich and 
lufcious as to blow bullocks, if fuffered to eat it 
at pleafure ; on which account it fhould be given 
them in racks with narrow ftalcs. Sheep and hogs 
ihould alfo have it in racks ; the latter eat it much 
b,eft young. It may be fed after the laft mowing. 
Vol. I. No. 5. Y in 



;,io ANNALS OF 

in dry weather, with any kind of ftock, in wet with 
fheep : if wanted, a part of the plantation may be 
alfo fed in the fpring before it be laid in. 

A plot next the dwelling fliould be exceflively 
manured to force an early crop : I do not find any 
manure efficacious but dung ; thus whenever a field 
is ploughed up, it will be as rich as a mixen. 

If you have no ground near your houfe proper 
for lucerne, you may cultivate fainfpin in rows on 
the fame principle. This will thrive on any light 
dry foil, very well on barren chalk, which makes it 
highly valuable i though not fo luxuriantly as on 
rich dry ground. But it mufl by no means be wet. 
As the crown, /. e. top, of this does not grow near 
fo large as that of lucerne, I would not advife the 
rows to be more than ao inches afunder ; which is 
alfo a good difbance for fmall pieces of lucerne un- 
der hand culture. The furrows Ibould be made 
deeper than thofe for lucerne, yet fhallow, and two 
bufhels of feed which is large, allowed per acre, 
boxed in with a machine the fame as ufed beans, 
or the drill plough. It will fucceed beft in dry 
weather if fown in April, and fhould be cleaned in 
the fame manner as lucerne. This vegetable, ow- 
ing to its matting more on the ground, the leaves 
being larger, is much abler to contend with its ene- 
mies ; though it is the natural grafs that deftroys 
it likewife in the end when broad-caft j and the 
fooner if it be fed after mowing before the end of 
Odober or November, by the increafe of grafs. 

The 



AGRICULTURE. 311 

The ufual allowance of feed broad-cafl: is four 
bufhels, though fome allow five. The pradlice in 
Kent, is to fow it with barley in the fpring. I have 
feen excellent crops Ibwn on wheat at that feafon. 
Some fow it with wheat in autumn, which is a very 
bad way; as the frofts generally draw it out of the 
ground. But it may be fown alone in autumn in 
Auguft, or early in September, after a hoed crop of 
early peafe, or horfe-hoed Mazagan beans, which 
come of the firft of any : not that I would grudge 
a good fallow. This mode is hypothetical. When 
fown at this feafon, it fhould be immediately after 
the plough, to fecure vegetation, and the plants 
from being drawn out of the ground, as the feed 
will then fall to fome depth. This is, however, to 
be underftood where the ground is fine ; otherwife it 
will be buried too deep, unlcfs it have one harrow- 
ing firft. 

Soot is a fpecific for fainfoin ; but the chimney- 
fwecpers are fo roguifh that it is difficult to get it 
unfophifticated : I have heard that peat-afli is alfo 
its fpecific. Soot may be fown by hand at the rate 
of 20 or 30 bufhels per acre, in February. I fay 
February, becaufe if it be fown in autumn, at the 
beginning especially, it is likely to do more harm 
than good, as I know afhes will at that feafon, hav- 
ing been an eye-witnefs to : which coincides with 
the juft obfervacion that it (houid not be fed till late 
in autumn, not till November, which, by keeping 
it down, permits the increafe of the grafs. 

Y 2 When 



312 ANNAL80F 

When it is in rows, it will be generally the beft 
way to fpend it green, as it is for lucerne -, though 
either may be made into hay on the fpot. As I do 
not dired to itir the ground in fummer, the objec- 
tion with which the new mode of culture is charged, 
that the foil by mixing with it fpoils the provender, 
vanifhes. To obviate this, TuU advifes to omit 
tilling the ground for a few years at a time during 
the crop, and then to plough it again alternately, 
which I do not approve of. But his method of 
making fainfoin-hay is well worthy confiderarion, 
I am highly of opinion that faking ill-cured hay of 
any kind is an excellent method. 

The middle courfe I alluded to, is to fow fain- 
foin in rows a foot apart, and to hand-hoe and weed 
it till it gain ftrength. 

The hay is excellent for horfes ; and for bullocks 
if mown when it begins to flower. Hoed it will 
flower and come to crop twice in a fummer ; but the 
firft is the bed, which is not the cafe with lucerne, 

I hope I fhall find you engaged in fome eccentric 
purfuit i but repeat my charge, that through an 
cagernefs natural to young perfons of genius, you 
do not hazard your feed to the ground before it be 
thoroughly confidered and prepared ; as your mif- 
carriage will very likely be the confequence, aggra- 
vated by fneers and triumphs, the fine of fruflrated 
merit. But let the ftrugglers againft the tyrannical 
fetters of cuftom comfort themfelves that the Ruf- 
fian tenacioufnefs of their beards caiifed a civil war, 

and 



AGRICULTURE. 313 

and that the Hottentots think no wardrobe equal to 
a bullock's paunch. I cruft you have too much re- 
folution to be thwarted by the great vulgar or the 
Jmally or diflieartened, Ihould you find yourfelf^ 
from your endeavours to be more ufeful than a log, 
in the predicament of one guilty of fome enormous 
crime. Thefe think, and would have thought, haj 
they lived a thoufand years ago, that husbandry w^s 
in the higheft perfe6tion, at that point of time, and 
that fpot of ground whereon the devil had dropped 
them. Becaufe prepofterous random projedors, 
ignorant of common husbandry, have failed in their 
extravagancies, is a rcafon for giving up every 
attempt at improvement. For my part I am 'io 
hardened for the public welfare, as to wifh you to 
try a vetch 1 will defcribe j and there are feveral 
others of that family which feem to promife fairly, 
they being all extremely grateful to cattle alone, or 
in company with other foods. Anderfon, in his 
EJfays relating to Agriculture^ notwithftanding fome 
abfurdities, has pointed out a phntyyarroWj that from 
its frequency in paftures, thriving on the barreneft 
lands, matting on the ground, and the greedinefs 
wherewith cattle devour it (thefe are his words) 
feems excellently calculated for poor paftures. 

Should a difpaflionate praftitioner plead that long 
cuftom is in truth common fenfe, I anfwer that they 
are by no means the fame thing. Common fenfe 
indeed tells us not to fow corn in a pond, or perhaps 
in a meadow, but not the beft mode of cultivation, 
Y 3 towards 



314 ANNALSOF 

towards which philofophy may pioje6l and affiO: 
experience. Cornmon fc^nfe is fimple, knowledge 
compound. — Recommending fmall fafe experi- 
ments to all, I am. 

Yours, &c. W. B. 

I deem the following defcription of the wild vetch 
mentioned, fuflicient to make it known to any one 
but a botanical coxcomb. 

^be leaves conftft of /even or eight pair of lejfer 
leaves or lobes growing to a mid-rib. The flowers ap- 
pear in May^ grow injmall bunches, are of a whitifh 
colour atfirjiy but turn to blue as they fade. The pods 
are fhorty containing about feven feeds ^ which ripen 
about July y of a brighter colour and much fmaller than 
the common tare, I have heard them called tine-tares 
in Kent, 

For the fatisfa<5lion of your, I hope, numerous 
readers, I have tranfcribed the journal of a field of 
lucerne for the three firft years, from that of various 
experiments. It had been an old lain, but under 
corn for fome years laft pad ; is a good piece of 
land, but fomewhat too light for lucerne, and was 
fown in too wide rows, two feet and an half, and be- 
ing moreover uneven, fome are three feet afunder. 
However, it is fo luxuriant, that before mowing it 
appears like broad -call, and produce? fodder fuffi- 
cient to make five or fix loads of hay annually — I 
fhould obferve, that mine is a backward fituationj, 
^S>. that I feldom have a full cut till the end of May, 

which 



AGRICULTURE. 315 

which is much later than many parts of the king- 
dom will afford, efpeciaily if a part of the planta- 
tion be manured prodigioufly. However, I have 
four crops in a year. 

Fieldy an acre and three rods, 

1776. 
May 9, 10, II, 14, 15, 16, fowed 18 pounds of 
lucerne, and the fame quantity of clover-feed, in al- 
ternate fiteen-inch rows, out of a flat quart- bqttle, 
more convenient than a round one, through a hole 
in the cork, by a line, covering it v\ith the hoe. A 
fine, though barely fufficient fliower falling Sunday 
the 1 2th, brought up much of the firfl: fowings in 
fix days after, the ground being extremely dry be- 
fore and cold afterwards. Towards the latter end 
of June hand-hoed and hand-weeded, the lucerne 
in fome places eaten by the fiy and weak, weaker 
in general than the clover, but in the bed places 
higher, about a handful high. Auguft id, not fit 
to cut, the weather having been for the moft part 
dry. September 6th, began to mow them together 
for the team, the clover producing the moft by 
much, together a load per acre, (had it been made 
hay) the horfes eat it promifcuouQy. Stocked it after 
mowing with Umbs and riders till the end of Oc- 
tober, being a very dry time. Beginning of Ko- 
vember, earthed for experiment feven rows of the 
lucerne as deep as poffible, deftroying the clover; 
alfo earthed Ihallowly the whole remainder of the 
Y 4 lucerne. 



3i6 ANNALSOF 

lucerne, except eleven fhort rows, by turning the 
earth with one board over it from the clover on 
both fides, uncovering it afterwards (for fome earth 
fell on it) except a few fhort rows for fancy-fake. 

General Ohjervations on tloe \ft Tear, 1776. 

I CANNOT fay nnuch at prefent, only that the crop 
of lucerne was very fmall, the ground confidered ; 
but the funcimer was very dry. As to the whim of 
fowing clover between, it might about pay expencesj 
its propriety next year may difcover. 

1777- 
February 23d, uncovered part of a row, to fee 
if doing earlier than common were of importance. 
—27th, lucerne preparing to fhoot— 28th, har- 
rowed it all down, the {tvzvi deep -earthed rows 
more than the reft. — March 24th, lucerne begins 
to advance, but irregularly. I needed not have 
been in a hurry to dredge and level the ground, as 
it continued nearly at a ftand the three firll weeks 
of this month, though it began to grow in the mild 
weather at the end of laft. That which was not 
covered at all was the eveneft : becaufe of the co- 
vered blanched flioots many were in places revived, 
at the time that none of the plants whatever had 
fhot from their roots j and the feven deep-covered 
rows were the worft of all, fome, if not many of 
the plants being feemingly deftroyed. However 
covering had the propofed effed of fmothering the 
* natural 



AGRICULTURE. 317 

natural grafs. From this inequality in coming on, 
it feems that Miller's obfervation, that it may be 
fed, if pafture run fhort, from the middle of March 
to a week in April, is a very good one ; as then 
growing away together, ic will be ready for cutting 
nearly as foon as if not fed. — April 12th, the lu- 
cerne has advanced confiderably in fpite of very 
cold weather ; the feven deep-earthed rows (till the 
weakeft. A plantation at Canterbury very forward 
and llrong. The row of clover left covered through 
the winter now much inferior to the reft, but being 
thinner, flourifhed much afterwards. — 30th, ob- 
ferved the eleven fhort rows not worked at all to 
be yellower than their neighbours. — May 23d, be- 
gan to mow the lucerne and clover, though not 
ready, except for fwine j but was fearful the clover, 
which was much the ftronger, would damage the 
lucerne by overhanging it : the feven deep earthed 
rows were now the moft vivid and ftrongeft of all. 
The cream of lucerne and clover mixt very good, 
but the butter not fo. — June 6th, the clover fhewed 
for bloom before the lucerne. Mr. Young's ob- 
fervation, that rakes with longer and more diftant 
teeth than common, get up lucerne cleaner from 
dirt, to be remembered. — July, perceive that wet 
and cold check the growth of lucerne much : it even 
turning yellow during it, but reviving and growing 
prodigioufly in fucceeding hot weather. Some un- 
mowed plants did not flower till this month, though 
the lucerne and clover, cut as mentioned, began 

blow 



3i8 A N N A L S O F 

blow the 2orh, about two months afterwards, the 
former being now between two and three feet high. 
At this time it was mown again a fine crop, and in 
September afforded an inferior one; the often- men- 
tioned feven rows prodigioufly the ftrongeft. After 
the third crop the palturage by no means contemp- 
tible, and a part fenced afforded good mowing till 
Novemiber. — Towards the middle of November 
broad- fliared the clover up, earthing the lucerne at 
the fame time with mould-boards, 22 inches wide 
at the extremities. 

General Ohjervat'ions on the id Tear^ 1777. 

From this and other plantations, 1 prefer fingle 
rovv^s of two feet to double or treble ones, becaufe 
the ground is better filled, and the culture fimpler. 
A forward or backward fpring will make a month's 
difference in its advance. 

1778. 
March 16, 17, (a backward feafon) boxed a 
bufhel of tares per acre between the rows, after the 
ground had been loofened with the plough Ibare : 
it was afterwards harrowed down. — April ifl, the 
lucerne is beginning to pufb, being a fine growing 
time — 19th, fharp frofls have laid down the for- 
ward (hoots, for it is unequal as ufual in the fpring. 
■ — May 7th, 8th, 9th, filled up vacancies with bed- 
ed plants, putting two in a hole made with a hop- 
pitcher, in a fine moift time — 20th, began to mow 

for 



* 



AGRICULTURE. 319 

for fwine, the beft being 15 or 16 inches high.— 
June ifl, began for the horfes — nth, where the 
lucerne is weakeft, the tares are a foot high, being 
mown together for the firft time. — July 9th, began 
to cut it again ; a fine crop of lucerne and tares, 
than which there is no better provender for horfes, 
it is alfo excellent for fwine. Perceived this month 
feed fown in fom.e vacancies in the fpring, now 
coming up, which furprized me. I now hoed 
round the plants ^ {n in May. Some of the ftrong- 
eft lucerne had grown 24 inches in as many days ; 
fo that though a backward fpring, I could have cue 
four good crops J yet it flackcns in its growth to- 
wards autumn. 

General Obfervaticn, 

From thefe minutes only, every unprejudiced 
perfon muH fee the infinite value of this plant, for 
fummer keep for teems in particular. Every one 
knows the precarioufnefs of annual gralTes ; but in 
lucerne the farmer has a provifion for his cattle, 
nutritious, plenteous, and fure.— Still to enhance 
it, part of the plantation may be fown with tares, 
and part with white oats j in order to cut for the 

* Tull has thefe words — " Then there is no remedy but to 
plough it (lucerne) up, make the ground clean, and replant it," 
whatever he meant. Yet it is but jultice to Mr. de Cha.eauvieux 
to confefs him to h;\ve been the firlt that aftually tranfplanted 
it; and the candid Mr. Harte proft-fiedly wrote his ellay on the 
ground of that his invention, conferring withal the highelt eulo- 
gium on his mafter, 

firfl 



320 ANNALS OF 

firft crop the part under which are the tares before 
they are advanced, for the fecond that with the 
oats, and thirdly that with the tares the fccond time. 
This laft will be a prodigious crop, and by matting, 
together powerfully fubdue the weeds. — It muft be 
a very indifferent acre that will not keep a horfe 
the fummer, and a very good one will maintain two. 
It will not ftand the winter fown in autumn, nor 
later than July in fields. It is true that I have had 
feme ftand it well fown in a garden the nth of 
Auguft i but fome fown the firft of September, 
though it came up well, periftied in the winter even 
in a walled garden. If Englifh feed be found to 
anfwer, the grower may make an advantage by 
faving fome feed from the beft kind more upright 
than the other. I always find them mixed, but 
whether they are different fpecies, or only varieties, 
I do not know. W. B. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE MILDEW IN 
WHEAT. 

By the Rev. Mr. Nesfield^ of Wickamhrookj Suffolk, 

TVyf R. YOUNG, underftanding that Mr. Nef- 
field's theory of the mildew is founded on the 
obfervation that that diftemper is always propor- 
tioned to late frofts in the fpring under certain cir- 

cumftances. 



I 



AGRICULTURE. 321 

cumftances, begs leave, for the information of the 
pubhc, that obfervations may be multiplied and 
varied, to propofe to Mr. Nesfield the following 
queries. 

I. 

How late in the fpring muft frofts happen to 
caufe the mildew ? 

Anjwer, I fuppofe that the fpring-frofls moll 
likely to caufe the mildew, are fuch as follow warm 
days, from the time that the wheat is pretty fir ad- 
vanced upon the fpindle, /. e. in general from about 
the 20th of May to the 10th of June j and that die 
effeft of thefe frofts is lejs or mere pernicious ac- 
cording as they are or are not immediately followed 
by gentle (bowers ; and according to the real or only 
apparent vigour of the wheat; which depends chiefly 
upon the nature of the foil and the flate of the wea~ 
ther, as to zvet or dry through the winter. 

N. B. The real and apparent vigour are in ge- 
neral eafily diftinguifhable. Wheat that grows upon 
loofe foils, and has a large, luxuriant, dark green 
blade and ftem, I conlider as apparently^ not really 
vigorous with refpeft to its fertility j analogous to 
the luxuriant branches of fruit-trees. The really 
vigorous and fertile is, I believe, always of a lighter 
green, and lefs grofs in its texture. 

II. 
Will the period of the froft (in its efFed) depend 
on the forwardncfs of the wheat ? 

III. 



322 ANNALSOF 

III. 

On forwardnefs from early fowing, or on that 
from richnefs of foil, natural or artificial ? 

Anfwer to queries II. and III. After the wheat 
has nearly attained its full heighth, I conceive it is 
not fo liable to be injured by frofts, the current of 
the fap being upon the decline, and the containing 
veflels growing daily ftronger, and therefore not fo 
eafily ruptured by a fudden ftagnation from cold. 

If then the plants have been checked in their 
growth by cold dry weather during the winter, and 
have got ftrength enough in the fpring to refift fud- 
den changes from hot to cold, and, vice verja^ the 
forwarder the wheat is the better, becaufc it will 
of courfe ripen the earlier, and will be lefs liable ta 
interruption in its progrefs to maturity. 

IV. 

Are very late fown crops, being confequently 
late in the fpring, lefs fubjc6t to it ? 

Anfwer^ I rather think they are generally more 
fo. But latenefs in the fpring is not a certain con- 
fequence of late fowing, as the queftion propofes, 
provided the corn appear before Chriftmas, and the 
weather afterwards be dry and frolty ; the early and 
late fown crops will, in that cafe, be nearly alike 
with refpe(5t to mildew. 

V. 

Are thick or thin crops mofl liable to it ? 

VI. 



AGRICULTURE. 



;23- 



VI. 

Does it in general attack ftrong healthy luxuri- 
ant plants more or lefs than weaker ones ? 

Anfwer to V. and VI. A thin crop of wheat 
upon a loofd foil will almofl certainly be mildewed, 
not being able, from its luxuriancy, to refift the 
flighteft froft late in the fpring. And, if it be too 
thick, it will have a weaknefs equally liable to in- 
jury. Moderate thicknefs upon all foils proper for 
wheat is, I fuppofe, much the bed. Luxuriance is 
no fign of real ftrength or fertility. 

VII. 
Does the weather, previous to, or fucceeding a 
late froft, influence the cffefl ? 

Anfwery Hot days before and after occafion the 
froft to be the more injurious; but gentle fhowers 
immediately after it in the morning, before the fun 
fliines warm, prevent its proving fo fatal. 

VIII. 

The years 1780, 178 1, 1782, were years of fa- 
tal mildew in Suffolk; 1783 was free from it: 
What were the frofts of the former years that oc- 
cafioned the diftemper, and why did not thofc of 
1783 have the fame efFeft ? 

Anjwer^ What I recoiled concerning the weather 
and ftate of the crops in the three firft-mentioned 
years, is only, in general, that, in the two moft 

iraldewcd 



^H ANNALS OF 

mildewed years, 1780 and 178 1, the winters were 
generally open, the wheat had a florid appearance, 
the fpring froils continued, with warm days, till 
the 7th of June J and were followed by dry weather. 
The following feafon (1782) the wheat was remark- 
ably florid through the winter, but was checked by 
Very cold profufe rains in March, April, and May ; 
fo that it appeared every where in tufts. The wea- 
ther was fine and warm great part of June (after the 
frofty night of the 6th), and brought on the wheat 
very fafl:, but turned very cold and wet in July and 
Augufl: i and the hai*veft was of courfe uncommonly 
late. The luxuriant tufts were generally mildewed, 
the flenderer parts not fo. The following feed time 
was the wetted: and the moft: tedious that I ever re- 
member, fo that the land in my neighbourhood, un- 
der every kind of culture, v/as like a bed of mud 
or clay : the weather changed foon after feed-time, 
and continued cold and dry, though not very frofty, 
through the winter -, and the wheat looked remark- 
able healthful, but not luxuriant. There were fe- 
vere frofts in the early part, and till after the middle 
of May ; the wheat not forward upon the fpindle ; 
but the weather then became remarkably fine and 
favourable to vegetation, and continued fo till near 
Midfummer, when the frofl: returned. And, I con- 
ceive, that the wheat of 1783, had got ft length and 
forwardnefs enough, in that favourable interval, to 
refift the froft at Midfummer (fee anfwer to the 2d 

and 



AGRICULTURE. 325 

and 3d queries) and was therefore but very little 
injured by nnildew, in coinparifon of the three pre- 
ceding years. 

IX. 
Some of thofe frofts had a very different effeft 
on various vegetables on hills, and in vales. What 
was the variation in refpeft to wheat ? 

Anfwer, The caufe of the different effedls of late 
frofts on vegetables 'on hills and in vales, is mani- 
feftly owing to the freezing of the dew upon the 
tender leaves in the vales ; there being no dew to 
freeze upon the hills : and, therefore, ceteris pari^ 
kusy the wheat muft be proportionably affedled. 

X. 

Is clover- lay wheat, or that on fallow, moft fub- 
jeft to the mildew ? 

Anjwer^ Wheat on fallow is, in general, more 
fubjeft to mildew than that on clover-lay, except on 
very fl iff foils ; or I lb all, from this moment, aban- 
don the hypothefis I am attempting to eftablifh. 

XI. 

What remedies of prevention, in relation to pre- 
paration, early cutting, feeding in the fpring, &c, 
&c. ? 

An/weVy If what is faid above be admiffible, the 
chief remedies that can be provided are obvious, 
viz. every thing that tends to give Jlrength, not 
luxuriancy i fuch as fowing upon clover-lays ma- 
nured with comport or clay, as beft fuits the foil j 

Vol. I. No. jj. Z a$ 



326 A N N A L S O F 

as little pulverization by ploughing as pofllble, un- 
kfs in ftrong clay foils j feeding in the fpring, if 
the wheat be too florid ; rolling light foils, &c. 
As to early cutting, that I prciiime, can only be 
ufeful (and it feems to be found fo by experience) 
from the grain not drying fo fail when tied up in 
iheaves, as when the ears ftand fingle j the nourifli- 
ment of t\\t flowery part of the grain being equally 
Hopped in both cafes. 

XII. 

Are all the forts of wheat equally fubjedl to it? 
Ipring wheat ? 

Anjwer^ I can give no decifive anfwer to thefe 
two queries from experience j but fhould fuppofe, 
that there is little or no difference as to the forts ; 
and that fpring- wheat is more liable to mildew than 
that fown in autumn, for reafons which may be 
gathered from the anfwers to the fecond and third 
queries. 

XIII. 

How far are barley, oats, rye, &c. fubjeft to it ? 

Anjwer, I have feldom feen mildewed rye or 
barley. The oat-ftem feems fucculent and brittle, 
when green, like that of wheat j barley more foft 
and flexible. 

XIV. 

Turnips ? Peafe ? 

Anfwer^ I have made no accurate obfervations 
upon thefe : yet have not a doubt but that the gc* 

neral 



AGRICULTURE. 327 

neral caufe of mildew, in every fpecies of vegeta- 
bles, is capable of an eafy inveftigation j that it is 
to be attributed to fudden tranfitions from hot to 
cold, and, vice verfd, attended with too little or too 
much moifture, according to the nature of the foils ; 
and noty as is fuppofed by the vulgar of all ranks, 
to a/moaky appearance in the air, adhering here and 
there to the leaves and Jl ems of different plants by a 
kind of infiin5live ele^ion, 

XV. 

What figns are there in the fpring in the bud- 
ding, foliation, or blofToming of certain plants, that 
mark the degree of forwardnefs at which late frofts 
take this effed ? 

Anfwerj This query, after what has been faid 
above, requires no particular anfwer *. 

W. N. 



* If Mr. Nesfield could have been perfuaded to have given his 
obfervations in detail, his theory would have appeared to more ad- 
vantage, as he is exceedingly able to do julHce to any fubjefl. 
The ravages which this diftemper has made of late years, render 
the enquiry very interefting. I wifli much for intelligence from 
different parts of the kingdom c^.ncerning it. A. Y. 



Z 2 ON 



328 ANNALS OF* 

ON DIBBLING WHEAT, AND ON THE 
MILDEV/. 

By Charles Onky, Efq. of Stijlead Hally near Brains 
treey EJfex. 
S I R, 

AVJNG an inclination to try the dibbling of 
wheat i and conjefturing that fo large a 
quantity of feed, as one bufhel an acre, which the 
farmers pradlifing tliis mode in Norfolk, from the 
large quantity they (ttj and the gangs of women 
and children they put it out to, are under the ne- 
ceffity of ufing, though fo prepofteroufly, that I 
have feen five or fix grains dropped into the fame 
hole, which is furcly worfe than if fown, however 
near on the furfaccj I determined to reduce the 
quantity in my trial, and began with half a bufliel 
an acre, on a field of barley five acres, that had 
not been lately fallowed j the preceding crop winter 
tares fed off. It was ploughed on a narrow ridge, 
two rows dibbled on each ridge; the holes three 
inches diftant j and coft me ten (hilling per acre. 
The objedions from the farmers to this novelty 
were, that fuch a thin plant, if attacked by the 
worm, would not leave a fufficiency for a due crop ; 
and that a thin plant of wheat was in this neigh- 
bourhood, moftly fubjedt to the blight *. That, 
as to the conveniencies of hand-hoeing, which is 
here chiefly ufed for wheat, and the faving of feed, 

* HJoIit ; tills remark has been ftrongly verified in Suffolk. 

A. y. 

they 



AGRICULTURE. 329 

they were very apparent. In the Ipring the field 
was cloathed with a very perfed: crop of wheat j 
but it was a good deal blighted. The produce, 
eleven quarters five bufliels. The following year 
I dibbled the adjoining field of barley four acres, 
not lately fallowed, on a clover- lay fed off, on the 
flat, with only one peck an acre, fix inches row 
from row ; tliree inches hole from hole ; at ten 
Shillings an acre, which was faved in the feed and 
other labour ; for not even harrowing was nccef- 
fary. In the fpring, about one acre of this field 
appeared fo devoid of fufficient plan:, that beans 
were fet there. But in April the root vegetated 
and tillered to that degree that apparently there were 
from 10 to 30 ftems of wheat, with equal ears on 
each plant ; it covered all the beans ; was examined 
and admired as a fingular crop. Before harveft, 
by violent ftorms, it was lamentably laid j and ra- 
ther blighted. The produce eleven quarters three 
bufhels. From thefe trials, which certainly cannot 
be followed on a large fcale, I conjedture, however, 
that in the common hufbandry, two bufliels of 
wheat an acre, is too great a proportion of feed j 
and, if we confider what Mr. Suiith formerly aver- 
red, that our exportation, large as it appeared, did 
not co}r7munihus amiisy amount to more than one 
third of the feed fown ; what an aftonifhing benefit 
would arife, if, with an equal produce, half the 
yearly feed of this kingdom could be faved 1 This 
every farmer might and ought to try i by fowing 
Z 3 only 



330 ANNALS OF 

only one acre of each field, and that the leaft pro- 
mifing, with only half the ufual quantity of feed. 
I can hardly judge whether this merits a place in 
your Annals of Agriculture, to which I heartily 
wifh the encouragement fuch a neceflary publica- 
tion nnerits. I beg leave, through the channel of 
it, to enquire the nature and value of cow-grafs *$- 
I am told it is the fame we fee in patches in our 
meadows, called wild-clover ; and fo like the clo- 
ver annually fown, in leaf and flower, as to be here 
ufually thought the feed of that accidentally fcat- 
tered. It differs, I am informed, in the ftalk of 
it being firm, and not hollow or pipy, and confe- 
quently, by not imbibing the moift air, never 
hoves catde like the common clover i but whether 
the lay of it can, after one year, be beneficially 
ploughed for wheat, which is the great advantage 
of clover, I am yet to learn. Having procured 
the feed from Mr. Gordon's, I am now fowing it 
at ten pound of feed an acre with oats ; hoping, 
from its title, that it is a better annual dairy-paf- 
ture than the ufual clover. 

Is wheat thinly fown, or a thin plant of wheat, 
more liable to the blight in fpring, than a full fown 
and thick one f ? I am. Sir, 

Yours, &c. 

StlJIed-Hall, near Bra'miree^ f /^ z'a nt t "C xr 

£J/ex, March zj, 1784. 3 

* A memoir on this fubjtil is preparing fcr the prefs. A. Y. 
•J Undoubtedly. • ' 

Having 



AGRICULTURE. 331 

Having written to Mr. Onley to requeft feme 
explanations, I received the following reply. 

S IR, 

I AM glad the trifle 1 fubmitted to you met with 
your approbation. Your queries about the mildew 
on wheat, I put to three flirmers of experience ; 
and, as they very nearly agreed in their anfwers, I 
believe the following as fatisfadVory as any thing I 
can pick up for you here about it. 

The lands chiefly fubjedl to the mildew are con- 
je^lured to be fuch as having a clay bottOTi, and 
a jnoifl:, rather heavy, furface, are improved by land- 
ditching; and, after a full fallow, being in general 
too moiil for the feeding or carting off turnips, 
bear fine crops of barley, 

Sniall enclofures may probably contribute to- 
wards ir. 

Very lately it has efFefted the old chalked lands 
verging towards the hundreds of Efl^ex. 

Lands long in tiWdigtJuppofed mofl: liable to it. 

The red-wheat, or rivets, leaft fubjctfl to it. 

Wheat on a fallow, more liable to it than on a 
clover-lay ; and on land dunged rather more than 
not dunged. 

Wheat lefs fubjeft to it after a well-hoed full 
crop of beans or peafe; and never, orjcarcely ever 
fubjeft to it after a crop of cole-feed. 

Early fowing, and much it^^^fome fecui ity againft 
it. 

Z 4 The 



332 ANNALS OF 

The different parifhes, and different lands In the 
fame parifh, have, in this ne-ighbourhood, of lats 
yearsy been fubjc(5t to it, however different the ftat€ 
of the fcafons. 

When the wheat-flem has a very particular cad 
of colour of blueifh-green, it is furely effected by 
the mildew J my dibbled wheat had this colour in 
a very (Iriking degree j may not then the ftronger, 
thicker, and more pipy ftems of thin fown wheat, 
or of wheat on lands too rich, be as tubes imbib- 
ing or drawing up fo much moifture or air, or both, 
as to prejudice thus fuch plants ? It muft furely 
begin at the ftem, as frequently the ftraw is mil- 
dewed when the ear ftands found *. 
I am, Sir, 

Yours, &c. 

Sttflead'Hallf near Braintree, t P O "M T 17 V 

EJfeX} April %, 1784.. J 



EXPERIMENTS ON FATTENING HOGS, 

By the Editor, 

npHE Society for the encouragement of Arts, 

ManufadureSj and Commerce, honoured me 

fomc years ago with a medal for fome experiments 

• Further obfcrvations on this very intcreftjng fubjecl will be 
given in the next number of this work, A. Y. 

I made 



AGRICULTURE. 333 

I made on this fubjeft. I was induced to lay the 
cfFe(5b of thofe trials before that patriotic body, noc 
becaufe they were decifive, but on account of the 
extreme paucity of fimilar trials. Indifferent ex- 
periments may derive a value from no better exift- 
jng. It feems to have been a bufinefs with fome 
authors (furely for want of knowing better how to 
employ their time) to attack and refute the refulc 
of thofe trials, employing as much time as would 
have enablfcd them to form other experiments i a 
much better way of afcertaining the truth. In 
very few branches of Agriculture have I been 
fortunate enough to form experiments that were 
attended with refults fo clear as to convince even 
myfelfi and upon the prtfent fubjefV, my former 
trials do not generally agree with thofe I am now 
about to lay before the public. I cannot account 
for this, and the lefs, as I have found a different 
refult attend the trials even of the fame year. I 
yet confider it as a point much in the dark, which 
ought to inftigate every experimental hufbandman 
to form a greater variety of experiments under all 
circumftances, that truth may be accurately known 
from the combined refult, though it fhould not flow 
from the labours of an individual. 

EXPERIMENT, No. I. 

In December 1768, three hogs were put to fat- 
tening, and in February added two more. 

Thcv 



334 ANNALS 


F 






They cod No. i, 2, 3, 




1-3 


2 





Expences, 


- 





I 





No. 4 and 5, 


- 


3 


10 





Expences, 







2 


9 


They eat 49 bufhels of peafe,. 




8 


4 


6 




15 





3 


When killed they weighed. 










No. I, — 60 lb. at 4d, 


-' 


I 








iy 3> — ^10 


- 


3 


10 





4> 5> — 3H 


- 


5 


4 






9 14 



Lofs, - '5^3 

Or, il. IS. per hog. 

The peafe about 3s. 4d. per bufhel, they were 
given whole. From repeated experience I knew 
this way of fattening hogs, like nnoft others, to be 
unprofitable, but I had not yet provided conveni- 
cncies for following a better fyftem. 

EXPERIMENT, No. II. 

O6lober 23d, 1769. 
Bought five hogs, the price - £'^ 5 ^ 
Gave them 56 bufhels of peafe, at 3s. 880 

Carry forward, 14 I3 ^ 



AGRICULTURE. 335 

Brought over, ^. 14 13 o 



Jan. 2, killed two, 350 lb. 4d. 
Sold three. 



5 16 8 
600 

II 16 8 

2 18 4. 



Lofs, 

Or, per hog iis. 8d. 

The peafe given whole j their price mufl be very 
low, and that of pork very high, to have this way 
of fattening anfwer. 

They were 72 days fattening, and eat about 
three pecks a day. 

EXPERIMENT, No. III. 

The beginning of Nov. 1769, put up fix hogs to 

fatten, which were worth 1 6s. each, £./^ 16 o 

Gave them 53 1 bulh. of peafe, at 3s. 7 18 6 

12 14 6 



Killed thenn fat, 2 weighed 249 lb. at 4d. 430 

I ditto 115 I 18 4 

1 ditto 108 I t6 o 

2 ditto 235 318 4 



Lofs, 3$. per hog 



D> 



11 15 8 
o 18 10 

12 14 6 



The 



336 ANNALS OF 

The peafe given in meal : the lofs, dung confi- 
dered, is nothing. The difference between giving 
the peafe in meal or whole, in thefe experiments, is 
very great. 

EXPERIMENT, No. IV. 

November 12, 1770. Put two hogs to fatten- 
ing that coft 1 8s. each, and to the eye, of equal 
fize i fed one with Jerufalem artichokes raw as 
taken out of the ground, the other with peafe- meal. 
The firft eat generally two pecks of roots a day. 

January nth, both were killed. The artichoke 
one weighed 831b. at 4|d. - £. i ii 2 

Coft - - - o 18 o 



Profit the value of the roots, - 013 



He eat 23 bufhels, the value thereof 7d. per 
bufhel. 

The pea hog weighed 1301b. or, 285 

He coft, - - - 0180 



Profit the value of the peafe, - i 10 5 

He cat 8 bu(h. j the value thereof 3s. ^d. 

per bufh. but they coft 4s. 3d. or, i 14 o 

They paid, - - - i 10 o 

JLofs, - - ^040 

Peafe are to the roots in value as 42 to 7. 

The 



AGRICULTURE. 337 

The peafe fattened much quicker than the arti- 
chokes, but the great difference of the value would 
allow hogs on the latter to be up a tinie proporti- 
oned. The root hog was not fat, but the crop 
being done, I was forced to kill him ; from his 
thriving, I judge that they wpuld have fattened 
him, had there been enough. 

EXPERIMENT, No. V. 

In February, 177 1, bought, among other hogs 
for fattening, three which were weighed alive. 

No. I, 100 lb. 

2, 92 

3> 87 



279 



No. I, was five weeks. No. 2. feven ditto. 
No. 3, nine ditto. 

They were fed with peafe- meal, of which they 
eat i6| bufhels. When fat they weighed alive. 

No. I, 1581b. 

2, 146 

3y 140 

444 
And when dead, of profitable weight. 

No. I, 97 lb. 

2, 91I 

3y 87 



275f 



Head and feet 54 lb, at ad. 



The 



338 A N N A L S O F 

The hogs cod - - ;£• 3 6 o 

They eat i6|; bufh. peafe meal, 3 lo o 



Produce 27 5^ at fd. 5 14 94 
Head and feet, 090 



6 16 -o 



^ ?> 9\ 



Lofs, ' - - - O \1 1\: 



20 lb. live weight was i2ilb. dead. 
Profitable weight fat, - - 2754- 
Ditto lean, - - - 167 

Gain in fattening, - - 1084- 

Which at 5d, is, r - ;£• 2 5 a^^ 

o 90 



2 14 24- 



i6-4 bufhels peafe at that amount would be 3 s. 
3d. a bufliel. 

The peafe gave in fat a ninth of their own 
weight, they weighing 300 lb. the load of five 
bulhels. 

No I, in 35 days gained live weight, 58 lb. 

2, in 49 ditto, - - 54 

3, in 63 ditto, - - ^Z 
The average 8 lb, in 7 days. 



AGRICULTURE. 339 

EXPERIMENT, No. VI. 

1771. In November began to prepare food 
for fattening hogs upon a fyftem which I had never 
tried before, that of keeping the food till four be- 
fore it is given. 

Hog-cifterns for keeping wafh are common in 
Suffolk, and it is remarkable that the hogs thrive 
greatly on it when many months old and quire four; 
tired the circumftance in fattening. 

Ground at different times as under, peafe, bar- 
ley, and fonie beans to flour, and mixed it with 
water till rather thicker than milk -, four bufhels 
of corn, which make about five of meal, appeared 
to be a proper quantity for a veflel that holds 100 
gallons filled it up with water, and flirred it thrice 
a-day with a rudder till four, and during ufe. 
Made one quantity under another. 



Food. 

25 bulhels barley at 3 s. 
18^ peafe 3s. 6d. 

5-1 beans 3s. 
49 bulhels grinding 3d. 


£• 


3 

3 





«5 

4 

16 

12 




9 

6 

3 


Hogs, 
December 16, No. i,£. i 6 6 
27, No. 2, I 9 9 


8 


8 


i 


Carry forward, 2 16 3 





340 ANNALSOF 

Brought over, ^. i i6 3 

January 6, No. 3, 0163 
No. 4, o 14 io| 
26, No. 5, I i8 o 



41 



Total food and hogs, - ;C- '4 13 i^i 



Produ^ Fat» 

Jan. 21, No. 3, 44 lb. at fi^d. i o 2 

23, No. 4, 44 lb. at 5-^d. 102 

Feb. 22, No. I. 2091b. at 54^d. 4 15 9 

Head, &c. 261b. at 2d. o 4 4 

5 o I 

April 9, N0.5, 1691b. at 5id. 317 54- 

Head, &c. 191b. at 2d. 032 

May4,No.2, 1901b. at 5-^-d. 471 

Head, &c. 1 9 lb. at 2d. o 3 2 

— 4 10 3 

Total produd-, - - 15 11 31 

Expences^ - - 14 13 io|- 

« II ■ 

Profit, - - o 17 4i 



'4 o 7^ 



OBSERVATIONS. 

This firfl: experiment was made under two cir- 
cucnftances remarkably unfavourable ;/r/?, the hogs 

were 



AGRICULTURE. 341 

were bought in at a higher price than ever I gave 
before, for all, except No. i, coft ji^d. per lb. alive : 
undy /econdy the beans proved a lofs inftead of a 
gain J the hogs then up, immediately fell off their 
ftomachs for want of their ufual fweeter food, I 
thought it would have gone off, and imprudently 
continued the bean mixture above ten days, till it 
v/as done, all which time was worfe than loft. The 
hogs loft 20s. at leaft by this. 

It is, however, very ftriking in this experiment, 
that peafe and barley, which have hitherto proved 
uniformly unprofitable, fliould in this mode, turn 
out under thefe unfavourable circumftances clearly 
advantageous. To be able to confume the barley 
and pea crops on the farm in a way that raifes an 
immenfe quantity of dung, is a circumftance of the 
higheft importance ; but this cannot be determined 
from one or two trials, it muft depend on the refult 
of many. 

A farmer's turnips, cabbages, carrots, hay, &c. 
contribute in exad proportion to their quantities 
to increale the value of all future crops, becaufe 
the ykeep cattle in their confumption ; wheat, bar- 
ley, &c. exhauft the foil, not only from the nature 
of the vegetables, but alfo from the produ<5> being 
carried off the farm and not contributing to the in- 
crcafe of dung. Now, to be able to throw barley 
and peafe into the moft beneficial clafs in this re- 
fpedt, and, at the fame time, get the market price 

Vol.1. No. 5. A a for 



342 ANNALS OF 

for them when that price is very high, and when 
the lean hogs are moft extravagantly fo, is an ad- 
vantage that will be felt by every one that prac- 
tifes it. 

Increafed weight of thefe Hogs» 
No. I. 
December 1 6, alivt, - - 150 lb. 

January a8, - • 257 

In thefe 43 days he gained - - 107 

or juft 2f live weight a day. 
Feb. 22. Killed. Weight alive, 301 

In thefe 25 days he got 44 lb. or i| a day. 

In 68 days gained 151 lb. which is nearly 2| 
per diem. 

When dead, his quarters • 1971b. 

Fat, - 12 

209 
Head and feet, - - 26 

235 

301 lb. alive yielding 235 dead. Is in the proper- 



tion of - - 


- 


20 


= i5i 


301 yielding 209, 


is 


20 


= »Ji 


301 - 197, 


is 


20 


= 13 


2091b. at 5|d. 


m 


£. 


4 15 9 


26 lb. at 2d. 




1 


044 




5 I 


301 lb. at4d. 


» 




504 
Hence 



AGRICULTURE. 343 

Hence it appears, that (at thefe prices) the pro- 
portion in fattening changes greatly : this hog-lean 
was bought at 2|d. but when fat his live weight 
was worth 4d. and near it, if the feet, &c. were not 
reckoned. 

No. 2. 

Decennber 27, weight alive no lb. 

January 25, ditto - 150 

Gain in 29 days 40 lb. not quite if lb. per diem. 

February 22, - - 200 lb. 

In 28 days gain 50 lb. or i| per diem.. 
May 24, killed - 275 lb. 

In 72 days gained 75 lb. better than 1 lb. per 
diem. 

In the whole 129 days, gain 165 lb. or i^ lb. 
per diem. This hog appeared to fuffer more than 
the reft by the beans. 

His fides - 1671b. 

Fat, - - 13 

180 
Head and feet, - i^ 



199 



275 lb. alive, yielding 199 dead, is in the pro- 
portion of - - 20 =: 14! 
275 yielding 180, is 20 ~ ij 
275 — 167, is 20 = 12 

A a 2 180 



I ANNALS OF 

jSolb. at 5|d. - £> 4 "2. 6 

191b. at 2(1. - 032 

4 5 8 



2751b. at 3|d. - 4 5 II 

When pork, therefore, is at 5|d. the felling price 
alive fhould be 3I. 

No. 3. 

January 6; weighed alive, - 60 lb. 

20, killed, - - 88 
In 14 days gain 28 lb. or 2 lb. per diem. 
Dead weight 44 lb. 

88 yielding 44, is 20 equal 10 

which (hews, that the fmaller the hog, the greater 
the proportion of the offal. 

44 lb. at 5|d. ^.102 

881b. at 3d 120 

No. 4. 
January 6, weight alive, 55 lb. 

23, killed, " 86 

In 17 days gain 31 lb. or more than i|d. per 
diem. 

Dead weight 44 lb. 

861b. yielding 44, is 20 equal 10. 

44 at 5|d. - - ;£. I o 2 

86 at 3d. - - 116 

Na» 



AGRICULTURE. 345 

No 5. 

January 26, weighed alive, - 142 lb. 

February 22, dirco. - 190 

In 27 days gain 50 lb. or near 2 lb. per dienn. 
March 20, weight alive, - 226 

In 27 days gain 36 lb. better than 1 1 per d>em ; 
at this time he fed on the bean mixture. 

April 9, killed, weight alive. 246 lb. 

In 20 days gain 20 lb. or i lb. per-diem. 
In 74 days gain 106 lb. or near if lb. per diem. 
Dead weight fides and fat, - 169 lb. 

Head and feet, 19 



183 



246 lb. yielding 188, is 20 equal 15 

246 — 169, is 20 equal 13I 

1691b. at 5|d. - . £-3 17 SI 

19 at 2d. - - 032 



4 o 7I 



246 lb. at 4d. 



EXPERIMENT, No. VII. 

177 1. In an experiment on the value of car- 
rots with other food, weighed the hogs in order to 
difcover their progrefs. 

A a 3 No. 



346 ANNALS OF 

No. I, December i6, weighed alive, 140 lb. 

January 28, ditto, - 200 

In thefe 43 days gain 60 lb. or near i f lb. per 
diem. 

February 22, - 220 lb. 

In thefe 25 days gain 20 lb. better* than | lb, 
per diem. 

March 7, - 2441b. 

In thefe 14 days 24 lb. or i| lb. per diem. 
In the 82 days gained 104 lb. or i^ lb. per 
diem. 

Dead quarters, - - 145 lb. 

Fat, - - - 8| 

Head and feet, - i6| 

170 

2441b. yielding 170, is 20 = 13I 
244 — iS3y Js 20 =: I2f 

•1531b. at 5|d. - £.3 10 5 

244 lb. at jid. - 3112 



EXPERIMENT, No. VIII. 

1772, December 3. Mixed 50 bulhels of barley 
and peafe-meal with water, fo as to form a liquid 
as thick as cream j the 21 ft, began to feed the fol- 
lowing hogs on it. 

No. 



AGRICULTURE. 347 

lb. lb. 

No. I J weighed alive 65 No. 7, weighed alive 1 10 



2, 


— 


77 


8, 


— 120 


Sy 


— 


72 


9> 


— 120 


4, 


— 


75 


10, 


— m 


5> 


— 


58 






6, 


— 


55 




8^3 



4> 


— 


106* 


5> 


— 


85 


6, 


— 


93 



at 3|d. per lb. id. 15s. ^d. Price of the meal 
one with another 4s. a bufhel, or lol. 

Killed or fold them between January 25th, and 
March ift j but weighed them ail alive as follows, 

lb. lb. 

No. I, weighed alive 115 No. 7, weighed alive 175 

2, — 116 8, — 190 

3, — 109 9, — 182 

10, — 146 

1317 

By the trial of thofe I killed, I found that on an 
average, 20 lb. live weight yielded 13 dead profitable j 
in this proportion 1317 lb. makes 8 5 6, which at 6d. 
a pound, the price I fold for, is ^.218 o 

Hogs, £'^0 IS 9 

Food, 10 o o 

■ 20 15 9 

Profit, - - - - o 12 3 

A a 4 This 



348 A N N A L S O F 

This profit about pays the expence of attendance ; 
and the method of feeding them muft be an ad- 
mirable one, to enable the farmer to ufe his barley 
at home at 4s. a bufhel, in an application which 
adds fo amazingly to the compoft dung-hill j a 
point in this objedb of much more importance than 
the lictle profit to be made by hog fattening. Had 
barley or peafe been given whole I Ihould have 
lofl, I well know from experience, eight or nine 
pounds by thefe hogs. 

EXPERIMENT, No. IX. 

1773, November. In order farther to afcertain 
the m.erit of the method I purfued laft year of four- 
ing the food of hogs j I put three to fatten that 
weighed. 



No. I, 


— 


1401b. 


2, 


— 


106 


3> 


^ 


112 



358 val. 3d.a lb. or 4I. 9s. 6d. 

Twenty bufliels of barley having been ground 
into meal, and fet to four as in the preceding ex-, 
periment, they had it till finifhed, and then were 
killed. Weight alive 708 lb. and dead, fides and 
feet, 425 lb. the price was 5|d. or 9I. 5s. i id. the 
heads and feet being given in. 

Value 



A G R I C U L T U R K. 1^49 
Value of the hf>gs, — £.4^6 



ao bufhcls of barley, at 43. 


400 


Grinding, — 


050 




8 14 6 


Produce fat. 


9 5 ii 


Profit, 


oil 5 



• This repetition of .Ofccefs in fo new a way of 
feeding hogs, will encourage nne to go on ; as an 
experiment it woiild have been more fatis! v5lory 
to the reader, had 1 fattened other hogs at the fame 
time with barley or peafe, whole or ground, and 
given dry; but to myfelf it would not have been 
a whit the more convincing. I have had experi- 
ence enough of that method, and am confident it 
will always be a lofing one, unlefs the prale or 
barley are much cheaper than ever I knew them. 
It is true, this profit is no ©bjedl ; and if thrre was 
no profit, or even a trifling lofs, my conclufions 
would be nearly the fame : the great objedt is to 
be able to ufe the barley and peafe of a farm in a 
confumption that adds to the dunghill, and, at 
the fame time, pays, or nearly pays, the market 
price. 

EXPERIMENT, No. X. 

1774, December 10. Put the four following 
hogs to fat on the four food defcribed in the pre- 
eeciing experiment. 

No, 



350 ANNALS OF 

No, I, — ^6 lb. alive, 

a, — 104 

3» — 84 

4, . — 80 

tTiey coft me 3I, i8s. j and I jfhould remark, were 
a crofied breed, between a Chinefe boar and a 
Berkfhirc fow. They eat 17 bufhels of barley; 
and were fold out of the ftye for 9I. 9s. but I 
weighed them alive, the weights together 702 lb. 



Expences. 

Coft of the hogs, 

17 bufhels of barley, at 4s. 

Grinding, 


£-3 iB 
3 8 
4 





3 


Sold for, 


7 10 
9 9 


3 




Profit, 


I 18 


9 



Nothing can be clearer than the advantage of 
fouring the food. But it is very rarely indeed that 
I have made fuch a profit as this by fattening; 
and I attribute it to the hogs being of a very dif- 
ferent breed from what is commonly ufed ; the 
more efpecially as I had another experiment going 
on with four food, but the hogs the common breed 

of 



AGRICULTURE. 351 

of the country. I cannot regifter the trial, from 
the careleflhefs of a fervant who had the charge of 
them, but the hogs did not thrive comparably to 
thefe four. 

EXPERIMENT, No. XI. 

1775, November 1 5. Put two hogs of common 
breed to fatten, that weighed alive the two 107 lb. 
and were worth 2|d. per lb. or il. i8s. iid. They 
were fattened on 12 buih. of barley-meal foured. 

Their weight when alive 293 lb. and dead, fat 
included (head and feet given in) 178 lb. which at 
^fd. a pound is 4I. is. 7d. 

Expences, 

Value of hogs, - :^. i 18 1 1 

J2 bufli. of barley, - 280 

Grinding, - - 030 

4 9 n 
produce, - - 417 



'Lofs, - - 084 



This is the only trial in which I ever iofl: money by 
fattening when the meal was foured. I know not 
to what circumftance to attribute it, as the hogs did 
flot thrive badly. However, a uniformity of profit 
jn fattening any animal is fcarcely to be expeded. 

GENERAL, 



352 ANNALS OF 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

I SHALL, in general, obferve on this method, 
that the barley or peafe (hould be very dry and good, 
that they may be ground quite to flour : if they 
break coarfe, the meal does not mix well with the 
water, which is an ellential point : I have tried it 
of various degrees of thicknefs, from thin cream 
to a thick hodge-podge j but I think it does bed 
when it is the thicknefs of common cream, that is 
five bulhels of meal, to one hundred gallons of 
water. Much attention fhould be ufed in ftirring 
before the hogs are fed, that it may be equally 
thick, otherwife much meal will be left at bottom, 
and more water muft be added. If I am to judge, 
not only by my own experience, but that of feveral 
gentlemen to whom I have recommended this way, 
it will be found very advantageous to whoever 
tries it. 

Refpefling the proportion between the live and 
dead weight of a fat hog, the following table will 
have its ufe. 

In Exp. No. 5, fides & fat of 3 hogs 20 equal i2| 
6, ditto of 5 ditto. 





— 


20 equal 13I 




— 


20 — 13 




— 


20 — 10 




— 


20 — 10 




-^ 


20 — 13I 

No. 



AGRICULTURE. 353 

— 20 equal i2| 

— 3 hogs 20 — 13 

— 4 ditto 20 — 12 



No. 7, — 

8, - 

In fome exp. on potatoes. 



5 ditto 20 — 13 



The two hogs that yielded only 20 equal 10 
were very fmall ones, and that that gave 20 equal 
13I the largefl: of all, from which we may con- 
clude, that the proportion will vary according to 
the fize of the hogs : that porkers will be as 20 
equal 10, and that large hogs will rife as 20 equal 
14, and perhaps to 20 equal 155 but hogs be- 
tween 100 lb. and 3001b. it will vibrate from 20 
equal 12 to 20 equal 13. 



PLANTATION FOR SHELTERING SHEEP. 
By John Gwilty Efq. of JcklinghaWy Suffolk, 

A SMALL plantation in the centre of a large 
heath, dcfigned as a fhelter for Iheep, an oc« 
tagon, the fides about 4! rod each, with four wings 
refembling thofe of a wiad-mill, 1 1 rod long, and 
4I rod wide, running eaft, weft, north, and fouth, 
the banks about five feet high. 



ITT 



This 



354 ANNALSOF 

This was found very ferviceable during the in- 
clenacncy of the weather, and greatly fheltered the 
flock, being even under (helter in two recefles as 
the wind fhifted. They likewife prevent the hay 
from being blown away. The drift- fnow was 
chiefly lodged in the centre, and within the wings j 
the fecond banks oppofite the wind preventing any 
quantity of fnow fronri driving over, fo as to en- 
danger the {heep from being buried under the fnow, 
which is not the cafe in fingie banks, where the 
iheep take fhelter imn^ediately under them. 

J. G. 



QUANTITY OF WATER IN DIFFER- 
ENT SOILS*. 



R 



By the Same, 

1782. 

AIN fallen in March 1 inches 

April 4 -^^V 

May 2 



5 1 



6 5 



Inches in three months 9I medium 38 per 
annum. 



• This paper was publJflied witliout a name, in feme periodical 
pamphlet ; I infert it here, being very interefting, leading to en- 
quiries that have not been fufficiently profecuted. 

This 



AGRICULTURE. 355 

This iinufual quantity of rain occafioning great 
moifture, I, by repeated trials, found the follow- 
ing proportions of water lodged in the various 
foilsj from two feet even to fix feet below the fur- 
face, viz. 
In fand intermixed with flint ftones, apparently 

moift fix feet deep, - - - -iV^^- 

Light fandy earth, intermixed with foil, - ~ 
Arable land, (lightly manured, - 4- 

Ditto, more manured, mixed with chalk, 4- 
Chalk nigh the lurface, and taken out of 

the fide of the pit, far below the furface, 

Clunchy _ - - - » I 

Fine hard chalk, fix feet below the furface, |- 
Chalk ftones foft (not marl) taken from 

the open fields, - - - .1 

Heath ground four feet below the furface, 

fheep-walk, _ - . . | 

Ordinary clay, mixed with chalk and fand, § 
High fpot, in fenn, - - ^ i. 

Others more than - - - - \ 

Medium ^ part water equal to 20 gallons water 
in a cube of 2t^ inches j or 750 tons of water in the 
area of an acre of ground fix feet deep. 

J. G. 



REVIEW 



SS^ ANNALSOF 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS RE- 
LATING TO AGRICULTURE. 

Pre/enf State of Hujhandry in Scotland ^ extraBed 
from Re-ports made to the Commiffioners of the An- 
nexed EJlateS) and ■publijhed by their Authority* 
By Mr. Robert Wight y of Ormfio'xny Eafi Lo" 
thian^ Scotland. 8vo. vols. 3, 4, 5, 6. Price iL 
For Creech, of Edinburgh -y and Cadelly of London, 

nn H E two firfl: volumes of this work were pub- 
lifhed in 1778, and gave fuch a fpecimen of 
the utility of the plan, and of the author's abilities 
in executing it, as could not fail of exciting the 
attention of all who intereft themfelves ftrongly in 
becoming acquainted with every new difcovery and 
improvement in the art of hufbandry. 

Very little has been at any time publifhed con- 
cerning rural affairs in Scotland. Maxwell, in his 
Pradical Hufbandman, publifhed in 1757, gave a 
ftrange jumble of memoirs, relating to particular 
eftates and fields, that appear to have been col- 
lected by the Edinburgh Society ; but the book is 
good for little. I have a treatife on fallowing in 
Scotland, and a few tracts on planting, the whole 
of but little account. 

But if agriculture, in that kingdom, has been 
hitherto unknown for want of good books, it will 
be tiic csfe no longer, for Mr. W)gh:.'s details are 

very 



AGRICULTURE. 357 

very ample and fatisfadtory. One caution is, how- 
ever, neceffary, the reader is not to expedb from it 
a defcription of hufbandry as it generally is in 
Scotland, but as the author found it in the fields 
of the naoft eminent improvers in every county. If 
the book is read without this idea, Scotland will 
appear in much too magnificent a light; and the 
intention of it feems to have been to hold up ex- 
amples of merit for the imitation of others, an ex- 
cellent defign, and fuch as can fcarcely fail of hav- 
ing a confiderable efi^edl. Indeed it would be dif- 
ficult to fketch a more efficacious plan, than a fimi- 
iar furvey publifhed every twenty years. 

The review of a book truly ufeful, is difpatched 
in very few words. According to my idea, the 
intention of literary reviews of all forts, is to let 
the world know what books are worth buying, and 
what ought to be neglefted. In this light, ex- 
tra6ls are not of much confequenccj fince there 
are bad books which have fome good pafTages, and 
admirable performances that will afford very in- 
diff'crent extracts. But when information is to be 
difilired, opinions combated, or errors to be cor- 
rcdled, it is neceffary for a reviewer to be more 
particular. I fhali content myfelf with obferving 
in general, that Mr. "Wight was chofen for the pur- 
pofe of making thefe journies on account of his 
great knowledge in the theory, and pra6lice in the 
art of hufbandry ; and he feems to have executed 

Vol. I. No. 5. B b the 



25^ ANNALS OF 

the undertaking in a manner that will do great 
honour to hts induftry, his knowledge, and hi$ 
talents. He (hews every where a deep acquaintance 
with practical agriculture ; and has produced a 
bookj without which I venture to pronounce every 
farmer's library to be incomplete. 

There are, however, feveral circumftances 
touched upon, in thefe volumes, which I am not 
fo willing to pafs over in this fummary way j I wifh 
the reader to be made acquainted with them, not 
particularly by way of recommending Mr. Wight's 
performance, the merit of which ftands on higher 
ground, and which I have already, to the beft of 
my judgment, difpatched j but a difference of 
opinion among fome eminent cultivators, make 
the following fubjeds interefting, and every means 
ought to be taken to unite a more particular no- 
tice, that experiments may be multiplied, and cer- 
tainty at lall attained. The fubjeds I feledt for 
this view, are, ill, carrots; 2d, potatoes for cattle j 
^d, whins for horfes s 4th, ufe of oxen ; 5th, Tullian 
hufbandry. 

The reader will recoiled a memoir on carrots, 
by my worthy neighbour the Rev. Mr. Carter, in 
which he abfolutely condemns them as a principal 
food for horfes ; he fpeaks the language of feveral 
other gentlemen in this neighbourhood, who have 
tried them, and not on a fmall fcale. Let me, on 
fo interefting a queftion, give the following ex- 

tra6tst 



AGRICULTURE. 359 

trafts. Mr. JefFray, who manages the eftate o£ 
Baldoon, for the Earl of Selkirk, gives thefe par- 
ticulars. Made a fallow as other green crops; 
manured 40 loads an acre of rotten dung j thrice 
ploughed ; drilled double rows at a foot on five- 
feet ridges ; fown the firft week in April ; hand 
and horfe-hoed, and weeded j leaves them in the 
ground to be taken up as wanted, keeping well 
till the end of April, and rarely fuffering by frofts, 
ploughs them up. — " I have ufed them in feeding 
horfes, cattle, fheep, and hogsj every animal is 
fond of them, even geefe eat them with greedinels. 
But the mod profitable way of applying them is in 
feeding horfes. They are the only root I know of, 
that, in feeding horfes, amply fupplies the place of 
corn. I was in ufe, inftead of two feeds of corn, 
to give the whole farm-horfes here one feed of oats 
and a feed of carrots in the day, and found them 
thrive remarkably well. However, that I might 
find how carrots would do without any corn at all, 
for years repeatedly, I fet a pair of horfes, and 
from about the firft of January to the middle of 
May, gave them no corn at all, but carrots only 
in place of corn, and fodder like the reft. They 
got duly a feed of carrots for the other's feed of 
corn. The horfes went in a plough or cart every 
day J and all the fpring, as we had much to do, 
they worked between nine and ten hours a-day. 
They kept in very good order, rather better than 
B b 2 the 



-560 A N N A L S O F 



:> 



the reft, at leaft much fmoother and finer in the 
fkin ; and, before they had been a month at grafs, 
were by much the fatted horfes on the farm. I 
weighed the carrots, and found that a horfe's ufual 
feed was about 30 pounds j and this quantity each 
horfe had given him twice a day till about the end 
of March ; after which he got three fuch feeds 
every day till all the horfes went to grafs, about the 
1 2th or 15th of May. In fhort, they are an ex- 
cellent nouriihing food for cattle of every kind, 
an improving crop in a high degree, and very pro- 
fitable to the farmer." — Produce per acre 9I tons. 
Parfnips much inferior in weight and profit*. 
The next minute is of Mr. Hall, of Fowlis, who 
drills the carrots in rows equi-diftant, three feet 
afunder, his " farm horfes are fed on carrots in- 
ftead of corn ; and they are always in good con- 
dition -j-." Here is another entire fubftitution of 
this root inftead of oats. Thomas Dundas, Efq, 
of Keith Marfhal, is more particular; he manures 
the furrows of four-feet ridges, reverfes them on 
the dung, and drills a double row at a foot on each. 
" The carrots ferve in place of oats for horfes, and 
Mr. Dundas accounts one acre of carrots equal to 
30 bolls of oats in feeding horfes J." N, B, The 
Scotch boll is equal to fix Winchefter bufliels §, 
this makes the acre of carrots equal to ill quarters 



* Vol. iii. p. 117. X Vol. vi. p. 43S. 

f Vol. V. p. 24.a, § Vol, i, p, la. 



of 



AGRICULTURE. 361 

of oats, which is as decifive information and proof 
of excellence as could be laid before the reader. 
Mr. Hay, of Drumnnelzier, upon a farm of no 
lefs than 800 Scotch * acres, " feeds his horfes 
with carrots inftead of corn f." Such is the car- 
rot intelligence in this very ufcful v/ork. I have 
wanted no new information to fatisfy myfelfof this 
point fince 1767, when I fed fix horfes the winter 
through on carrots, they never ftoori ftill, Sundays 
excepted, and went through their work as well as 
when they had oats ; but for others who infift that 
carrots cannot be thus depended on, too much in- 
telligence cannot be colledled. 

Let us next come to potatoes for cattle. 

Mr. Scott, of Seikirkfhire, ufes them for work- 
ing horfes, and finds them excellent food ; half a 
peck to each for one feed, raw, but well wafhed. 
When the horfes are hard wrought, a fmall feed of 
oats in the morning, and potatoes in the evening J, 
Lord Stonefield, for horfes, gives half a peck 
a-day, and when hard worked a little oats^ do 
well, and thrive exceedingly ||. Mr. Kidd, of 
Winchburgh, ftall-feeds every year from 50 to 60 
oxen ; in one feafon has given 600 or 700 bolls 
{3600 or 4200 bufhels) of potatoes to them, and 
finds them a fine refource when turnips are gone 
or fail. Laft winter divided his beads into three 

* One acre and one-fourth Englifti makes one acre Scotch, 
f Vol. vi. p. 54.8, X Vol. iii. p. 6. D Vol. iii. p. 306. 

B b 3 equal 



362 A N N A L S O F 

equal parcels, fed one with turnips, one with po- 
tatoes, and one with bruifed beans, oats, and bar- 
ley. The quantity of potatoes confumed daily by 
ah ox 2f to 3 Scotch pecks, or near 6d. a day, at 
2d. a ptck. The corn-fed ones cod (till more. 
All the bullocks one ftone of hay each day *. The 
experiiTient is not fatisfaftory, for want of nnore 
particulars. 

In the next minute I find, that the Surinam, or 
clufter potatoes is preferred to any other — " Horfes, 
cows, or hogs, feed upon them with fuccefs— 
Many a boll of oats is faved by means of them, if 
they are given with judgment to labouring horfes. 
They eat them with avidity j and their coats are 
fmooth, and their bodies open, as if they were fed 
with grafs j-.'* This is not decifive, and the laft 
circumftance the enemies of green food lay hold of, 
as the very thing that proves the weaknefs of the 
food. Thus it is that the value of intelligence de- 
pends entirely upon Jpecific information. In all 
thefe inftances, alfo, of oats being given once 
a day, or when hard-worked, which implies that 
the horfe- keepers could get at oats, the intelli- 
gence is confiderably weakened. Do your horfes 
feed entirely on green food? How much do they 
^at? What quantity of oats would keep them 

* Vol. iv. p. 492. 
f Vol. vi. p. 47Z. 

equdlly 



AGRICULTURE. 363 

equally well? The anfwer to fuch queftions gives 
the value at once *. 

3d. Whins for horfes, there is one article very 
decifive on this fabjedt ; " Mr. Keith, of Aber- 
deenfhire, bruifes them with a fulling-mill, after 
which they are eaten greedily by horfes and horned 
cattle, that fatten on them. When employed in 
labour, it is obferved, that they fweat much, which 
is evidence of the richnefs pf the feeding f : " is it 
not an evidence, alfo, that the food is not hearty ? 
" Mr. Gordon :}:, cf the fame county, feeds horfes, 
fheep, and oxen with them. He bruifes thcrn 
with a ftamping-m.ill. A whole Vv'inter, when 
fodder happened to be fcarce, 25 horfes. were 
maintained on whins. Ever fincc, he has pre- 
fcrved a (lock of whins for horfes j and every year 
in fpring fets fire to a large field of them, from 
which fpring a great abundance of young Ihoots for 
wintering Iheep." 

4th. Refpe6ling the ufe of oxen, I fliall ob- 
ferve, in general, that from one end of Scotland to 
the other, the beft and moft diftinguifhed im- 
provers work them in preference to horfes, find 
them equally good for every fort of work, and lefs 
expenfive. They are ufed in harnefs, and in the 

* Vol. i. p. 316. Mr. Guthrie, of Dundee, keeps his work- 
horfes in fine order, on boiled potatoes and a little chaff, with a 
few carrots, and tafted no corn till feed-time. 

f Vol. iv. p. 687. X Vol. iv. p. 692, 

B b 4 plough 



364 ANNALSOF 

plough without a driver j in a word, the informa- 
tion of Mifs Frazer is general, that fix oxen do the 
work of fix horfes, and coll no more than three. 

5th. The horfe-hoeing hufbandry of Mr. TuU 
has bcea pra«5tifed for many years, and on a large 
fcale (even to fifty acres), by feveral noblemen and 
gentlerrien, and one and all, to a matiy have given 
it up as a vifioiiary fyftem. Even Mr. Craik, on 
whofe pradice volumes have been founded, has 
done wich it, and pronounces it more fpecious than 
folid : let us hope the day is come, when this folly 
will be heard of no more. 

In the next place, it will be proper to note one 
tor two errors in the conduct of this work (fpeaking 
as an Englifh reader), arifing merely from the 
author not having viewed the beft cultivated coun- 
ties of England. In the firft place, there is no clear 
idea perceivable of a chafte courfe of crops. 
Though Mr. Wight goes, in this refpeft, a bar's 
length beyond moft of his improvers, yet he ad- 
mits two crops of white corn in fucceflion, and 
fometimes even three i the pretenfion of a perfon 
is not difallowed, who talks of binding his tenants 
to, I. oats, 2. barley, 3. oats, 4. barley, with grafiTes, 
in order to prevent over-cropping*. In another 
pafiage, much praifc is given to a management 
where the courfe is, ift fallow, 2d wheat, 3d beans 
and peafe mixed f j which is the rotation fome of 

f Vol. iii. p. 80 t "Vol. iv. p. 410, 4.ta. 

our 



AGRICULTURE. 365 

our open fields in England are bound to, by the 
thraldom of connmon rights. White peafe, Mr. 
W. remarks *, ought never to be the choice of a 
tenant, becaufe fo early, that pigeons, &c. devour 
them. This is contrary to the beft hufbandry that 
is known in England : for with us peafe fell at a 
price proportioned to their earlinefs, that turnips 
may fucceed them. In another place, the author 
declares, that turnips, if Ibwn broadcall, are not 
fufficient to free land from root-weeds -j-, the con- 
trary of which is known to every farmer within 40 
miles of this houfe. And again, that in the ordinary 
way of feeding them on the land, more than half 
the crop is loft J ; but thoufands of acres are every 
year fed in Norfolk and Suffolk, without the lofs 
of an hundredth part, inftead of half. Where the 
culture of failow-crops is not very well underftood, 
no wonder hearty fallows are thought necefTary. 

Next let me remark, that throughout the whole 
kingdom, no land is ever laid down to grafs with- 
out a large quantity of ray-grafs- feeds being fown, 
Mr. W. in fome inftances, corrects the too great 
quantity on certain foils, but I think does not fuf- 
ficiently condemn it. The praftice is certaialy er- 
roneous; ray-grafs is excellent on poor light lands, 
and for early fheep-fced ; but on good and ftrong 
foils, that will give a better plant, fuch as the 
yellow trefoil, (medicago lupidina ;) rib-wort, (plan- 

* Vol, iv. p. 605. f Vol. V. p. 157, X Vol. vi. p, 542. 

eeolata)-^ 



366 A N N A L S O F 

ce&lafa) i perennial red-clover, (trifolium alpejire)', 
and white clover, (jrifoiium repens) j it is certainly 
to be rejefled. No man will cut his meadow early 
enough for ray-grafs, for, while that is in bloflbm 
other plants are not at their growth, if we except 
burnet, a bad one for hay. The ufe of ray-grafs 
is for feed early, when it ought to be pared clofe 
to the ground. 

Another miftake, that ought to be noted, is in 
the prad:ice called fat-watering ; this is the irri- 
gation of grafs land in order for breaking it up for 
corn : it appears at the firll blulh to be a fyftem of 
barbarifm ever to fet a plough into land capable of 
being watered, yet it feems from Mr. W. as if they 
had no knowledge of any other ufe of water but in 
this alternate hufbandry. 

Next let me obferve, that Mr. W. in the two 
firft volumes of his work, mentions numerous in- 
ftanccs of turnips, both broad-caft and drilled, but 
chiefly the latter, paying from 4I. to 61. per acre, 
ftraw eaten included, in fattening oxen. A value 
that aftoniflied me in reading his work, but in thefe 
four volumes, not one minute of the value of that 
root is to be met with, which is remarkable : I con- 
clude from it, that fuch extraordinary profits are 
fall declining. 

Laftly, I lliall remark, that the reader, in the 
perufal of Mr. W.'s book, muft have in his mind, 
that nine in ten of the farmers he names are at work 

upon 



AGRICULTURE. 367 

upon new land^ which will explain many circum- 
ftances otherwife unintelligble in England, and that 
will be equally fo in Scotland half a century hence; 
particularly in relation to the amazing bent^fit of 
marl, fhells, and lime, and to the greatnefs of 
many of the produds in fchemes of management 
not altogether corred:. 

The errors 1 have remarked are very trifling in 
fo extenfive a performance ; and the reader will 
believe me, when I affure him, that had the work 
been of lefs merit, I fliould not equally have at- 
tended to them ; but dodlrine of a doubtful ten- 
dency is more likely to do m.ifchief in a writer of 
vconfiderable knowledge, than in one of lefs abilities. 

Mr. Wight annexes to his furveys, a correfpon- 
dence I had with him upon the ufe of beans as 
a fubftitute for fummer fallows on ftrong lands; I 
cannot but add, that I am as ftrongly of that opi- 
nion as ever; and Mr. W.'s book adds one inftance, 
no trifling one, to confirm fuch an opinion : V)Xi 
Walker, near Elgin, fallowed for two years, giv- 
ing 14 or 15 ploughings. What was the confe- 
,quence? He had not one good crop after it. Mr. 
Crow, of Kiplin, in Yorkfhire, did the fame, and 
had the fame refult. This, however, is not ex- 
a6lly the proof which the cafe demands : for a 
fallow mull not only give a goud crop, but one 
^ery much fuperior, or expences will not be paid. 
In the controverfy above-mentioned, Mr. W. de- 
clared one reafon why he was a friend to fallows, 

was 



368 ANNALS OF 

was the circumflance of phlogifton being the food 
of plants. I was of a different opinion, and denied 
that ever it was provedy that that fubftance was the 
food, which was the cafe, for no experinncntal 
proof has ever been publifhed of that faft. This 
is not the cafe at prefent. I was wrong in my 
opinion, and have proved myfelf to be fo by ex- 
periment. This, however, has little to do with the 
queftion of fallowing. Thus let me take leave of 
this very ufeful work, which every where abounds 
with valuable information. 



II. 

Objervations on the Commerce of the American States, 
' By John Lord Sheffield, 8vo. 5s. Debrett. 4th edit. 

T^ O give a general account of a work fo well 
'byC>.(j-i. oufti^ eftablifhed in reputation, would be ufelefs ; 
fU*^ ''trf^t^ the world, by an undivided applaufe, has given a 
y^ih^i, ^ox^*€Jtc ftamp to this moft ufeful performance; which will 
UZfiUrCJ^UiCtJ. in future clafs with the very firft commercial pub- 
'X^l^^iCftv^^" lications which this country has produced. My 
^ '^ Ae^*t*'4-<^ bufinefs with it is to give fome extrads on topics 
^^ '^4Urt ' that very nearly concern the agriculture of thefc 

%}ij^^CJ %\Jc/ ' "Several perfons are now in England fent 
from France, to obferve the management of our 

flocks^ 



AGRICULTURE. 369 

flocks, in order to acquire knowledge relative to 
wool. They nnay obferve, that it will be necef- 
fary to change the climate, and whole fyilem of 
hufbandry in France, before that country can raife 
any quantity of wool fuch as ours. The quantity 
of wool raifed in France is not confiderable, when 
compared with the confumption. We may, in 
fome degree, judge, from the feizures, of the in- 
creafeofthe practice of fmuggling wool. In 177a, 
the quantity feized was only 3a pounds. In 1780, 
it had encreafed to 12,380 pounds; and in 1782, 
it amounted to 13,916 pounds." P. 8. 

" Englifh fuperfine cloths are at leaft as 
much better as they are dearer than thofe of the 

French." — Ibid. " The manufadlures at Lifle, 

and fome other towns in France, attempt camblets, 
ferges, and fome other light woollens, but they 
are fo inferior, that the fame forts of Englifh ma- 
nufaftures, even loaded with duties and expences, 
are prefered both in the French and Auftrian Ne- 
therlands. With Ihalloons, tammies, and other 
light fluffs for the lining of cloaths, &:c. the 
French manufafturers have hitherto had flill lefs 
fuccefs. Wool is from 15 to 20 per cent, dearer 

in France than in England." — Ihid. Orders to 

a great amount are now in London, from the 
French, for woollen goods, as well as for Spital- 

field's manufadlures." — P. 9. -The rapid in- 

creafe of the Englifh woollen fabrics, feems 

flrongly 



370 ANNALS OF 

fttongly to confirm thefe obfervations, particularly 
the cloths nulled in the Weft-riding of York. 
1725, pieces broad, 26,691 



i738> 


- 32,404 narrow 14,495 


1748, 


60,765 -a 68,080 


1758, 


60,396 — 66y3^6 


1768, 


90,036 — 74,480 


1778, - 


132,506 — 101,629 



Yds. ini778, broads 3,795,990, narrows 2,746,7 1 2 
1782, ditto 45563,376, ditto 3,292,002 

P. 1 2.—" The manufaftures at Rouen in France, 
though inferior to ours, are good, but they have been 
hitherto near 20 per cent, dearer than thofe of Man- 
chefter, which has given the latter the preference in 
the Netherlands, in Holland, in Germany, and moft 
parts of Europe, and mufl: do the fame in America. 
Manchefter goods are carried frpm England into 
France, and there fold as French manufadlure." — 
P. 26. 

Thefe quotations on the fubjeft of wool are very 
important, and fome conclulions are to be drawn 
from them of no inconfiderable accoynt to the agri- 
culture of the kingdom. I fhall, in the firft place,, 
obferve, that the general tenour of this information 
is perfectly confiftent with various particulars I had 
an opportunity of being acquainted with a few years 
ago, when on a very elaborate comparifon made be- 
tween ail the woollen manufaftures of France, fpeci- 
mens with the prices being produced, againft coun- 
ter 



AGRICULTURE. 371 

tcr ones with England ; they were agreed by fome 
moft intelligent nnanufadurers, to be far inferior. 
Next let me obferve, that it is evident our woollen 
manufafturcrs have no reafon to demand any varia- 
tions of policy, in order to find a vent for their fa- 
brics, fince it appears that they are already mafters 
of the market, and that nothing more is wanting to 
preferve ic, but the ufual exertions of fkill, and the 
common weight of the large capitals always in their 
hands. But here there occurs a circumftancc 
which interweaves itfelf in every thing concerning 
the woollen manufacture. Is their fuperiority a 
fair one ? or do you derive it from an unjuft, cruel, 
and abfurd policy of robbing the landed intereft, iH 
order to enrich the commercial ? Wool is cheap in 
England and dear in France, becaufe the exporta- 
tion is prohibited : if the manufaflure can fupporc 
itfelf only in confequence of fuch a meafure, I will 
freely own that it had better not be fupported at 
all J becaufe what is gained on the one hand is loft 
on the other. But I am clear that this is not the 
cafe, and have not a doubt but the woollen fabrics 
of England would preferve their fuperiority, if the 
trade in wool was free. Our fuperfine cloths made 
of Spanifh wool, finding a market abroad, in fpite 
of the competition of France, is a clear proof of 
this. I (hall not, however, enter into that contro- 
verfy, further than to obferve, that I fubfcribe en- 
tirely to the dodrinesof Sir John Dalrymple's ex- 
cellent trad, which ought to be the creed of the 

fubje<S:» 



372 ANNALSOF 

fubje(5V. A point of much more confequence is 
the expedted cafe of a relaxation in the commercial 
reftri6tions between England and France, in confe- 
quence of the late treaty of peace. 

Regulation of our French Trade. 

On which fubjeft his I^ordfhip exprefles him- 
felf with very great propriety j and much it is to 
be hoped that his obfervations will have due efFe<5t. 
" It is not with a thinly inhabited, nor a poor 
country that a great commerce can be carried on. 
The miferable policy, or rather jealoufy, of Bri- 
tain and France in refpedt to each other is moft 
ftriking. France began the ill-judged fyftem of 
prohibiting our manufaflures j and at prefent the 
trade between two of the moft enlightened, moft 
liberal, and richeft nations that have exifted, is 
more trifling than the trade between many of the 
petty nations. We think it necflary to call 
France our natural enemy j if we muft have a na- 
tural enemy, moft fortunately we have, for fuch 
a moft civilized, gallant, and generous nation," 
p. 132. This is a fentiment that does honour to 
the writer's feelings. — " Britain has been amufed 
by a treaty with Portugal, the utility of which at 
leaft is become difputable. Our exports to that 
country are lefs than one half of what they were 
10 years ago ; and the commercial conduft of that 
country towards us, has occafionally tended to ex- 
onerate us from the treaty. However, in the 

mean 



AGRICULTURE. 373 

mean time, the people of England are fcntenced 
in favour of that country to drink her coarfe wines, 
inftead of the pleafant and lefs hurtful light wines, 
of France, and to pay between 1 and 300,000]. 
annually more than we fhall pay for the fame 
quantity of wine from France *. The exchange 
of our manufadlures of iron and fteel, aad earth- 
en ware, for the wines of France would be ad- 
vantageous to both countries J and other inter- 
changes we could propofe might make it not de- 
firable or necelTary for her to force a competition 
in certain articles. Various other intercourfe might 
be advantageoufly recommended not now neceflary 
to fpecify. The ftaie of Biitilh manufactures, the 
enlightned and fuperior charafter of our mer- 
chants above all others, their great capital, fpirir, 
and enterprife, give us fuch advantages, that we 
ihould perhaps have little to fear from opening the 
ports of Britain gradually^ not fudderdy^ to all the 
manufactures of France and Spain, and indeed of 
all nations, on condition that they fhall open theirs 
to ours," p. 234. Thefe are fcntiments that can- 
not be inculcated too often j they are enlarged, 
"liberal, and manly j and whenever they effcCl (for 

* We import above 12,000 tons of Portugal wines yearly, the 
prime coll of French wines is at lead 20I. per ton cheaper than 
that of Portugal. The wines of the fouthern provinces of France 
are much improved ; they are of a ftronger body than claret, but 
of the fame nature. In Languedoc good wine may be had at 51, 
a hoglhead. If the daties^ on French wines were not heavier thaa 
»n Ponuguefe, the prime coll of the latter would be reduued half 

• 

Vol. I. No. 5. C c effed 



374 ANNALS OF 

efFefb it they mull fooner or later) a wifer policy 
in this kingdom and its great neighbour, both 
nations will have reafon to blefs the men who re- 
probated the former pernicious reftridlions on their 
mutual induftry. Combine thefe obfervations 
with the former on woollen goods ; and with the 
remarks to the fame purport of " Dr. Adam 
Smith in his fVealth of Nations, particularly that 
by which he fhews even the advantage of being 
underfold in our own markets by foreign goods j 
fhould fuch a cafe happen, and we fhall not long 
perfift in our prefent prepofterous condudl, but 
fpurn at that vile monopoly which the Portuguefe 
have of our markets, without one return in profit, 
influence, or even attention. 

American native Hemp, 
" Between the Ohio and the Mifliflippi, it is faid 
there are many thoufand acres of native hemp ; 
but not fo good as that planted and cultivated," 
p. 49. I have turned to feveral authors who men- 
tion a native hemp in America, but none that 
knew the plant -, and fhould be much obliged to 
any gentleman that would inform me of the Lin- 
naean name, 

IVheat in America, 

*' The American States were more than com- 
petitors with us for the wheat trade ; they had for 
fome years engrofTed nearly the whole of what we 
had, and it has been computed, upon an average 

of 



AGRICULTURE. 375 

of five years, they ha.H received from Spain and 
Portugal upwards of 320,000!. per ann, for that 
grain. It is a fortunate circumftance arifmg from 
the independence of America, that the Britifli ifles 
will regain, in a confideiable degree, the fupply of 
our Weft India iflands with bread and flour. The 
average crop of wheat in America, is from 1 5 to 
1 8 bufhels of wheat per acre i weight per bufhel 
from 58 to 631b. J average price per bulhel 3s, 
fterling," p. 67. " In the year 1770, North Ame- 
rica fupplied our Weft Indies with 12,730 tons of 

flour and bread." " France has the good policy 

to encourage her own agriculture, by prohibiting 
the importation of thefe articles from foreign coun- 
tries into her iflands, or any other articles vvhich 
the mother country can fupply," p. 119. This 
obfervation is eflTential to the interefts of thefe 
kingdoms. The whole tenor of his I^ordlhip's 
book is to prove (and no point was ever more fa- 
tisfaftorily proved) that we ought to fubjed the 
Arperican States to our navigation a6t refpefting 
the imports of the Weft Ind.ies. Private interefl: 
has already raifed much clamour on this point . 
but ardently muft every lover of his country hope 
that thofe found principles of navigation, the great 
foundation of our naval power, which in this work 
are ftrongly contended for, will get the better of 
every private and local intereft. To fupply the 
Weft Indies with grain, flour, t)read, and ail forts 
oi provifions, ought immediately to l?e fecured ex- 
C c 2 clulively 



376 ANNALS OF 

clufively to Great Britain ; and for that purpofc, 
fo much of our corn laws as reftridt the exporta- 
tion under certain circumftances to fpecified quan- 
tities, ought immediately to be repealed; and a 
free export to the Weft Indies allowed in all cafes 
whatfoever. 

The average American crop of wheat of i6| 
bufhels raifed by an expence of labour much higher 
than any thing we know in England, does not 
place their agriculture in any favourable point of 
view ; and gives fome reafon to believe, that their 
cultivated lands are exhaufted by bad management. 
In England the average crop is from 6 to 8 bufhels 
more, which, at 4s. 6d. a bufhel, more than an- 
fwers the amount of rent, tythe, and poor rate* 
for the land. 

American 'Taxes. 

As the agriculture of Britain has been faid to fuf- 
fer not inconfiderably by emigrations to America, 
which it has been apprehended would increafe in 
confequence of the independence, it cannot be im- 
proper to infert, by way of fpreading knowledge 
that ought to be univerfally difleminated, the ca- 
tegory of Amierican taxes which his Lordfhip has 
colleded. It is a lefTon— a fevere and tremendous 
one to that reftlefs, difcontented, growling, puri- 
tanical SPIRIT OF INNOVATION which fccms every 
day making advances in this country, towards the 
fame events as we have feen take place in America 
by a thoufand crooked channels, fome fecret and 

hidden. 



AGRICULTURE. 377 

hidden, others open and avowed, but all equally 
deteftable. Let the lovers of true freedom, watch, 
the republican principles that are difTeminated 
with fuch anxious activity : let them exert a thou- 
fandth part of the zeal in preferving the conftiiu- 
tion that is employed to change it, under defpicable 
pretences of improvement, and we fnaJl have no- 
thing to fear. Ht-re follow fome of the many bit- 
ter waters with which republicanifm has drenched 
that once happy continent. " The province of 
New York paid under the Britifh government only 
the forty-fifth part of the fum at which it is now 
taxed. The taxes in general are fo high that they 
cannot pofllbly be paid. In New England a gene- 
ral excife has been laid on all foreign articles; from 
2f to 5 per cent, on wines, brandies, tea, rum ; 
and on many other articles to a ftill higher rate, 
amounting to above 20 fer cent, in many inflances. 
Befides which, taxes are laid on lands improved 
and unimproved, to be valued at the difcretion of 
the affcrflbr, and on houfes. All male perfons above 
the age of 16, and under 50, are aflefTed at 18I. 
horfes and cattle three years old and upwards, at 4I, 
each, under that age in proportion ; hogs at 20s. ; 
alfo covering- horfes, dogs, plate, watches, clocks, 
mills of all kinds, furnaces, forges, ftills, breweries, 
tan-yards, retailers offpirituous liquors, ferries, fifh- 
cries, coaches and carriages of all forts. The ton- 
nage of veffels of all forts is afTtfled, and the fup- 
pofed profits made by merchants, lawyers, and 
C c 3 mechanics,' 



378 A N N A L S O F 

mechanics, vvnich is called a tax on faculty ; af- 
felTed ac the arbitrary difcretion of the alTeffGrs, 
except lawyers. Traders and merchants are af- 
leffed fron) 20I. to loool. in proportion as it is 
prefumed by the ufTeffors that their bufintfs is pro- 
fitable; an.-i the fame mode is adopted even with 
regard to the loweil tradtfmen. Every writ, fub- 
poena, or judicial paper, and all papers iffued out 
of the probate -office, are taxed. Every male from 
16 to 50 is obliged to labour at Itaft four days 
each year on the highways, and more if the luper- 
intendant requires it ; alfo to exercife in the mili- 
tia at leafi four days, and more if the colonel gives 
orders J he is alfo obliged to furnifh himfelf with 
a good fufee, a fabre, with one pound weight of 
powder, and four pounds of ball, at his own ex- 
pence. To pay the annual expences of the con- 
federated government, a tax of 2s. 6d. has already 
been impofed, befides the duties and excife. In 
ihort, it is calculated that a farmer pays nearly 15$. 
in the pound, on all the nett income of his farm, 
and of his labour. The poor labourer muft, be- 
fides his militia and road duties, be taxed at 18I. 
and of courfe pay 63s. a year. Thus thofe who 
were led to believe that independance would free 
them from all taxes or duties, are already become 
fubje(5l to more, and heavier, than are known in 
this, or perhaps in any other country in the world. 
—Letters from America reprefent the miferable 
epndition of erpigrants 5 one from a very relpefl- 

able 



AGRICULTURE. 379 

able perfon, dated Philadelphia, fayr*, " that a fliip 
with German, and feveral with Iriih emigrants, 
had arrived there. Thefe poor people were taught 
to believe, that they had nothing to do on their 
arrival, but to take pofleffion of the vacated and 
confifcated eftates j but fo greatly are they difap- 
pointed, that black Sam, who deals in fruit, has 
purchafed two fine Iiifli youths, and employs thein 
in hawking fruit about the ftreets, and in the 
meaneft employs." Iriflimen juO: einancipated in 
Europe go to America to become flaves to a 
negro 1" P. 194. 

Agriculture and Commerce compared. 

" It is well worthy confideration, whether we 
have not engaged by far too great a proportion of 
our capital in foreign trade, to the great detriment 
of other important national concerns, and particu- 
larly of the moft important of all, namely agricul- 
ture, which at this moment languiflies in a great 
degree by the fcarcity of money : it would be found 
on inveftigation, that not one half the money is 
employed in it that (hould be ; and that in many 
parts the farms are by no means properly flocked 
or cultivated. It is alfo well known, that the price 
of land has fallen nearly one-third, within eight or 
nine years," p. 237. The obfervation has great 
truth in it, and much is it to be regretted, that 
the general fubjed of his Lordfhip's work would 
not permit him to enter more particularly into the 
C c 4 reafons 



380 ANNALSOF 

reafons why a greater capital is not employed in 
agriculture ; and on the bed means of increafing it. 
Was he to enter into that difquifition, I believe his 
reafoning would take quite another turn from that 
ofDr Adam Smith, on the fame fubjeft, whofe 
book * feems intended rather as a ftigma on the 
profit of ihatfirft of arts, than defigned to animate 
any further exertions in it. 

Colonize your own WaJieSy mi American ones. 

Tht iultice of the following refledtions will pleafc 
every one. " Had the government of James I. 
and of Charles I. been lb wife, and the fpirit of their 
times been fo tolerant, as to have given the puri- 
tans no caufe for emigration : had America been 
fettled by any other nation, it is more than proba- 
ble that Great Britain had been more populous and 
powerful ; that her taxes had been much lighter, 
and her debt much lefs. Had the emigrants been 
retained at home, whofe progeny now form a 
people of near two millions, in a climate no ways 
fuperior, and in moft parts inferior to that of Bri- 
tain and Ireland. Had the lands at home, which 
ftill continue wafte, been given them on condition 
of cultivation, and bounties been added to encou- 
rage new products of agriculture ; had they been 

* 1 hardly know an abler work than Dr. Smith's, or one (it is 
no contradi6lion) that is fuller of more pernicious errors j he ne- 
ver touches on any branch of rural oeconomy, but to ftart pofitions 
that arife from raif-ftatcd fa^s, or that lead to falfe conclufions. 

planted 



AGRICULTURE. 381 

planted on the banks of our rivers and our bays, 
with a view to fiflieries, they would have increafed 
the people, and augmented the opulence of Great 
Britain, in the fame proportion as the colonifts 
have for many years formed a balance to our po- 
pulation and our power." P. 239. 

The mifchief which we have fuffered from colo- 
nies, could not have been believed 50 years ago : 
this Ihews how new, and on what uncertain grounds 
the fcience of politics refts, for want of a greater 
variety of experiments to reafon from. Apply the 
cafe CO our remaining colonies, the fugar iflands ; 
and to our dominions in the Eaft Indies: adapt 
pad experience to new events : will thofe poflef- 
fions be found Jo valuable as they are at prefent 
thought? The fair comparifon is that of inverting 
a fimilar capital in the agriculture, fifheries, and 
domeftic commerce of this iflind. I touched on 
the fubjedt in my firft: number j if it was fully pur- 
fued, I have little doubt but all fuch territories 
(taking into account the wars that muft necejjarily 
be entered into to defend them) are uniformly per- 
nicious. And that the reafon vihy the nobieft coun- 
try on the globe, the peninfula of Spain, is little 
better than a defert, is to be found in her efforts^ 
her attention, her wars, her capital, and her induf- 
try, being all turned afideto tranfailantic dominions. 
It is not merely the influx of iilver, and the export 
of people, that has the efFe6t : it is a union of many 
evils. A divided attention extends to all. The 



King 



3S2 ANNALS OF 

king of Spain boafted to his fubjefts, that he had 
made the bell peace the Spanilh inonarchy has 
known of 200 years ; becaufe he acquired the Flo- 
ridas. What drlufion I The rebellion and inde- 
pendency of all his American dominions would be 
worth a thoufand fuch acquifitions, 

Ireland. 

«f The glory of the volunteers of Ireland might 
be in lefs danger of being tarniilied, if her warni 
and fpirited fons would cultivate the advantages 
they have attained. She is peculiarly fuuated for 
trade and fifberies. The fums fhe is fpending in 
uniforms, feathers, and fifes, might found fifheries 
to rival Holland. To eltablifh her fiilieries, half 
the induftry and efForE| that are making for the 
amelioration of parliament would be lufficient. 
The procefs of the latter is dangerous and uncer- 
tain i but riches and happinefs would be the cer- 
tain confequences of equal efforts in favour of in- 
duftry." P. 274. 

Commerce, 
Imports and exports of England to and from all parts. 

Balmce 
Average from Imports. Exports. in our favour. 

lyootoiyio, 4,557,894 6,512,095 1,954,201 

1710— 1720, 5,288,571 7)767j307 ^,478,735 

1720—1730, 6,950,811 10,130,870 3,180,095 

1730— 1740, 7>570o'98 11,338,961 3>768,363 

I740--I75af 7,396,609 12,399,055 5,002,446 

1750—1760, 8,5-0,989 13,829,953 5,258,964 

1760—1770, 11,088,711 14,841,548 3,752,837 

1770—1780, 11,760,6^5 13,513,236 2,152,580 

Our 



AGRICULTURE. ^83 

Our trade to Holland, Germany, and Flanders, 
taken together, is the mod confiderabie we have. 

Exports. 

Average of 10 years, ending 1760, £• 3A^2,2S'^ 

Ditto, 1770, - 4,234,074 

Ditto, 1780, - 3,9r2,879 

Confidering the interruptions which commerce 
received in the lall period, it is amazing that it 
fhould not have declined more than this very trif- 
ling difference. The common notion is, tTiat our 
trade to Turk> y was once very great, and now httle 
or nothing; here follows an account of the balance 
of that trade againfi us, going back to the period 
when this commerce was on its largeil fcale. 

10 average years, ending 1720, ^ j^- 90^382 

173O:. — 84,843 

1740, — 23,714 

1750, — 44,477 

1760, — 59^764 

1770, — 5^^388 

1780, — 29,038 

Hence we find that this trade has been growing 
lefs and lefs difadvantageous. This exprefTion is 
not, however, ftriftly proper j for, unlefs we knew 
the commodities imported we are not a judge. A 
trade much againfi us may be highly beneficial, if 
the imports confift of materials of manufadure. 

Tb§ 



3^4 



ANNALS OF 



The great point which the work was written to 
prove, viz. the neceflky of enforcing the naviga- 
tion aft relative to the fupply of our Weft Indies, 
with lumber and provifions from the United States, 
is afcertained by the moft luminous difplay of fafts, 
coileded for the purpofe. His Lorddiip does not 
fail the leaft in this attempt. I muft declare this* 
though I have read his anfwers * on this part of 

• It is not foreign to the prefent obftrvations to remark, that 
all the evils of the late war were totally owing to the interefted po- 
litics of Weft Indians being liftened to by mini'iers and parlia- 
ments, in the negociations that followed the war of 1756. When 
it became a queftion whether we fhould retain Canada, or the fugar 
acquifitions, our old iflands, fighing for the monopoly of the Bri- 
tifli market confined to as fmall a circle as poffible, were loud for 
our keeping Canada. Curfe on the folly that was deceived by their 
interefted, but fenfclefs, clamours — that cancelled the bond tor 
American obedience— and gave a full field for the exertion of 
American gratitude. We are again afTailed by Weft Indian com- 
plaints. The navigation of Britain is to be facrificed to the con- 
venience they would receive from a free trade with the North Ame- 
ricans. Are the deareft interefts of this great and flourishing em- 
pire thus to be frittered away? If we are to be governed on no 
other principles than the private interefts of the weftern, and the de- 
luging corruption and infamy of our fervants in the Eaftern Indies, 
would to heaven the pofieftions in both had been wrefted from us 
in the fame day that faw the independency of America : for Aich is 
the relaxation of our government in every part of the world, that 
we feem to keep diftant territories, not for the advantages which 
other nations draw from them, but for peculiar evils which we con- 
trive to deduce from fources that yield blefHngs to all the world 
befide. Indoftan is conquered, that the fervants of our fervants 
may domineer in our council and our parliaments; and thofe capi- 
tals are to be guided to Weft Indian waftes, which would amply 
improve Englifti ones, that the navigation arifing may belong, not to 
#urfelves, but to the prefby terian republicans of North America ! 

the 



AGRICULTURE. 385 

the fubjecl, who do not produce counterfacls to 
obviate thofe of Lord Sheffield. 

In my opinion, the world is under no inconfider*- 
able delufiun refpefling the great value of Weft 
Indian iflands in any other light than that of navi- 
gation, for which purpofe the worft trades may 
equal the beft. Let us unite the African trade 
with that of the Weft Indies, which is not however 
fair, for only a part of it belongs to that branch. 

Imports from the Weft Indies on the average of 
10 years, ending 1780, £, ^y9A-3^9S5 

Ditto from Africa, — 68,209 

3,012,164 



Exports to the Weft Indies ditto, 1^279,572 
Ditto to Africa, — 508,294 

1,787,866 



Balance againft us, — 1,224,298 

Here then, upon the moft liberal view poffible 
of thefe two trades, there is a balance of at 
leaft twelve hundred thoufand pounds A-ytd.v againji 
vs. How can a trade be the apple of the kingdom's 
eye that carries this appearance ? We are told the 
view is fallacious, and that the value of this trade 
lies in the import*, and not in the export j this is 

not 

* Mr. Burke, in his Obfervations on a Late State of the Nation, 
'769, (one of the beft pamphlets that ever was written) h..s this 

explanatiua 



I 



3S6 A N N A L S O F 

not fo eafy to comprehend; for there cannot be a 
moment's doubt but we could fupply ourfelves 
with fugar, coffee, rum, &c. in our own Ihipping, 

without 

txplanation of the Weft India trade. •* I choofe the import article 
as the beft, and indeed the only ftandard we can have of the value ; 
of the Weft India trade. Our export entry does not comprehend ) 
the greateft trade we carry on with any of the Weft India iflands, the ; 
fale of negroes ; nor does it give any idea of two other advantages ] 
we draw from them j the remittances for money fpent here, and 
the payment of part of the balance of the North American trade. 
If we were to ftiike a balance merely on the face of an excefs of 
imports and exports, it would appear that the balance with our | 
own iflands is annually feveral hundred thoufand pounds againfir 
this country. 

Imports from the Weft Indies 1764., £. 2,909,4.11 

Exports, ^- — 896,511 

Excefs, •— i «- «— 2,012,900 



This is ridiculous. Such is its afpefl on the Cuftom-houfe entriesj j 
but we know the dircft «ontrary to be the faft. We know that 
the Weft Indians are always indebted to our merchants, and that ' 
the value of every (hilling of Weft Indian produce is Englifli pro- 
perty. So that our import from them, and not our export, ought 
always to be confidered as their true value." The remark on the 
negro fupply, and the remittances to abfentees refiding in England^ 
isjuft; and in the account I have given above of this trade, !» 
have allowed for both} but the great hinge of the North Ameri- 
can connexion is broken. This ftate of the fad was utterly erro- ] 
neous at that time, and much more Co now j for the balance due ■ 
by the Weft Indies to North America, is no more to us than toi 
the moon, the profit of that trade refts with the Americans. Butj^ 
this idea of meafuring any trade by its imports (unlefs they arCn 
raw materials for future manufaftures) is an utter abfurdily. Thc^ 
Britifti induftry put in motion by this commerce is feen in the ex 
port 5 but the excefs of imports which is here ftated at above tw* 
Tnilii;!:s, givc3 ui merely the mealure of our ovrn luxury, i haif 

wo 



AGRICULTURE. 387 

without creating any comnnerce of above a million 
a year balance againft us. Abfentees, education 
of children, and fuch articles, certainly amount to 
fomething; but if they were all dedii6ted, ftili 
^here would probably remain a good million to be 
accounted for ; which fome writers have afferted 
'we get in other ways circuitoufly, but we have no- 
thing to do but turn to their former commerce with 
North America, and there we find that they im- 
ported to the amount of near 900,000!. from thac 
country in lumber, live (lock, and provifions. 

Hence, therefore, mod clearly it was the North 
Americans that gained the real profit of that com- 
merce we fubmitted to a lofing trade with one 

fet of colonies that another fet might gain ; that 
another fet are now independent, and the prefent 
queftion is, whether we fhall give the United States 
the only profit that refults from Weft Indian 
iflands ? It is the expenditure of that million balance 
we pay the fugar iflands to which we are to look 
to for our re-imburfement, and above all for our 
navigation, fince lumber, live ftock, and provifions, 
are bulky commodities, and employ more Ihips 
than fugar. Shall we fupply thefe articles ourfelves 

we are content to pay with liaid cafli (not to the Weft Indiansj 
but to the North Americans) fuch an enormous lum, for a mere 
fuperflultv which we abftain from taxing half fo high as it ought 
to be taxed, merely becaufe produced by our own iflands. Ti-« 
export marks, therefore, the value of the trade to the full, as mucii 
in this inftance as in any other. The great value of Weft Indiju 
iflands lies in the navigation they occafion ; and that depends ab- 
solutely on the qcclufioo of the Noith Araen.ans. 

from 



338 A N N A L S, &c. 

from Europe, and wipe out our balance of a million, 
or fhall we leave the trade open to the United 
States, and confequently pay a vaft prennium for 
the navigation and feannen of aliens and enenriies. 
The impudence of private intereft may. argue, and 
v/rite, and reafon for fuch a condu6)", but the mi- 
nifler that liftens to it deferves to be hanged for an 
idiot. Give the North Americans thjs privilege, 
and one of the beft events that could happen, would 
be the total lofs of the Weft India iflands. We 
ihould, in that cafe, buy our lugar of other nations 
20 per cent, cheaper, (fee p. 153.) and confequent- 
ly be able greatly to increafe the public revenue of 
the kingdom *. I have faid nothing of Canada, 
Nova Scotia, and St. John's, for, if their feamen 
are not fubjedled to the prefs, thofe countries are, 
and will be nuifances to our navigation, inftead of 
colonies beneficial to trade, 

I fhall now take my leave of this moft ufeful 
work, which I cannot help warmly recommending, 
not to the flight perufal, but to the ferious and at- 
tentive ftudy of all who wilh to make themfelves 
mafters of this fpecies of knowledge. It is a truly 
valuable monument of induftry, knowledge, and 
penetration. 

* The revenue from fugar appears, by his Lord/hip's work, td 
be very great. He Itates our comfumption at a 125,000 hogfheadsj 
(p. 151), and the duties upon them at 7I. los. each (p. 154), 
this is 937,500, but from the largenefs of the fum (notwithltand- 
ing foir.eihing f.r Ireland is to be dedufted) I Aifj-e^Sl fams i-rrot 
in i'\< account. 



ANNALS 

O F 

AGRICULTURE. 



OBSERVATIONS ON PLANTING AND 
THE GROWTH OF TREES, 

By E. Harries, E/q. of Hanwood, near Shrewjhury, 

Dear Sir, 
T T gave me great pleafure to hear that you had 
opened a channel for receiving communications 
relative to agriculture. Some years pad, it was 
a very favourite recreation j but from the unfa- 
vourable fuccefs of fome gentlemen who had em- 
barked in it too largely (the caufes of which you 
have very juftly pointed out in your " reajons why 
farming proves unprofitable to gentlemeny") it is 
now become, amongll us, a very general opinion, 
that farming is unprofitable to a gentleman *. A 
refidence in the country, with a pretty large family, 
I think, requires 30 or 40 acres of grafs land ; and, 
with moderate care and attention, about 60 acres of 
arable land may be added to it, as much as will find, 
with other bufinefs of drawing coal, &c, regular 

* I wifii Mr. Harries, who is io able to do it, would explain 
what is meant by this. Farming imprudently conduced will be 
unprofitable, but furely not under different circumftances. Will 
Mr. H. favour me with fome intelligence concerning watered mea- 
<lows ? A. Y. 

Vol. I. No. 6, Dd employ- 



390 A N N A L S O F 

employment for a team of horfes, and I fpeak from 
experience : I am likewife convinced, that nothing 
fo much contributes to the health and fpirits, as at- 
tending to the variety ofpleafing occupations that 
fucceflively follow eachx>ther in the proper manage- 
ment of a farm. 

But there is no part of rural improvements more 
agreeable, or profitable, than planting of foreft-trees. 
Did ever any one look at a fine open grove of oak 
or beech near a manfion without admiring it, and 
confidering it as the greateft ornament of the place ? 
How comfortable is its fhelter in winter, and its 
Ihade in fummer ! The air we breathe in it, is found, 
from the experiments of Dr. Prieftley, Ingenhoufe, 
&c. the moft falubrious we inhale. It is the pre- 
vailing tafte to plant near a feat, Scotch and other 
fir trees ; they are indeed of quick growth, which 
recommends them, efpecially the larch, which ex- 
ceeds them all ; thefe 'plantations, after a few years 
decline in beauty, whereas the oak and beech im- 
prove. I would therefore introduce them at pro- 
per diftances, and take care that their budding- 
Ihoots have room, and gradually cut away the firs. 
There are fitUvitions where the fir tribe may be 
planted to great advantage ; they will thrive upon 
black loofe commons and inclofures, almofl equally 
well as in better foils; this I have experienced and 
frequently obferved. You may know almoft to a 
certainty their heighth and girth for about 20 years 
after planting j they will rife in height from half 

a yard 



AGRICULTURE. 391 

a yard to two feet a year, after the fecond year j 
and, if they have proper room, will encreafe in 
bulk from one inch and a half to two inches j you 
cannot be fo certain of the oak or afh. I know 
many black heaths, near manufadluring towns, 
where thefe may be raifed and converted to great 
profit, by falling them at 30 or 40 years growth, to 
be fawed up for packing-boxes ; thefe are made 
flight and for Ihort duration, and this wood would 
anfwer the purpofe as well as foreign deal. 

I hope the wafle- lands belonging to the crown 
will be made ufc of, and this obvious improvement 
adopted. I would have every eftate to have a cer- 
tain portion of wood-land, fuppofe 50 acres in every 
thoufand. The royal forefts efpecially Ihould not 
be deficient. The flrong and mixed foils that are 
well Iheltered, fhould be fowed with acorns j the 
loofe, black, and gravelly foils, with fir and larch, 
all fccurcly fenced. It has been the complaint of 
paft ages, that, in the next generation, we fhould 
not have timber to anfwer the neceffary ufcs of the 
nation ; however, hitherto the market has been fup- 
plied equal to the demand, which has prevented its 
rifing much in the price. The great timber cflates 
in Shropfhire are at this time clearing, and then 
our bulk is gone. 

As an object at fome diflance, and to cover a 

dreary heath, I would recommend the Scotch fir 

and larch to be planted j the latter will enliven the 

D d 2 ' plantation 



392 A N N A L S O F 



plantation by its beautiful green early in fpring, 
and its yellow tints in autumn. 

Oaks are of flow growth; but if you putthenm at 
proper diftances anriongft the quick growing trees, 
they will fometimes be drawn up beyond your ex- 
pectation, and let me caution you to watch them, 
and to cut out fuch trees as croud upon them, 
by tranfplanting them every third year in a nurfcryj 
they may be put out from fix to ten feet high. 

Land that will let at from 12s. to i8s. per acre, 
for any given time, pays better than with wood, if 
you calculate the compound intereft on the annual 
rent ; but who is there that is fo careful as to make 
it, or that can make it on very fmall fums ? I con- 
fider the appropriating of 50 acres out of every 
thoufand, as laying by a fmall part of the income 
of an eftate, that will not be miffed, at compound 
intereft, as an accumulating fund, that frequently 
comes in very feafonable to ftop a large gap. 

I have now, of my grandfather's fowing, about 26 
acres of as fine young oak timber as can be feen, 
which may be worth, in 25 or 30 years, 4000I. I 
have likewife, of my father's fowing, 20 acres to 
fucceed them. My anceftors have done fo much, 
I have only added about ten acres to the fund, 
chiefly of Scotch fir, on a poor foil, where other 
trees have been tried and failed j the thinning of 
thefe woods likewife pay a fair rent, after a time* I 
made a purchafe, upon which were 14 acres of wood- 
land, there are 400 oak trees upon it, that, in 30 

years 



AGRICULTURE. 393 

years from the tiiTje of purchafe, will fell for as 
much as the eflate coft me, loool. 

If you could find fituations adapted to the tree, 
poplar pays beyond any other; but they require a 
deep loamy foil by the fide of a ftream. My father 
felled two in the year 1760, of 45 years growth, 
theyfawed to 2200 feet of inch boards, which would 
now be worth i6s. 4d. per hundred, deduft 2s. 4d. 
for fawing, remains nett profit 15I. 8s. In 1761, 
my father planted a clean fhoot of poplar, about ten 
feet long, which girthed, in December 1770, four 
feet four inches, and in Oflober 1775, five feet five 
inches, and at this time is, at three feet from the 
ground, fix feet feven inches ; within two yards of 
it (lands another of the fame age, that meafuresfive 
feet five inches and a half, and, I think, in the end, 
will be the larger tree ; they are at lead: 60 fe^t 
high. Poplars or elms fhould never be fhredded up. 

A gentleman that farms, and keeps a waggon 
team, fhould have 120 or 130 acres of land. 

Yours, &c. E. H. 



EXPERIMENTS ON BURNET. 

By Mr. IFilliam Pitt, of Pendefordy Staffordjhire, 

SIR, 

T Have feen your Annals of Agriculture, and 

* highly approve of the plan. Your idea of ad- 

D d 3 mit- 



394 ANNALSOF 

mitting nothing but what is furnifhed by real culti- 
vators, is excellent J the vifionary fancies of th'eorifts, 
often expreffed fanguinely and with confidence, and 
as often found unprodudlive and abfurd in praflice, 
has prejudiced naany intelligent perfons againft pub- 
lications of this fort; but, by admitting nothing 
but what is founded in real pradice, the credit of 
this fpecies of writing cannot fail being reftored i I 
hope it will be fpiritedly fupported, and think it can- 
not fail becoming a channel of ufeful information, 
and will doubtlefs tend to the improvement of that 
moft excellent and neceffary of all human arts, agri- 
culture. If you think the following trial of burnet 
worth Qorice, it is at your fervice, and I may, in fu- 
ture, communicate the refult of fundry experiments 
which I mean trying as opportunity ferves i and I am. 

Your very humble fervant. 

Pendeford, Staff or djbire, -i -ry p J X T 

April 14, 178+. i 

EXPERIMENT ON BURNET. 

nPHE cultivation of a large ftook of green food 
- for cattle during the winter-months, is one 
great dcfideratum in the farming bufinefs j indeed 
the abfoluce neceffity of having fuch food for the 
fupport of fat flieep, ewes and lambs, and milch - 
cows, is obvious and well known, as they cannot 
poiTibly be maintained, without either green food 
or corn, the fubftituting the former inftead of the 

latter 



AGRICULTURE. 395 

latter as much as pofTible, is the inrereli of every 
individual concerned in the bufinefs ; and very 
much fo of the community in genaal. 

Turnips are admirably adapted to the above pur- 
pofe, yet the quantity of thofc which every farmer 
can regularly cultivate is, in general, limited, befidesi^ 
the cafualti::rs the crop is fubject to irom flies, cater- 
pillars, &c. as well as the very great deft, udlion of 
them by fevere froft, of which, with us, we have a 
recent inilance; and they are totally ufcjffs in the 
cafe of milch-cows, from the unfuiFcrable taint they 
give to the milk and its produce. 

It is feldom we can have our clover and ray-grafs 
fit for pafture earlier than the beginning of May j 
I have tried tares, and find them little or no earlier; 
cabbage would anfwer the purpofe better, but re- 
quires a good deal of dung and labour. I have, 
therefore, made the following trial of burner, but 
not yet with all the fuccefs I expedtd. 

In the month of April 1783, in the midft of a 
field of barley, I fowed an acre of burnet inftead of 
the ufual feeds, the remaining part of the field being 
feeded with clover and rye-grafs, the feeds came 
well, and the following autumn it was paflured 
with fhcep and horned cattle j I obferved the llieep 
preferred the clover and rye grafs, but the horned 
cattle feemed to prefer the burnet ; it was hayed 
up at Chriftmas, an4, notwithOanding the extreme 
inclemency of the winter at Lady-day, the burnet 
was what we term good picking for cowsj which, 
D d 4 howeverj 



396 AN N A L S O F 

however, I did not pafture, as I mean preferving 
it for feed ; it evidently preferves its verdure in fe- 
vere weather much beyond clover, yet the clover 
now gains ground of it, and I expeft, by May-day, 
will at lead equal it, the burnet being apparently of 
flower growth, I fufpeft the fpecies I have made 
trial of (the feed of which was procured from HoU 
land) to be of a dwarf kind, yet fome plants which 
I have ftuck in a border of the garden are fhooting 
out vigoroufly. As I think there is a probability 
of the plant being rendered extremely ufeful, I 
wifh gentlemen, whofe fituation and connexions 
give them opportunity of procuring the different 
fpecies of the feed, would make trial of them, and 
CO nmunicate the refult of their experiments. 

The fpecies 1 have tried, I am pretty confident, 
have no chance of producing a crop the firfl: feafon, 
if iown by itfelf j I fowed a fmall quantity by it- 
felf in May, which was little forwarder than that 
fown with barley ; I alfo fowed two lands, foon 
after Midfummer, in the m.iddle of a field of tur- 
nips, the turnips came to a crop, but the burnet 
to little ; of a fmall quantity fown in the garden 
early in the fpring, fome perfeded its feed, and 
fome not. I am now making trial of it in the 
foUowingjnanner : I have frequently obferved, run- 
ning a light pair of harrows over wheat, rolling 
it afterwards, has been of fervice ; upon a few 
acres of my clover-lay wheat, I have, therefore, 
fqattered the feed of burnet, light harrowing and 

rolling 



AGRICULTURE. 397 

rolling ic in -, by preferving the ftubble during 
aucumn and winter, I hope to have good picking 
for catdf , for the naonths of March and April next, 
and fhail afterwards plcugh up and work the land 
for turnip-fallow j if it anlwers my expeflation, I 
would regularly have 20 acres in this courfe, 
wherein I fhould lofe no crop^ and incur little or 
no extraordinary labour j my greateft doubts arife 
from the flov growth of what I have made trials oC 
If any fpecies could be found of more luxuriant 
growrh, I have no doubt of its being a plant highly 
deferving attention. W. P, 



> EXPERIMENTS ON POTATOES. 

By the Reverend Mr. Ciofey of 'Trimley, near 
Ipfwich. 

TT is a duty incumbent upon every individual to 
contribute as much as pofTible to the benefit of 
Jbciety, and a good mian will ever feel his internal 
fatisfa6tion increafe, in proportion as he renders 
himfelf more extenfively ufeful. You, Sir, muft 
be a competent judge of the pleafures arifing from 
this fourcej may you long continue to amufe and 
improve the public, by your much admired writ- 
ings. It is with pleafure I tranfmit to you the 
following experiments, that I may, in a fmall de- 
gree, aflift you in the laudable undertaking of 
rendering the fcience of agriculture more complete. 

In 



39? A N N A L S O F 

In the letter you flivoured me with, in anfwer to my 
laft, you exprefTed a defire of receiving Ibme infor- 
mation on the application of potatoes in feeding cat* 
tki my experiments are comprifed in a fmail com- 
pafs, but fhall be communicated with pleafure. 

I obferve in your number publifhed the firft of 
this month, an account of the culture of potatoes 
(by Mr. Turner, a friend of mine) 1 have reafon 
to believe, from fome year's experience, that I have 
difcovered a certain method of preferving that va- 
luable root, from the depredations frequently made 
by the grub-worm. 

March the 30th, 1781, I planted an acre with 
kidney potatoes, and two days after, ordered two 
bufhel of frefh lime to be fown over the furface 
of the ground, leaving two rows unlimed, to fee if 
the experiment would have any vifible effc6l upon 
the crop. 

The latter end of Auguft following, I was fur- 
prifed to find the rows which w§re left unlimed, 
very much grub-eaten, and the remainder a fine, 
clear, and perfeftly found crop, producing 192 
bufhels, or 64 facks. I planted four acres in 
1782, drefling the whole with lime, and my crop 
quite free from the grub ; fourteen acres in 1783, 
with the fame fuccels j when a headland, not top 
drefled with lime, fuffered much, almoft every 
plant being damaged. I believe potatoes to be the 
moft profitable root a farmer can cultivate j wheat 
fuccecds well immediately after them 3 I had 32 

bulhfls 



AGRICULTURE. 399 

bufhels per acre from the four acres above-men- 
tioned, and two bufhels more per acre from the 
poratoe-land in 178 1, than from the bean-land in 
the fame field, both twice hoed, the potatoes being 
allowed 20 loads of muck per acre, the beans only 
15 loads. 

I fhall trouble you with an exa6l account of the 
expence and profit attending the acre in 1781. 



Rent of land. 


£ 


. t 








20 loads of muck, at 2s. 




2 








5 facks for feed. 




2 








Tythe, ... - 







4 





Rates, - - - • 







2 


6 


Ploughing and harrowing. 







8 





Baulking for the feed. 


- 





2 





Three boys dropping one day, 


n 





I 


6 


Two men half a day, covering the feed 








with hoes. 


- 





I 


6 


Ploughing up. 


- 





I 


6 


1 6 women taking up ditto. 







10 


8 


Carting home. 


- 





9 







7 





8 


Sold 20 facks, at 7 s. 6d. per fack^ 


£^ 


7 


10 





Sold 20 do. at 9s. do. j 




9 








Sold 24 do. not quite fo large, at 5s. 


do. 


6 








Received, 


22 


10 





Expences, m 




7 





8 


Clear profit, • «. 




»5 


9 


4 








The 



400 ANNALS OF 

The above is an exad account of what I paid 
and received, except the valuation of the muck, 
which I think cannot be worth lefs than 2s. per 
load, if good, and twice hoeing, for which I paid 
7s. this makes the clear profit 15I. 2s. 4^. 

I have, for feveral years, kept my hogs intirely 
upon my refufc potatoes, and can always, without 
difficulty, or the expenfe and trouble of confining 
them, fell thofe of about feven or eight ftone 
weight, to the butchers, for roafting meat, at 4s. 6d, 
per ftone j pork fed in this method is remarkably 
fweet, the Be^fh driicate and moift. This food fuc- 
ceeds admirably, except for bacon hogs, and I find 
from experience, that it is necelfary to keep thofe 
intended for that purpofe, about a fortnight upon 
ground peafe mixed with boiled potatoes. If the 
hogs are forwarded with potatoes before they are 
confined, two bufhels of pea-meal, and four bufhels 
of boiled potatoes, well incorporated, will fat a hog 
of 12 ftone, fit for hams or bacon; this method 
greatly reduces the expenfe commonly attending 
the fattening of fwine. 

I have this fpring made another experiment upon 
the ufe of this valuable root, which anfwered beyond 
expeftation. From the ift of Novennber until the 
loth of March, I fed three cows with the hearts of 
fine cabbages ; they were allowed as many as they 
would eat all day, and plenty of hay at night j the 
extra quantity of milk and butter paid well for every 
expenfe. Obferving them to be particularly fond of 

eating 



AGRICULTURE, doi 

eating the potatoes thrown to the hogs, and wiHiing 
to clear my cabbage -land, that my barley and oats 
might be all fet early, I ventured to fell half an acre 
to a neighbouring farmer j and, for the great quan- 
tity of cabbages the cows were accuftomiCd to eat, I 
only fubftituted half a bufhel of potatoes at. night, 
and the fame quantity in the morning, hay as ufual i 
this was their allowance from the loth of laft March, 
until the loth of this month, without any diminu- 
tion of their milk, but rather an increafe of cream. 
It is to me clear to a demonftration, that all cattle 
may be fed up-.n potatoes to the greateft advantage, 
at lead the month of April, and the firft fortnight in 
May, which praflice v^^ould enable the induflrious 
hufbandman to clear his turnip or cabbage-land, and 
few his fpring-corn at an early and advantageous 
fealbn. Should the above account appear to you 
worthy of being infcrted in your Annals, it is at 
your fervicej but (hould you have received any fimi- 
lar information which may pofTibly render this ufe- 
lefs, I beg you would, without hefitation, omit it, 
ufing the fame difcretionary power with every me- 
moir that has, or may be, tranfmitted by *, 

Sir, 

Your obedient fervant, 

Tfimley, May 20, 17S4. H. J. CLOSE. 

• This information is very valuable, and I cannot but exprefs 
jffiy wiflies that Mr. Clofe may repeat the favour, by a continua- 
tion of hit conefpondence. A. Y. 

USE 



402 ANNALSOF 

USE OF POTATOES IN FEEDING CATTLE. 
By Mr. John By well j of Agle thorp y 7orkJhire. 

T70UR pecks, eight quarts to the peck, are fuf- 
ficient for a large beaft, with a little hay, for 
24 hours ; they are fuperior to turnips in feeding, 
one-third, both ufed in equal time. They are 
given to milch-cows, with great Jldvantage, and 
are healthy fother. They are very good for 
draught horfes, to give them half a peck a day, 
with hay j I never had my horfes in fo good con- 
dition as when fed with potatoes : they are a cer- 
tain remedy to a horfe with fwelled legs, or out of 
condition (in other cafes and diforders inwardly, 
one peck a day) j they are accounted good for 
hunters the day after they have had a fevere run, 
to give them eight or ten large potatoes. The 
number of bufhels of potatoes grown on one acre* 
are, upon an average, 360. 1 give them to cattle 
raw, as taken out of the ground. 

The manner of management for potatoes. Is to 
give the land 3 or 4 ploughings, and as many har- 
rowings, 24 cart loads of horfe-dung to an acre, 
when the furrow is drawn, the plants to be planted 
at 12 inches diftance one from another, the labour- 
ers to fpread the dung, by hand, along the top of 
the plants, with a little lime j if lime cannot Ue had 
at the time of planting, it is pioper to fpread a 
little over the ground, as they make their firft ap- 

pc ;ance 



AGRICULTURE. 403 

pearance out of the earth, alfo to give them a light 
harrowing, to mix the lime. 

April 2, 1784.. J. B. 

On defiring fome further information, I received 
the following anfwer to my queries. 

Mr. Toung's Queries y with their Anjwers^ hy Mr, 
John BywelL 

I. 

Do you give hay, or any other food, to the 
oxen, when fattening on potatoes ? 

Anfwer. A little hay is of great fervicc, with 
the potatoes, in feeding. 

II. 

Have the oxen had the fummer's grafs ? 

Anfwer. The cows and oxen had not the fum- 
mer's grafs to put them forward in feeding, they 
were taken and put to feed in poor condition, about 
the 2 2d day of November, and by the enfuing 
March, were fat. 

III. 

How long is an ox fattening on them ? 
Anfwer, Cattle doth not all feed alike. 

IV. 

And of what fize ? 

Anfwer. I have fed cattle from 40 to 80 (lone 
weight, 1 4. pounds to the ftone. 

V. Ho\f 



404 ANNALS OF 

V. 

How much are they worth a bufhel in thisufe? 
Anjwer, They are worth lod. a bufhel, they 
feed {q much quicker than turnips. 

VI. 

How much ufed for horfes ? 

Anf^er, Half a peck of potatoes with hay. 

VII. 
Have the horfes any corn at the fame time ? 
Anfwer. I did not give my horfes any corn. 

J. B. 



ON THE EFFECT OF WATER IN THE 
AGRICULTURE OF ITALY. 

By John Symonds, LL. D. Prcfejfor of Modern 
Hijiory in the Univerfity of Cambridge, 

nPHE favourable reception which my former 
paper has met v/ith among thofe to whofe 
judgment T pay the higheft deference, has encou- 
raged me to range in order my obfervations upon 
the agriculture of Italy y and to offer the refult of 
them to the public. As the fubjedl of this enquiry 
has not profelTedly been treated by any of our voy- 
age-writers, it may fairly be prefumed, that the 
reader will be difpofed to examine it with candour. 
Every man who has inveftigated the courfc of hul- 

bai dry 



AGRICULTURE, 405 

bandry in the country in which he refides, muft 
neceflarily have found himfelf often embarrafled ; 
not only on account of the different modes of cul- 
ture which prevail in different parts, but becaufe 
the very perfons upon whofe information he relies, 
arc frequently induced to difguife the truth, out of 
crafty and interefted views. But, befide thefe cir- 
cumflances, which are common to the Italians, as 
well as to the Englifh, there is a peculiar obftacle 
with which a foreigner has to flruggle, in fearching 
into the hufbandry of Italy ; I mean, the difficulty 
in underflanding the language of the middle and 
lower clafTcs of people, from whom he mufl chiefly 
derive his knowledge. The rude diale^ls in Italy 
do not vary more in different governments, than 
in the provinces which belong to the fame govern- 
ment i infomuch, that a man may have acquired a 
competent knowledge of the language in general, 
and yet be almofl: an utter flranger to the terms, 
and to the jargon, which are in common ufe among 
the peafants. It is highly probable, that> notwith- 
(landing my long refidence in Italy, 1 have frc-* 
quently been deceived myfelfj and, as I fhould be 
forry to deceive others by pledging the truth of 
fafts which may admit of doubt, it behoves me to 
declare, that I do not take upon me to write a fyf- 
tem of Italian agriculture, but only an effay upon 
it i or rather a feries of remarks made upon the 
fpot, and difpofcd with all the cxafftnefs of which 
Vol. I. No. 6, E c I am 



4o6 ANNALSOF 

J am capable ; and, fhould they not meet with that 
approbation to which an author naturally afpires, 
they may, at leaft, be of ufe towards inciting 
crhsrs, who have more ieifure and experience, to 
enlarge and improve the defign. 

In order to explain myfelf with clearnefs and 
precifion, which is all that the reader can be|)re- 
pared to exped upon a fubjeft of this kind, it will 
be proper to point out the method which I intend 
to obferve. 

I. To examine the phyfical caufes that facilitate 
or obftruft agriculture j by which are to be under- 
ftood the rivers and torrents, the foil, the climate, 
and the general face of the country. 

II. To confider the moral cairfes that in any de- 
gree afted it j by which, I mean, the nature of 
the government, the diftribution of juftice, the 
modes of taxation, and many other material cir- 
cumftances that will offer thcmfelves to our difcuf- 
fion under this head. 

- III. To enquire into the price of labour, the 
courfe of crops, the general fyftem relating to 
manures, and the culture of particular plants; in 
Ihort, to take a view of what properly conftitutes 
the praflice of the art. 

IV. To fee what inferences may be drawn from 
the fafls above-mentioned, fo as to enable us to 
form a comparifon between the ancient and mo- 
dern agriculture, 

Wer® 



AGRICULTURE. 407 

Were I to fpeak of the phyfical caufes which 
operate upon agriculture in other countries, that 
lie out of the neighbourhood of high naountains, I 
fhould begin with examining the nature of the 
foil, upon which the quality and value of the pro» 
duce almoft- entirely depends. But the cafe is dif- 
ferent with feveral parts of Italy, v/here the foil it- 
felf owes its exiftence to water, having been formed 
by numberlefs particles of earth brought down 
from time to time by dreams and torrents. Thus, 
in the Bolognefe, one can fcarcely dig to the depth 
of a few feet, without meeting with fuch kinds of 
ilones as are commonly found in torrents ; which 
naturally leads us to conclude, that the foil has 
been brought to its prefcnt ftate by the gradual 
increafe of fuccelTive ages. The fame, indeed, 
may be obferved of the whole plain of Lombardy, 
which may properly be called the gift of rivers j 
juft as Egypt was denominated, in ancient times, 
the gift of the Nile. It is alfo manifeft, that the 
vallies in Tufcany have either been entirely formed, 
or greatly altered, by the inundations of rivers and 
torrents. Add to this, that the conftant fupply of 
water with which a great part of Italy is refrefhed, 
through the means of artificial canals, does not 
only carry with it a confiderable addition of earth, 
but creates, as it were, a new foil every year. 
Hence it appears, that it is necelTary to open our 
inquiries by explaining the efFedls of water, in order 
to afcertain the nature of ihe foil. I Iliall proceed, 
E e 2 there- 



4o8 ANNALS OF 

therefore, to confider the three following particu- 
lars : the detriment which has accrued to Italy 
from ftreams and torrents j the benefits which it 
has received from them j and the mifchiefs which 
fome parts fuftain from the want of wholelbme 
water for the common purpofes of life. 

I. In fpeaking of the Italian rivers, our firfl: 
thoughts are carried naturally to the Po, which 
was celebrated for its rapidity in ancient times ; 
and which, for fome centuries, has been feparated 
into two vart branches ; one of which is fubdivid- 
ed into the Primaro and Volarno. Although it 
^fwells not to a confiderable breadth before it re- 
ceives the Tefin, yet it does a great deal of da- 
mage within twenty miles of its fource j infomuch, 
that the fafms between Racconigi and Carignano, 
which are fubjeft to inundations, bear a fmall va- 
lue in comparifon of others of the fame quality in 
the neighbourhood, that are fecure from danger j 
and this is the cafe with moft of the eftates fituated 
near the Po. Such is the quantity of (tones and 
fand that it carries along with it, that when it 
merely overflows the adjacent lands, the peafants 
cannot bring them into a proper Itate for Ibme 
years ; but when it breaks its banks, the mifchief 
is very extenfive j for fallows and willows ipring 
up fpontaneoufly, to the utter exclulion of corn and 
pallurage, for a long tradt of time. We fee im- 
menfe copfcs of thefe aquatics on the banks of the 

Po, 



AGRICULTURE. 409 

P05 through the whole vale of Lombardy ; and, 
in particular, between Tortona and Pavia, and 
near Broni and Cremona. Yet this inconvenience, 
great as it is, muft necelTarily appear trifling, when 
compared with the terrible eflFe6ls of the inundations 
in the lower parts of Lombardy, where fome of 
the mod fruitful fpots are converted into the moft 
barren marlhes. 

Although the other rivers in Piemont are not fo 
impetuous as the Po, yet fincethcy rife in the Alps, 
their defcent is exceffively rapid j and when they 
are augmented by accidental torrents, they never 
fail to cover the plains with fand and pebbles j 
whence it is that the foil is fo ungrateful from Chi- 
vaiTo to Turin, and likewife to Saviglianoj info- 
much, that the peafants would be reduced to ex- 
treme mifery, were it not for their fkill in deriving 
fome advantage even from their diftrelles. 

But befides the lofles which the inhabitants fuf- 
tain from dreams and torrents rufliing down pre- 
cipices, there is an additional circumftance which 
aggravates the misfortune; I mean, the ruinous 
efFeds of the cultivation of the mountains. It was 
the cuftom of the ancient Romans to fet apart the 
plains for tillage ; the hills for vines and olives -, 
and the mountains for wood and pafturage. 

Bacchus amat colles, aquilonem et frigora taxi *, 
The Italians have, in a great meafure, reverfed 

* Virg, Gcor, I. lib, 2. Vt X13. 

E e 3 this 



410 ANNALS OF 

this praflice, though dicTtated by good fenfe and 
experience ; for they have grubbed up the wood, 
and converted into arable land both the fides and 
fummits of the mountains; in confequence of 
which, the earth, being no longer fupported by the 
roots of the trees, tumbles down in the rivers, to- 
gether with vaft fragments of rocks aiid marble, 
and completes the deftruftion of feveral rich val- 
lies. We fee no where fuch fatal effeds of this 
pradlice, as in the territories of Venice. The pro- 
' duce of the mountains formed & part of the de- 
mefnes of that republic, which ufed either to let it 
at a moderate price, or to diftribute it gratuitoufly 
among the inhabitants of the adjacent parifhes i 
and as long as proper covenants were obferved^ 
there was abundance of fine timber, as well as ex- 
cellent fodder for oxen and fheep; but, in the laft 
century, the Venetians being diftreffed for want of 
money to continue the war, fold, to individuals, 
thefe rights, or bent comunuclij as they are called* 
without fubjefting them to any reftridions, than 
which nothing could be more impolitic or impru- 
dent ; for, as they were allured by the profit on the 
firft breaking up of grafs-lands, they took a few 
crops of corn in one place, and as foon as the foil 
was wafhed away, made the like attempts in an- 
other, fo that, in a Ihort time, the chief part of 
the mountains was reduced to culture ; whence it 
cannot be wondered, that the Venetians have neither 

a fuf- 



AGRICULTURE. 411 

afufficient quantity of pafiurage for their cattle, nor 
of wood for fuel, and common utenfils, and imple- 
ments of hufbandry. Monce BalJo, which hangs 
over the beautiful Lago di Garda, and 'which was 
once as famous for timber as medicinal plants, is 
now entirely naked, and exhibits the mod dreary 
fight imaginable. It is difficult, indeed, to deter- 
mine, whether the republic has fcffered moH from 
the lofs of wood and paftures upon the mountains, 
or from the diminution of corn in the valHes. The 
Adige, incapable of being controlled, has deftroyed 
above ao,ooo acres of the bed lands in the Vero- 
nefe. The Brenta has ruined the vale from Baf- 
fano to Borgo, as well as fome of the richetl fpo:s 
of ground in the Padouan. The Piave * has laid 
wade an immenfe trad of land in the delicious en- 
virons of Trevifo ; and the province of Priuli is 
defolated by rivers. It is melancholy to fee how 
the plain between Pordenone and Codroipo, near 
twenty miles in length, is ravaged by the Silo and 
Tagliamento, which bring fuch heaps of earth and 
ftones along with them, that they choak up the 
very (hallows in the Lagunes. Not many years 
ago, the republic prohibited, under fevere penalties, 
the cutting down of the wood upon the mountains j 
but the mifchief was done, and, perhaps, it is irre- 
parable, 

• It was in this river that Colonel Villiers was drowned, which 
gave eccafion to Mr, Prior's beautiful imitation of an ode of Horace. 

E e 4 Among 



:^»^ 



412 ANNALSOF 

Among the rivers that fall from the Appenines 
into the Bolognefe, the Renois the moft rapid and 
dangerous, Hiftory affords us few inflances of 
greater damage occafioned by the diverting of a 
river from its proper channel. Clement VIII. 
removed the Reno from the Po, into which it ufed 
to empty itfelf, with a view of gratifying his new 
fubjefts the inhabitants of Ferrara, who wilhed to 
avail themfelves of that water to improve the val- 
ley of S. MartinOi but his Holinefs's infallibility 
forfook him upon this occafion, for he did not fore- 
fee, that the inundations would deftroy a third part 
of the plain of Bologna. It is generally fuppofcd, 
that the cities of Ferrara and Bologna have not 
expended lefs than 250,0001. in law-fuits, which 
have been carried on at Rome for more than a 
century j but the addrefs and intrigues of the for- 
mer have had the greateft influence in the Papal 
cabinet J infomuch, that it is but very lately that 
the Bolognefe have been aljowed to take proper 
meafures to i-epair the devaftation, though, I fear, 
that the remedy will be but temporary. 

In the dutchy of Parma, the brooks fwell fo 
much upon fudden rains, that they cannot be paf- 
fed without great danger -, which is more particu- 
larly the cafe with the riyers. The city of Parma 
is divided into two quarters, by a river of the fame 
name, that has a vaft bed, and yet is dry half of 
the yearj than which npthing can render a capital 

more 



AGRICULTURE. 413 

more unfightly. The Taro is fplit into a variety 
of ftreams, and fweeps away whatever it meets with 
in its courfe j and the Sturone, which runs near 
Borgo S. Domino, is often fo rapid, that it cannot 
be ferried over, but muft be palTed by a v/ooden 
bridge, which is fcarcely to be parallelled in Europe. 
It is 675 Englifh feet in length, and not much 
more than feven feet in breadth ; and the carriages 
are drawn by men inftead of horfcs. I do not re- 
member to have feen any thing of this kind fo 
alarming and dangerous, for the materials are in a 
very bad condition, and it looks as if it was defign- 
ed originally for a foot-bridge. Thefe rivers roll 
liquid mud of fo very cold a nature, as to be ex^ 
trcmely prejudicial to vegetation. About two 
miles from Piacenza we crofs the Trebbia, the 
celebrated fcene of Hannibal's vi^lory j but it is 
now no more than a torrent, which is dry during 
the fummer, and in winter lays wade all the adja- 
cent country; and not far from it is the Tidone, 
with covers the fields with fo much fand and gra- 
vel, that they are rendered quite unfruitful. It is 
obfervable, that almoft all the rivers in the Par- 
mcfan and Piacentin, make fo miferable a havock 
\n the plains, by reafon of the cutting down of the 
woods upon the mountains. I had an opportunity 
of feeing a large range of them, and, in particular, 
the CanetOy which the Farnefe family let to a com- 
pany of miners, in fesrch of copper. The defign 

proved 



414 ANNALS OF 

proved unfuccefsfu], and the woods were rooted 
up, to the lafting prejudice of the ftate. 

Whoever compares the adjacent' provinces of 
Voghf ra and Tortona, mufl: needs fee the Feafon 
■why the former is fo much more produflive, though 
the foil is not naturally fo fruitful; for the lat- 
ter isfubjed to the inundations of the Scrivia> and 
other rivers, which have impoverifhed it fo much, 
that they are obliged, in many parts, to fallow 
every other year ; and, indeed, we fee only haJf- 
Itarved crops of corn from Tortona to Novi. It 
is natural to imagine, that the Genoefe dominions, 
which confift, for the moft part, of rocks and pre- 
cipices, fhould be ravaged by torrents j but orje 
would hardly expeft to find a valley totally de- 
ftroyed, that conduds us to a magnificent capital. 
In the fpace of about fix miles, between Campo 
Morone and Genoa, we are compelled to crofs the 
Pokevera above forty times; a circumftance that 
reflefls difcredit upon the republic j for, though it 
were not poffible to make the road upon the old 
bed of the river, as new channels are continually 
forming, it might have been carried acrofs the de- 
ehvities, as in other hilly countries. 

It is commonly faid, that Tufcany is cultivated 
to the beft advantage ; but whatever opinion may 
be entertained of it in general, it is certain^ that it 
has received no fmall detriment from introducing 
tillage in the mountains. Hence it is, that fuch 

exorbitant 



AGRICULTURE. 415 

exorbitant expences have been incurred in con- 
fining the Arno within proper bounds ; but no art 
or contrivances can check the progrefs of the Om- 
brone, which has ruined a large part of the fine 
plain of Piftoia -, and the further it goes, the more 
is its courfe marked out by defolation. The wood 
and pafturage in the mountains of Piftoia, were 
given to that city by the Grand Duke, in the i6th 
century j and have been as improperly treated as 
the l>eni comunuali in the (late of Venice ; fo that 
one cannot wonder that the Ombrone, and other 
rivers which rife in thefe mountains, demolilh the 
plains, that they were intended by nature to benefit. 
Many rigorous edids have been publifhed by the 
Grand Dukes againft this pernicious pradice, even 
as late as this century ; but they feem to have proved 
inefFeftual, for the Tufcans are neither provided 
with pafture enough for their cattle, nor with wood 
enough for the common purpofes of life ; moft ot 
their mountains having been converted to impro* 
per ufes. 

The Pope's territories upon the Adriatic, prefent 
us with fcenes uncommonly beautiful ; frequent 
large towns, and a fucceffion of the mod lovely 
green hills imaginable; with profpeds perpetually 
fhifting, and adminiftering every moment frefh en- 
tertainment ; but the pleafure which arifes from the 
variety of fific iandfkips, is confiderably abated, 
v^hen we refled upon the miferable condition of the 

plains 



4i6 A N N A L S O F 

plains which we pafs through. The country about 
Imola is laid wafte for feveral miles by the Santerno, 
as that about Faenza by the Amone ; but thefe ri- 
vers do little harm in comparifon of the Ronco and 
Montonc, which are united near Ravenna ; and 
which would have deftroyed that city and its terri- 
tory, if it had not been for the bridge cre6ted chiefly 
at the expenfe of the Pope Corfini. About two 
miles from Fano, we crofs the Metro, which over- 
whelms a vaft circuit in the neighbourhood, though 
not more than 1 5 feet in breadth, were it confined 
within its proper channel. All the rivers above- 
mentioned, as well as many others which rife in the 
Apennines, contribute their utmoft to the ruin of 
the country between Bologna and Sinigallia, by rea- 
fon of the quantity of fand and ftones which they 
bring along with them j a misfortune which would 
not probably have happened, had not the moun- 
tains been ftripped of their wood ; of which there is 
now fo great a fcarcity, that it is ufual to purchafq 
it in the Neapolitan dominions. 

Whatever difadvantages agriculture may labour 
under in the kingdom of Naples, it is certain, that 
greater attention has been given to the prefervation 
of timber upon the mountains, than in other parts 
of Italy. I obferved this in the Terra di Lavora, 
and in the Abruzzo's and the Contado di Molife, 
which produced the brave and hardy race of the 
gamnites and Marfi, and which now furnilh the 

crowa 



AGRICULTU RE. 417 

crown with the bed troops. The largcft ridge of 
mountains in the louthern parts of the kingdom is 
in Calabria Citra, and is called SiUy the name that 
it bore in ancient times *. Upon the fummit of it 
there is a plain near 40 miles in length, and 20 in 
breadth, which they have reduced to culture j but 
the fides are covered with pines, that fupply the 
kingdom with turpentine, pitch, and rofinj and as 
thefe trees are the property of the crown, they are 
preferved with the utmoft care, and renewed as oc- 
cafion requires ; fo that the rivers, which rife in 
fuch abundance in the Silay are prevented from 
fweeping away the foil and the ftones from the 
mountains. However, it is evident, that thefe ri- 
vers, as well as moft of thofe which fall from the 
Appennines, are of fingular detriment upon an- 
other account ; for if they overflow the plains in 
ever fo fmall a degree in the fpring or fummer- 
time, they render the air unwholefome in this fuU 
try climate. In my journey through Magna Gras- 
cia, in the middle of April, I found a great part 
of it fo infefted with noxious vapours, that I 
could not fleep with fafety in many places. The 
fame may be obferved of the plain in Apulia. In 
the road between Foggia and Manfredonia, we 
crofs no other river but the Candelaro, which in- 
fers the whole neighbourhood, whenever it ex- 
pands itfelf a little more than ufual j and the Cer- 

f Sec Strabo, i, vi. p. 400. ed. Amft. 1707. 

varo 



4iS ANNALSOF 

varo and Sancinaro, between Foggia and Cer-ig- 
nola, produce the fame efFeds. It is only by 
three contemptible dreams that this vaft level is 
watered ; a circumftance which fhews the peculiar 
propriety of the expreflions of Horace *. 

Et qua pauper aqu£ Baunus agrejlium 
Regnavit populorum 

II. Under this head I (hall briefly mention the 
benefits which refult from the rivers in Italy, as far 
as they enable the inhabitants to make canals for 
the fake of inland navigation, and to flood their 
lands. 

Notwithftanding the rapidity of the Po, the ci- 
ties and towns, feated upon the banks of it, Ihip 
off their goods and manufaftures for diftant mark- 
ets ; and as one mouth of the Po, called the Porto 
di Goro, is always navigable, a conftant pafTage is 
opened into the Adriatic. Befide this, there are 
communications between the Po and the principal 
rivers that fall into it ; by which means every pro- 
vince enjoys, in fome meafure, the advantages of 
a maritime fituation. As early as the 12th cen- 
tury, the canal called the Naviglio grande, was 
conducted from the Tefm as far as Abbiate j and 
was carried to Milan in the following century. 
The Naviglio delta Martefana was begun by 
Francis Sforza in the year 1457, being a cut ifom 

* Od, XXX. lib. 3. V. Xi. 

the 



AGRICULTURE. 419 

the Adda 5 and, not long after, was brought to 
Milan by the celebrated Lionardo da Vinci. Thefe 
canals are joined to a third, which leads to the Po; 
fo that Milan, though an inland city, is poflefled of 
the chief advantage that can promote commerce or 
agriculture. There is a canal made out of the Se- 
rio in the province of Bergamo j and another like- 
wife out of the Chiefe in the Brefcian, which forms 
a communication with the Po. But of all the pro- 
vincial cities in Lombardy, Padua is the mod con- 
veniently fituated in this refpeft : there are no lefs 
than feven canals that run through it ; infomuch, 
that one may go by water to a great part of the 
neighbourhood ; and there is fcarcely a farm in the 
whole territory that is more than four miles diftant 
from a navigable ftream ; and it is farther to be 
remarked, that the canals have a communication 
with the Adriatic, as they are joined to the Brenta, 
Thefe noble works reflefl a lafting honour upon the 
Carrarefi, whofc lives would have been truly laud- 
able, if they had not been fullied by afls of cruelty 
towards their fubje(5ts, the Paduans. At Bologna 
there is a canal that is formed out of the Reno, and 
goes to Ferrara ; and from this city another con- 
du(5ls us to the Poj and it is the fame in regard to 
Mantua and Modena. It is certain, that Lom- 
bardy, from the nature of its fituation, is admirably 
calculated to promote the purpofes of hufbandry, as 
well as of trade J and though fo great conveniencies 
^n are 



420 A N N A L S O F 

arc not to be found in other parts of Italy, yet thty 
have not been negligent in this particular. The 
Lucchefe have done their utmoft to improve their 
fcanty territory, by making a canal to carry their 
commodities to Viareggio, the only fea-port of 
which they are poflefled ; and it is their misfortune, 
and not their fault, that the canal extends no further 
than feven miles ; for fo very deep a mountain 
comes in the way, that they are forced to carry every 
thing upon mules for five miles from Lucca. The 
Tufcans have not been deficient in the making of 
canals j and fome are to be met with in the Nea- 
politan dominions, and in the Pope's territories, 
^ which it would be tedious to recite. 

As to the flooding of lands, the fecond point 
which I propofed to fpeak of, we have undoubted 
reafon to imagine, that it was pradifed by the an- 
cient Romans ; for, not to mention what has been 
fcid by Virgil and Columella upon this head, we 
have an opportunity of feeing two conduits near 
Terni, which were evidently ufed for this purpofe ; 
and of which the prefent inhabitants avail themfelves 
to the fingular benefit of that delicious vale. It is 
impoflible to determine the precife time when this 
pradlice went into difufe -, but it is probable, that 
it happened in the fourth century, when moft of 
the ufeful, as well as elegant arts, were negle^led 
and defpifed. Thofe who entertain no other ideas 
of the Goths, but luch as exprefs horror and Uefo- 

lation. 



AGRICULTURE. 421 

lation, will be furprifed to find, that the revival of 
this branch of hufbandry is to be afcribed, to a 
Goth alone. Theodoric, the firft of thofe Gothic 
princes who reigned in Italy, (hewed a remarkable 
attention to the eftablifiimcnt of civil polity, and 
to the prefervation of Roman buildings j nor did 
he difdain to turn his thoughts towards improve- 
ments in agriculture. The encouragement which 
he gave to drain the Pontine marfhes, indifputably 
evinces this fafl. But we need no other proof 
than his letter to Apronianus, wherein he orders, 
that a public ftipend fhould be granted to an Afri- 
can, who had come to Rome to teach the method 
of watering lands *. The profperity and reputa- 
tion of Italy funk with Theodoric. The favage 
manners of the Lombards, and the feries of rapine 
and devaftations, which followed one another in 
the times of Charlemagne's fucceflbrs, introduced 
into Italy that univerfal barbarifm, which by de- 
grees overfpread all Europe j and, it is probable, 
thit it would not fo foon have emerged from it, 

• '• MagnituJinuis veftrae relatione comperlmus Aquillcgium 
Remain veiiirte de partibus Africanis, ubi ars ipfa pro locoriim 
ficcitate magno rtudio Temper excoiitur, qui aridis locis aquas 
poffit dare vernatiles, ut bentficio fuo habitari facial loca, nimia 
fterilitate ficcata," CafTiod. Var. lib. iii. 53. The whole letter is 
very culiou^, though it enters too minutely into the advantages of 
irrigations 5 a proof, however, that they were not praflifed in Italy. 
C^ffiodoius was fecretary to Theodoric ; and his twelve books* 
which contain original letters and difpatches, refpei\ing this 
prince and his fuccefiors, are a moft valuable body of materials. 

Vol. I. No. 6. F f if 



•^.•'S 



422 ANNALS OF 

if it had not been for fome beneficial confequences 
that attended thofe frantic expeditions, the Cru- 
fades. Among other ufeful arts imported from 
the Eaft, the followers of the crofs brought into 
Italy that of flooding lands, which feems not to 
have been pradifed in this country after the ruin 
of the Gothic empire. They had been accuftomed 
to behold the moft delicious fcenes upon the banks 
of the Orontes, where the plains refembled a beau- 
tiful garden, cantoned out into a variety of parti- 
tions, and refrefhed by plentiful ftreams j and the 
imprefllons which they received upon the fpot were 
Jo ftrong, that they were not effaced after their re- 
turn into Italy i whence it happened, that new 
modes of culture were introducedj which, at once 
embellifhed and fertilized this country. 

The Piemontefe and Milanefe were the firft who 
profited by the example and inftruftion of the 
Crufaders. Every fpot of ground in Piemont that 
is capable of irrigations, has been made to contri- 
bute its utmofl to the owner ; and, indeed were ic 
not for this advantage the whole province would 
-be miferably barren. It is pleafant to fee how the 
very rivers which lay wafte the plain from Chivaffo 
to Turin, as it has been intimated above, make 
fome amends, by fubmitting to be divided into 
little ftreams for the improvement of the lands. 
Coni is fituated near the confluence of the Stura 
«ii G^ffOy which have deftroyed above 500 acres 

of 



AGRICULTURE. 423 

of land in the neighbourhood ; and would have 
threatned the ruin of the town itfelf, if it had not 
ftood upon an eminence j yet thefe rivers are 
greatly conducive to the general fertility of this 
part of Piennont ; the Geffo, in particular, being 
famous for the warmth and fruitfulnefs of its waters, 
which are fuppofed to be owing to the minerals of 
the Bagni Vaudieriy with which it is impregnated. 
From Coni to Limoni, the vale is watered partly 
by the Gtffoy whofe ftreams are admirably condudl- 
ed J and partly by the Varmenagna, v/hich great- 
ly contributes to the rich crops, both of corn and 
grafs, with which this trafl of land abounds. 

In the way between Turin and Mount Cenis, 
diverfified with wild and magnificent views, we 
cannot but be ftruck with the fight of the meadows, 
which, at particular feafons, are equal in point of 
verdure to any in England. Thefe meadows are 
watered by the Duria, which defcends with vafi: 
impetuofity from the Alps, and caufcs frequent 
devaftations ; but fufFers itfelf, in return, to be 
confined within narrow drains and trenches, fo that 
it may be carried on, or drawn off at pleafure. 
The valley is inclofed at Novalcfe, where they fliew 
Grangers a cafcade above an hundred feet in height, 
and fcarce more than five in breadth ; bur, con- 
temptible as it is, it has furnifhed a rill for the ufe 
of the adjacent lands ; and though the afccnt from 
Novalefe is wonderful fteep, and fometimes almoft 
F f 2 perpen- 



424 ANNALS OF 

perpendicular; yet even here the Durai is made 
fubfervient to irrigations. 

If a man would fee this art carried to the higheft 
point of perfeftion, he muft vific the ftate of Mi- 
lan, where every part, except to the northward, 
bears a teftimony to its beneficial effeds. So long 
ago as the year 1220, the famious canal ofMuzza 
was made from the Adda; which, being afterwards 
joined to another, gave an opportunity to flood the 
whole province of Lodi. We frequently meet 
with ftreams above ftreams, crofTing one another 
in all diredtions ; and fometimes fo complicated, 
that we can hardly difcover whence they came, 
)r whither they are going. When I was at Lodi 
in 1768, the number of cows in this little province 
amounted to 30,160; and I heard, from unquef- 
tionable authority at Milan, that the inhabitants 
receive commonly 70,ocol. a year for the cheefe 
which they fell to foreigners, independent of what 
is referved for their own confumption. There is no 
doubt but that this muft be attributed to the Adda, 
for the foil is naturally meagre j and, indeed, it 
appears that the quality of the foil varies, accord- 
ing as the Adda approaches nearer to the Po. The 
Adda at firft m.oves very flowly, and very few 
land-floods fall into it, as it pafles through the 
lower part of the province ; and we find, that the 
contiguous lands are not rendered very fertile ; but 
as foon as the river enters the upper part, it has a 

much 



AGRICULTURE. 425 

much quicker defcent ; the water is not only foft- 
ened and meliorated, but alfo enriched by the 
land-floods, which bring a confidtrrable quantity 
of manure; and that kind of fruitful mud is con- 
veyed to the fields, which the Italians call il fwr di 
terra. We fee the fuperior effcdls of it about Co- 
dogno, and the lands adjoining to the Cremonefe, 
where the marjh-benty and other valuable graiTes, 
are found in much greater plenty. I cannot help 
obferving, though it may feem foreign to the pur- 
pofe, that there are no permanent meadows in this 
province, which produce the cheefe, fo well known 
under the name o[ Parme/an -, for it is the conflanr 
pra6lice to break them up every three years, and to* 
lay them down again, after taking two crops of 
wheat, and one of flax, or millet, or maize i ic 
being proved by experience, that if the meadows 
in this province are not managed after this manner, 
the vi2Licr makes the grafs coarfeand four, and very 
prejudicial to the tafte of the milk. On the con- 
trary, there is a vafl; range of meadows in the en- 
virons of Milan, which are never broken up, be- 
caufe the water is never let over them j the foil 
being admirably adapted of itfclf to throw out the 
bed forts of graflTes. 

In the territories of Venice, irrigations are very 

frequent j for, not to mention the ufe of them in the 

Trevifan and Paduan, we fee a Angular inftance 

of their elEcacy in the neighbourhood of Vicenza j 

F f 3 where 



426 A N N A L S O F 

where the Bacchiliogne repays, in fome meafure, 
the mifchief that has been done, by bringing a fort 
of calcareous earth, which quickly diflolves and 
fattens ail the contiguous lands. There are nnea- 
dow in this province mowed three times, though 
they lie at the very foot of the Alps. I obfcrved 
it more particularly in the Valdagno, which is 
wafhed by the Agno, full of fand, ftone, and bal- 
laft ; and I could not account for the benefit arifing 
from it, but by fuppofing, that it was of ufe to- 
wards binding the mucilaginous parts of the roots 
together. In the province of Brefcia, there is 
, . fcarce a field which is not watered j and were it 
0^'*%<'^tibt for this advantage, the inhabitants would be ex- 
tremely poor J for the foil inclines to ftone and gra« 
vel throughout, and is fometimes full of ferrugi- 
nous particles. Happily for this country, there is 
abundance of fine fprings j and there are three 
rivers which make it more produ6live, than any 
other province in the Venetian State. Thefe are 
the Mela, Chitfe, and Oglio; the laft of which 
runs for more than fifty miles through the Valca- 
monica, and is as famous for the fertilizing quality 
of its mud, as the Adda itfelf. The plain of Ber- 
gamo is divided into three parts ; between the 
Oglio and Serio; the Serio and Bremba; and the 
Bremba and Adda j fo that it is no wonder that 
floating is univerfal. That part of the plain be- 
tween the two laft rivers, called the J/bIa, is not 

naturally 



AGRICULTURE. 427 

naturally fo fertile as the others, but the produce 
is much more confiderable. It has twelve com- 
munities, or pariflies, that vie with one another in 
carrying cultivation to its greatcft height ; they 
rejed entirely the plough, and do every thing with 
the fpade; and cfteem five acres fufficient main- 
tenance for four perfons, taking in all their ex- 
pences whatever; the whole exhibited a fight 
more truly pleafing, than all the pompous pagean- 
try in churches and palaces. The rivers and 
ftreams in the Veronefe are not Co much ufed for 
the flooding of corn-lands and paftures, as in other 
parts of the State of Venice ; but rice has been 
long cultivated in this province. It was intror* 
duced in the year 1522, much about the fame time 
as in the Milanefe, and other parts of Lombardy, 
where all the plantations are made in the lowcft 
part of the vallies, that they may be more eafily 
overflowed. 

That the difference of produce in Lombardy 
arifes chiefly from the difference of water, appears 
very remarkable in the Bolognefe. The Reno 
comes from a branch of the Apennines, which has 
not been forced to give way to cultivation j and 
colle(5ling a quantity of fruitful earth in its palTage 
down the hills, fo enriches the plain, that the corn- 
lands never fail to render from ten to twelve bufhels 
for one, whenever the water can be conveyed in 
proper feafons. The Savana is of admirable ufe 
F f 4 for 



428 ANNALS OF 

for the dying of filk and wool ; but gives very little 
afliftance to vegetation j the Idici is flill worfe ; 
and the rivulets, which wafh this plain in great 
plenty, are of very inconfiderable advantage, on ac- 
count of the rawnefs of their water j infomuch, that 
the whole plain, at an average, does not produce 
more than four for one. Bologna was called with 
propriety la grajja, or the/^/, before the Reno was 
diverted from its channel ; for it deftroyed a third 
part of the plain in proportion to its extent, and 
one half of it at leaft in proportion to its goodnefs j 
but furely it is to be wondered, that the modern 
voyage-writers fhould pace fo fervilely in the tram- 
mels of the early ones, as to give Bologna the fame 
denomination, notwithftanding Ihe has loft fo fertile 
a part of her territory. 

From Bologna to Tortona we meet with con- 
flant irrigations ; but they will not enable the far- 
mers to mow the meadows but thrice; and unlefs 
the lands are manured, after they are flooded, they 
will yield but two crops of hay. On the contrary, 
there are generally five crops in the neighbourhood 
of Milan, and in the province of Lodi, where the 
meadows are watered every eight days during the 
fummer, if it 0iould be found neceflary. The 
meadows in the dutchy of Parma, how much foever 
extolled, do not yield above half, when compared 
with thofe in the Milanefe j the reafon of which 
may be eafily inveiligated. The fnow that comes 

from 



AGRICULTURE. 429 

from the mountains of the Swifs and the Grifons 
does not begin to nnelt before June, and continues 
to melt in July and Auguft, which gives an oppor- 
tunity to water the lands on the north fide of the 
Po as late as SepteiT.ber, the rivers and lakes of 
this country being high till this time ; whereas the 
fnow that comes from the Appennines on die fouth 
iide of the Po, begins to melt in May, and very 
little of it remains in the latter part of June^ in 
confequence of which, there is not a fufficient fup- 
ply of water for the lands in the durchies of Mo- 
dena and Parma at the end of the fummer. This 
has not efcaped the obfervation of the great poet^ 
and philofopher * : 

Si come neve tra le vive trr.vi, 

Par lo doffo d' Italia fi congela^ 
Soffiata e firetta dalli venti fchiavif 

Poi liquefatta injejie[[a trafeUy 

Pur che la terra^ che perde onibra^ fpi'fi) 
Si che par fuoco fonder la candela. 

One would be tempted to imagine, at firft fight, 
that nature had been fo unkind ro the territories of 
Genoa, as to make them incapable of cultivation ; 
however, it is certain, that the induftry of the in- 
habitants has fupplied this defed. We fee hills, 
almoft perpendicular, covered with olives and vines, 
which are fupported by ftones placed in feveral 

• Daute Purgat, cant. xxx. 

lines 



430 A N N A L S O F 

lines in the form of a wall. When the rains fall 
from thefe hills, they carry along with them moulds 
of an excellent quality, which running into the 
rivers, fertilize the vdes to an aftonilhing degree. 

The Lucquefe and Tufcans have left no art un- 
tried to profit by irrigations. The Pope's fubjeds 
are undoubtedly deficient in them. I remember to 
have feen a few meadows in the Appennines, on the 
banks of the Chienti and Potenza, that had been 
floated J but nineteen parts out of twenty had been 
neglededj efpecially a very beautiful plain between 
Cafe Nuove and Foligno. From Naples as far as 
R^ggio, the lands are flooded where an opportunity 
ofi'ers itfeifj and, indeed, neither the cotton-plant, 
nor maize, nor corn, could arrive at any perfecStion 
in that fultry climate, without the afllftance of this 
art, which may be looked upon as the moft capital 
branch of hufbandry in Italy j but more particu- 
larly in Lombardy, where it is reduced to a regu- 
lar fyftem. 

III. I (hall confider, in the lafl: place, how far 
the want of good water affedls agriculture in feveral 
parts of Italy j and inftead of dwelling upon minute 
circumfl:ances, which it would be tedious to men- 
tion, 1 fliall mark out a few places that ftruggle 
more peculiarly with this difadvantage. 

The province of Iftria affords us a melancholy 
example j of which a great part is dry, barren, and 

inhofpitable* 



AGRICULTURE. 431 

inhofpitable. From Montona to Pola, not a fingle 
Ipring is to be feen. The inhabitants of S. Vicenzo 
and Dignano avail thennfelves of cifterns which 
have been built for the reception of rain ; but the 
poor fliepherds and hufbandmen have no other wa- 
ter to drink, but what is taken out of ponds or 
lakes, which ought more properly to be called 
marlhes. The general face of this part of Iftria 
fhews the vifible marks of earthquakes, or volca- 
noes. Sometimes we crofs immenfe and deep ra- 
vines, which are entirely dryj for the rivers that 
ufed to wafli them have been (lopped in their courfe, 
and have forced a pafTage into other places ; forna- 
ing a variety of lakes, which, having no outlets, 
corrupt all the air in the adjacent country *. Some- 
times we pafs over huge heaps of mountains, which 
fubmit to no culture or improvement j and yield 
no other profit, but what arifes from quarries of 
flone, whence Venice has received materials for 
building from very early times. The road alfo 
leads us through a few narrow vallies, which are 
naturally fertile; but even thefe have been left to 
run wild, for want of a fufficient number of hands 
to cultivate them ; the contrary of which may be 
feen in thofe parts of Iftria that are tolerably well 
watered ; where the farmers are not inferior to the 
reft of the Italians, either in fkill, or induftry, 

• Sir William Hamilton's obfervations upon the late dreadful 
calamity in Calabria feem to put this beyond a doubt. 

A 



432 ANNALSOF 

A fimilar inftance of the efFeds of bad water 
may be obfcrved in the Maremma of Sienna ; a 
province formerly fo fruitful and populous, that, 
according to Livy, it furniflied Rome, with a large 
quantity of corn in the fecond Punic war * j but 
it now lies wafte and unpeopled. It is interfed:ed 
by many rivers, which, inftead of conforming 
themfelves to the windings of the valley, burft out 
on all fides j and occafion fuch frequent inundations, 
that the vaft uneven plain is almoft become a 
continued morafs ; and, what is (till more calami- 
tous, it is from this that the bulk of the peafants 
are fupplied with water. It is true, that there are 
a few who have wells j but little advantage is to 
be derived from them j for, as the water lies lower 
than the fea, and as no care has been taken to pre- 
vent a communication, it is of courfe brackiih and 
unwholesome. We fee every where difperfed im- 
menfe fragments of cifterns and aqueduds, which, 
at the fame time that they atteft the fplendour and 
public fpirit of the Etrufcans and Romans, remind 
\is of the negligency and degeneracy of their fuc- 
cefTors. 

It would be difficult to point out any part of 
Italy, more thinly inhabited, or lefs produftive, 
than the dutchy of Ferrara, in proportion to the 
depth and richnefs of its foil -, whence many wri- 

* Lib. IV. c. 5). 

ters 



AGRICULTURE. 43^ 

ters have inferred, that the rigour of the Papal go- 
vernment has depopulated the country j but this is 
a fpeculation wholly imaginary ; for it might eafily 
he proved, that there is not a conquered province : 
in the Pope's dominions, nor even in Italy, more 
gently taxed than this dutchy. But though there 
be no ground to complain of fevere impofitions, 
it is certain that it labours under a multiplicity of 
difficulties ; among which, the want of good water 
is not the Icaft confiderable. Thofe who live near 
the Po, or at a moderate diftance from i*-, filter 
carefully that water, and render it not unpalatable; 
but moft of the peafants have no other for corn?- 
mon ufe, but what is drawn from wells, which they 
find as pernicious to themfelves, and to their cattle, 
as what is taken out of the very ditches; and, if 
they attempt to dig the wells a little deeper than 
ufual, they never fail to come to fait- water. There 
is no doubt, but that this inconvenience would be 
removed, if wells or ciflerns, for the reception of 
rain, were made after the manner of thofe of Venice; 
which are fo admirably contrived, as to afford very 
fweet and wholcfome water, although they lie deep 
in the fea; but the truth is, many Italian gentle- 
men are fo fcandaloufly parfimonious, that they 
grudge the leaft expence of this nature; which 
obliges the peafants to drink whatever is neareft at 
hand, whether from rivers, or lakes, or marfhes. 

I fhall finifh my remarks with obfcrving, that the 
want of good water prevails more or lefs through 

the 



434 ANNALSOF 

the whole difiri5l of Rome ; which, in its proper and 
legal fenfe, comprehends forty nailes on every fide 
about the capital *. Every one knows what a de~ 
folation the plague made in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. The Popes removed the feat of 
government to Avignon, where they refided above 
70 years J and when Gregory XI. came to Rome, 
he found it fo miferably depopulated, that the num- 
ber of inhabitants did not exceed 33,000. During 
the abfence of the Popes the Colonnas' and Orfinis', 
in their turns, carried by afiault both the city and 
its environs j which fuffered more at that time from 
^ the Italians, than from the northern nations in the 
tifth and fixth centuries. The wretched hufbandmen 
were forced to abandon their houfes, and the tillage 
of their farms ; fo that the country about Rome 
was over-run with woods and thickets, and poifoned 
by noxious marlhes, refembling, for the moft part, 
what is now to be feen between Oftia and Nettuno. 
In this feafon of public diftraflion, almoft all the 
ufeful arts were extinguifhed. The wells and 
cifterns, and thofe noble remains of magnificence, 
the aquedufls, were involved in the general ruin i 
and the Popes who have had the vanity to infcribe 
their names upon fo many ufelefs edifices, have 
never thought fit to repair the water works in the 

• Almoft all the voyage-writers, fpeaking of the neighbourhood 
of Rome, call it the Campagna; either not knowing, or not re- 
flefting, that the Camfagna di Roma takes ir. only the boundaries of 
ancient Latium. 

country, 



AGRICULTURE. 435 

Country, in which every individual had an intereft. 
We learn fronn Frontinus, who has written the moft 
accurately upon this fubjed, that there were three 
aquedufls in Rome, during the times of the re- 
public ; and that four were added in the reign of 
Auguftusj fo that Rome was then plentifully fup- 
plied with water; and we may gather from the ac- 
counts of antiquity, that numberlefs little ftreams 
were condufled from thefe aquedu6ls to fupply the 
villages. Indeed Augudus was fo attentive to this 
important concern, that he is reported to have 
brought into Rome the Aqua Alfeatina, which 
was of a bad quality, for the ufe of the Nauma- 
chiae; that the people fhould not be deprived of 
the lead quantity of water that was reputed more 
wholefome*. In fucceeding ages, the number of 
aquedufls was confiderably Increafed. The fplendid 
appearance of fountains in modern Rome has led 
mafty to imagine, that few cities in the world are 
better furnilhed with good water; but the leverfe 
of this obfervation feems to be true. The city is 
fupplicd but by three aqueduds, two of which are 
modern. The water which comes from the Lago 
Bracciano to S. Pietro Montorio, has a very ofFen- 
five taftcj and the Acqua Felice of Sixtus Y. 
though generally preferred to it, can fcarcely be 
faid to be of a better quality. The Acqua VcrginCj 

• See Frontinus, l.ii. §. ii. *' de aqu3edu£\ibus urbis Romse ne 
^uid Cidubnoribus acquis detrahsrent." 

brought 

9 



436 A N N A L S O F 

brought from the Sabina by Agrippa, is the only 
water conveyed by an ancient aquedufb; and that 
this is entire, is owing to the circumftance of its 
being alnnoft wholly under ground *. This feems 
to be thie only wholefome water in Romei and fuch 
as perfer good water to good air, chufe to live in 
this quarter of the city, notwithftanding its low fi- 
tuation. Since then there remains but one ancient 
aqueduA in Rome, it is lefs ftrange, that the aque- 
duds in the country have lain totally negleded ; 
and, as the expence in repairing them is too con- 
fiderable for private perfons, it has obliged many 
to feek habitations in other parts. It cannot be 
denied that the principal towns in the difiri5i are 
fupplied with a fufficient quantity of fountains; but 
the thinly- fcattered people, who inhabit the mifer- 
able hovels in the country, are deftitute of this ad- 
vantage; they have for the mod part, neither fprings 
nor cifterns, nor even wells j but are obliged to 
fetch the water for all ufes whatever from llagnated 
pools, which occafions fuch diftempers as are com- 
mon to places in a fimilar fituation. We may add 
to this, that the cattle cannot fubfift there during 
the fummer, without the utmoft hazard ; and that 
it is ufual for them to die very faft in a dry winter'; 
a misfortune which befalls even the fliecp, as the 
fhepherds have alfured me: and it is well kncwhi 

• *' Miiiiis iiijuriae luhjacenr lubtt^ranea, ncc ge'icitijs, atc'ta- 
loribus expofita. Frontin. ]. i. fee. isi." ;i> : Xa'tt 

liar. 



AGRICULTURE. 437 

that, in harveft time, the reapers frequently pay- 
more for water than for wine, as the former is fo 
fcarcej and fometimes brought from a greater dif- 
tancCi Upon the Whole, the want of good water 
will fuggeft naturally a reafon for the defolated 
ftate of the dijlri^ of Rome y though it is certain, 
that this is chiefly to be attributed to the abufe of 
the chamber of corn^ which will be the fubje6t of 
a future paper» 



CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CONNEC- 
TION BETWEEN THE AGRICUL- 
TURE OF ENGLAND AND THE COM- 
MERCIAL POLICY OF HER SUGAR- 
ISLANDS, PARTICULARLY RESPEC- 
TING A FREE TRADE WITH NORTH 
AMERICA. 

By the Editor, 

nPFlE principles laid down by Lord Sheffield, in 
his Obfcrvations on the Commerce of the 
American States, appeared to me to be founded 
on fa£ls clearly delineated, and on conclufions 
fairly drawn j and I confequently gave the 
book the charadltr which it fcemed to deferve. 
The . Well India pLntcrrs and merchants, at a 
meeting held May i, 1784, ordered a difl:ribution 
of a reply to it under the title ofj Confiderations on 
YoL. I. No. 6. G g the 



43S ANNALSOF 

the Frefent State of the Inter ccurfe betzveen thi 
Sugar Colonies and the United States i a well-written 
and able but artful perforrnance. If this anfwer, 
thus patronized by the whole body of planters and 
merchants, contains a true reprefentation. then 
muft Great Britain give up all thoughts of reaping 
thofe advantages from her fugar- colonies j which, 
till the prefent moment, were thought inherently 
to belong to fuch pofieffions, and mud be content 
to fee, by far, the bed part of the profit of their 
commerce center with the United States. Thofe 
who have been converfant in the hiftory of our 
corn-trade, know very well that it was once one 
of the beft branches of commerce we poffefTed ; 
but of late years has declined fo greatly, that even 
in periods when we have had a Superfluity in our 
markets, we have been unable to export it, and at 
the very time that our Weft India iflands have been 
fupplied with flour and provifions, to a vaft amount, 
frbm North America and elfewhere. It has been 
thought, by perfons well able to form a judgment, 
that the indpendency of North America ought to 
have been confidered as a period to efFefl the one 
of two things, either to get the fupply of our iflands 
for ourfelves; or, if that fliould not be pradicable, 
at leaft to fecure the navigation employed by it. 
Such an expeftation could not, to the impartial 
part of the public, be thought unreafonable, in a 
trade that had an annual balance againft us of more 
than a million fterling. 

That 



A G R I C U L t U R E. 439 

That the objefb is of great importance to the 
agriculture of Britain, appears from the table, given 
by the author of the reply, of the import from 
North America in the three years 1771, 1772,1773. 



Bufhels of corn. 

Ditto of peafe and beans. 

Barrels of bread and flour, 

Kegs of bread and flour. 

Barrels of beef and pork. 

Dozens of poultry. 

Number of horfes. 

Do. of oxen. 

Do. of Iheep and hogs. 

From thele particulars we find, that the Weft 
Indies are a regular market for corn and provifions 
of various forts, all of which Great Britain and Ire- 
land have been for many years in the habit of ex- 
porting i and, that the future fupply of it wc'dd 
be of great confequence to the agriculture of thefe 
kingdoms, no perfon can doubt. The author of 
the reply fays, that we cannot {upiply it i bx^t the 
aflertion is much too vague. The above quantity 
of corn amounts to 50,000 qrs. per annum : the 
400,000 barrels of flour, or better than 130^,000 
per annumj at fix bufliels each, make 97,500 qrs. 
more, call it in ail 150,000 qrs. Thofe who 
know what our export of corn has been, will not 
G g 2 be 



From the 


From Canada, 


United States. 


& N. Scotia. 


1,204,389 


24 


64,006 


1,017 


. 396.329 


991 


11,099 


._ 


44,782 


I)C 


2,739 


10 


7>i30 


28 


3*647 


, — 


I3>8i5 


— 



440 ANNALSOF 

be ready to agree to the impoflibility of exporting 
fuch a trifling quantity as this ; which, in truth; 
does not exceed the quantity we regularly export, 
even when a very confiderable import is taking 
place J in 1778 we exported of wheat, 141,070 qrs. 
in 1779 — 222,261 

in 1780 — 224,059 

in 1 78 1 — 103,021 

yet thefe were import years alfo ; a circumftance 
alone fufficient to prove, that even a fcarcity in 
England would not prevent the fupply ofthofc 
iflands. As to beef and pork, Ireland can, on fair 
terms, fell as cheap, and, quality confidered, cheaper 
than any other country. I have received letters 
from that kingdom, within fix months, complain- 
ing of their low prices, lower than common ; for 
beef at Cork lafl winter was at 1 3s. per cwt. 

In the prefent flatc of our conneflion with that 
kingdom, and in the diftrefles Ihc is now complain- 
ing of, it muft at once be obvious, how utterly im- 
prudent it is to give the United States any prefer- 
ence whatever in fupplying our iflands with com- 
modities which Ireland can fell nearly, if not quite 
as cheap. Thefe two objeds of gaining the corn 
fupply for ourfelves, and the fait meat for Ireland *, 
with the navigation of both, depend on the plaineft 

• Mr. Walker, at the bar of the Houfe of Commons in 1775, 
admitted, that <* Ireland furniflied a large quantity of falted beef» 
pork, butter, and herrings, to the Weft Indies j" if fo> Hie is able 
to fupply the whole, or thefe artidei would not be fo cheap with her. 

principles j 



AGRICULTURE. 441 

principles; the advantages are obvious, and the 
means eafy ; but give the United States the free 
trade, and they are gone for ever. 

Thus far the point in queftion concerns nearly 
the Agriculture of thefe kingdoms j that of 
lumber is different ; but, as Lord Sheffield is re- 
probated for his opinion on this head, I muft be 
permitted a few obfervations on it. 

The great hinge upon wiiich the merchants ar- 
gument turns, is the table at p. 24. in which the 
imports into the Weft Indies are given from the 
United States in one column, from Canada and 
Nova Scotia in another, and from Newfoundland 
in a third. 

United States. Can. & N. S. Newf. 

Boards & timber, 76,767,695 232,040 2,000 
&c. &c. &c. 

And this is an account for the years 1771, 1772, 
and 1773, taken at London in 1775. I never 
meet with tables of exports and imports brought 
forward to anfwer the purpofes of private intereft, 
but I fufpe^ their accuracy, even when they are 
taken from the regifters of our own revenue j but 
how much more are we to fufped accounts that 
muft have been taken at Weft India cuftom-houfes ? 
How came this table to have been framed at all J 
There was no duty in North America on the ex- 
port of thefe commodities j nor on the import of 
them in the Weft Indies j how then know the 
G g 3 quantity 



442 A N N A L S O F 

iquantity thus exaftly * ? From North America 
57,998,661 ftaves; from Canada 27,350! If King, 
Lords, and Commons, were to call for fuch ac- 
counts, and it anfwered any purpofe not to give them, 
a committee of merchants would not find it difficult 
to Ihew the utter impofTibility of procuring them. 
But if the table is fufpicious from the improba- 
bility of its being obtained with any degree of ac- 
curacy, how much more fo muft it appear, when 
we confider the date of it, 1775 ! I will venture to 
aflert, that there was not one fyllable of unpre- 
^'^'■' judiced, uncontaminated truth, in faft, figures, or 
argument, drawn up or publilhed relative to the 
Weft Indies in that year. The bill for reftraining 
the commerce of the rebellious colonies, was then 
going through the two houfes. The Weft India 
planters and merchants were moving heaven and 
earth to ftop a bill, which thofe who were examined 
at the bar of either, declared would utterly ftarve 
ajnd ruin the fugar-iflands. Mr. Glover, in the 
Houfe of Commons, examined Meflrs. Walker and 
Ellis, March i6th, 1775 ; and the table now pro- 
duced is dated March 15 th, of the fame year; fo 
very opportunely was this table then produced to 
- prove an interefted queftion, and now brought for- 
ward a fecond time for the fame purpofe. The 
argument in favour of the reftraining bill then was, 

* I do not mean lo infinuate that there are no accounts what- 
ever } but I could bring many proofs of the inaccurate and loofe 
manner in which they are kept, which is indeed admitted. 

■ ' " ■ ^ that 



AGRICULTURE. 443 

that Canada, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland, 
might fupply the Weft Indies; and the table was 
drawn up to fhew the impofTibilicy' of it. When I 
reflect on the nunnerous inftances in which large 
commercial bodies have united to deceive govern- 
mentj for the purpofes of their trade, I know what 
credit to give to fuch tables and accounts. 

But let us grant the whole to be religiouQy true, 
we are not then one jot nearer a proof that the 
United States ought to have the free trade. For the . 
queftion then is. Will not their fubjedls fell their 
corn, lumber, and provifions, to Britifli fliips, for the 
fupply of the idands ? No, fays this author, theajjem- 
Hies of Maryland^ Carolina, Virginia, and Penn/yl- 
vania, have declared they will -prohibit it. Cobwebs 
to catch flies ! I Ihould have thought, after the re- 
cent proof we have had of the folly and futility of 
fuch refolutions and laws in that continent, we 
Ihould not fo foon have heard an argument founded- 
on them. While it was war and blood, and vengeance 
between the two nations, and we were attemptrng 
to enflave them, our trade was nearly as advantage- 
ous as ever, in the teeth of fcores of laws and refo- 
lutions J and now we are to believe, that they will 
not take Englifli guineas, to a vaft amount, for the 
provifions that are raifed, and the lumber that is 
cut for the fupply, but will ftarve themfelves upon 
the point of honour. The merchants and planters 
in 1775, faidjuft the fame ; Mr. Brook Wafon, 
in his examination, " that the Wefl: Indies could 
G g 4 not 



444 ANNALS OF 

not be fupplied with fifli," if the reftraining bill 
pafTed *, « Nothing, fays Mr. Walker, will fave 
Barbadoes and the Leeward Iflands, fronn the dread - 
ful confequences of abfoliite famine f ." Mr. Ellis 
'' dreads to think of the confequence J'\ It would 
be endltrfs to quote their apprehenfions and predic- 
tions i nor would it be very enlightening, fince the 
whole mafs of information was erroneous, and the 
fad: turned out exadly the reverfe of their aflertions. 
The bill paflcd, took place, and the iflands were 
not ftarved, bur fupplied. 

That this will be the cafe at prefent, fhould the 
navigation of the iflands be preferved to us, no- 
body can doubt; to fuppofe that the United States 
will refufe the fupply, if we do not take it upon 
their own terms, is a grofs abfurdity, fince their 
own interefl points out the contrary, in the moft 
exphcit manner. The progrefs of their plantations 
depends on the fale of their lumber which arifes 
from clearing the ground for cultivation : and 
while corn and provifions abound, as they are known 
to do there, it would be ridiculous to fuppoffe them 
fending back our fliips empty, inftead of loading; 
them. We, however, need not reafon upon a 
point already decided by experience; the rebellion 
brought this very queftion to ifTue, and the iflands 
were fupplied full in the teeth of the whole mafs of 

"? Parliamentary Regifter, Vol. i. 1775, p. a66. 
+ Parliamentary Regifter, Vol. i> 1775> p. JJOi 
% Ibid, p. 345. 

information 



AGRICULTURE. 445 

information produced by the merchants and plan- 
' ters. 

The author of the pamphlet makes a boaft of 
above 50 millions of Britifh capitals being employed 
in the Weft Indies. That, in my opinion, is the 
moft melancholy line in his whole performance, 
Thofe who will turn to my firft number, and refled, 
with me, on the comparifon of invefting 20 millions 
in the waftes of Britain, or in Jamaica, will regret 
that fo large a flake is applied to a trade by which 
we lofe a full million fterling per annum. They, 
will, at the fame time, conceive, that it highly be- \ 
hoves this kingdom, fince fo much capital is thus 
applied, to make the moft it can of it ; and, above 
all, to fecure much the moft valuable part depen- 
dent, — the navigation. 

I cannot difmifs the fubje^l, without lamenting 
the fatality that feems in this free country to attend 
commercial difquifitions, which is the difficulty of 
cxtradting truth from them. When bodies of 
commercial people unite to carry intcrefted quef- 
tions, they have ufuaily been very liberal in publi- 
cations ; fa6ls, ftatements, tables, and calculations, 
are brought forward ; and nothing omitted to pert^ 
fuade the legiflature that their private intercft is that 
of the ftate. But when the fubje^l of the day 
blows over, when nothing more is to be loft or 
gained by conten^on, ^nd the minds of men cooled, 
review fronri frefh documents the old queftions ; it 
}§ with ^ftonifhment they find how hardily felf-in- 



446 ANNALS OF 

Ure^ could impofe upon them *. From 1735 to 
1740, this kingdom was deluged with complaints 
of the decline and ruin of the woollen manufa6lure^ 
and the two houfes were bufied witii hearing them 
and the propofuions for reviving it. Afterwards, 
on the exports being laid on the table of the Houfe 
of Commons for other purpofes, what was the fur- 
prifeof menj to find that the complaints had been 
utterly groundlefs, and that the export of woollen 
goods had been at its very zenith, v^hile reprefented - 
as finking to nothing. 

i Some years afterwards, another great commer- 
cial queftion arofe upon the fupply of the foreign 
"Weft Indies by our nothern colonics. Committees 
fat on it, and the prefs groaned with authorities : I 
iiave more than twenty publications upon that 
point; and whoever will have the curiolity to exa- 
mine the controvcrfy, will find how very liberal 
botb parties were in falfifying fads, and at publiih- 
ing tables and ftatements of lies and abfurdities. 

When the meafures fo»r em.ancipating a few 
branches of the trade of Ireland, were under con- 
iideration in parliament, petitions flowed from half 
the manufaflures of England, fetting forth, and 
aiTuring of proof from authentic documentSj^ the 

* I fhall not take upon me to affert, that faife reprefentations 
are always made with an intention to deceive j and much lefs that 
it is the cafe at piefent } certainly a man may be deceived himfelf, 
and may think his erro)rs the real truth j but it is juft the fame to 
^e public* 

Utt€2r 



AGRICULTURE. 447 

utter ruin which would follow the execution of 
thofe f^lans. Nay, the petition from one town, af- 
fured the Houfe of Commons, that giving a pri- 
vilege to Ireland which they imagined to be then 
in agitation, would ruin their fabric ; when, upon 
examination, the Irifli had been in pofTefTion of the 
privilege for ten years before, without thofe good 
people knowing any thing at all of the matter. But 
all che oppofition, general as it was, proved equally 
ridiculous, fince the event has fhewn, that not one 
manufafture of England has fufFered a fingle fhil- 
ling by the free trade of Ireland. V 

Ought we not, therefore, to apply thefe inftances 
to the prefent cafe, and take it for granted, that 
this Weft Indian alarm is of the fame complexion 
v/ith fo many others, and that the evils dreaded 
are purely imaginary. 



\ 



REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS RE- 
LATING TO AGRICULTURE. 

InJiru5liQn four les Bergers & pour les Proprietaires 
de Troupe aux. Par M. D' Aubenton, ^WQ, Paris, 
Pierres, 1782. 

nPHE very celebrated and ingenious author of 

- this work was employed, he informs us, by 

the government of France, to make experiments 



443 ANNALSOF 

and obfervations upon (heep, principally with a 
view to the improvement of the wool of that king- 
dom. This has long been a favourite obje6l with 
the French miniftry. In lyyijMonl. Carlierpub- 
liihed a work in 2 vols. 4to. under the title 'Traits 
des Betes a lainej a regifter of obfervations made in 
every province of the kingdom, undertaken by the 
direftion of Monf. Turgot, and at the public ex- 
penfe. Nor are thefe views completed by the work 
of Monf. Daubenton, for eleves of the veterinarian 
fchool are now travelling through England, at the 
king of France's expenlc, for gaining a knowledge 
of the Englifh management of flieep, one of whom 
(Monf. Flandrein) was recommended to me. Too 
much cannot be faid in praife of fuch continued 
and fpirited exertions ; a perfed contraft to that 
entire neglcft in which every man is fure to remain 
in this kingdom, whofe exertions tend, in any de- 
gree, to emulate the noble efforts of our enlight- 
ened and induftrious neighbours. 

Monf. Daubenton divides his work into fifteen 
leffbnSi for it is intended for the ufe of country 
readers, and therefore is written in queftion and 
^nfwer. But in an advertifement, he refers to a 
larger work, that is to contain the recital of the 
experiments he made on his flock, at his feat near 
Montbard, in Burgundy. 

The firft leffon is upon the fliepherd, and of 
whatever ufe it might prove to a lad juft put into 

that 



AGRICULTURE. 449 

that office, and who had never feen or heard of it 
before, yet contains fo little, that five minutes 
converfation with an old fhepherd would give him 
much more information. Two pages are employed 
in defcribing the ufe of his crook, his whip, and 
his pouch. What does my reader think of queftion 
and anfwer upon fuch fubjefts as thefe ? ^'ejl ce 
que la houletUy i^ a quoi fert-elle ? S^iCefi ce que 
la panetiere ^ quoi Jert-elle ? 

The fecond leflbn is upon the fhepherd's dog 
and the wolf; and upon the training of the dog; ". 
contains matter of much the fame confequencc as 
the preceding. It is not that the objeds are de- 
void of importance j a fpade is an objeft efleiitial 
to a gardener, but who experts an elaborate de- 
fcription of a fpade in a ireatife of gardening ? 

Leflbn the third comes to points of more confe- 
quencc, Iheep -houfes, and Handing folds. Houfcs 
quite enclofed he juftly condemns, being too hot; 
Iheds open on one fide are better ; but he prefers 
fuch as are open all around, and which have no 
other Ihelter than the roof. Thefe are buildings 
he direfts to be made, fo as to allow fmall fheep 
five fquare feet, and large ones ten. But he ob- 
ferves, that the expenfe may be faved, by having a 
ftanding-fold near the farm-yard, littered, and with- 
out any covering. In this method he kept 300 
fheep near Montbard, from 1767 to 178 1. This 
ftanding-fold he rcconnmends to be fix fquare feet 

for -^ 



4$6 ANNALS OF 

for each middling fized Iheep ; but, if litter is 
plenty, then lo or 12 feet. Mr Daubemon affcns^ 
that the dung of the (landing- fjld is much brttcr 
than that from any building which is covered ; be- 
caufe it is not fubjeft to heat, whiten, and lok ics 
ftrength. This is as capital an error as an auchor 
could pofTibly fall into j for T have a houfe open :o 
the fouth, which I have ufed feveral years as a fheep- 
fold, before it is a yard larger than the houfe, fo that 
the Iheep may be covered, or not, as they pleafe j at 
the end of the winter it is cleaned out, and one load 
of the dung from the part under cover, is worth two 
loads of that expofed to the weather. It neither 
burns nor whitens, but is moift, putrid, and ftink- 
ingly full of the volatile alkali. 

Mr. Daubenton fays, that if you have not litter, 
the dung, &c. muft be cleaned out every morning : 
.thiis is very infufEcient : no perfon Ihould think of 
a {landing fold without the greateft plenty of litter. 

The fourth leffon is upon the choice of Iheep, 
their fhape, make, &c. from which we are to con- 
clude, that the difcoveries which have been made 
In England in breeding and judging of fheep, and 
the interefting enquiries which have been fet on 
foot by the praftice fo celebrated of Mr. Bake well, 
are utterly unknown in France, or confidered as 
unworthy of attention. 

Fourteen years ago I publifhed particulars of 

Mr. Bakeweli's breed, and his rules of judging of 

1^ iheep. 



AGRICULTURE, 4^1 

fiieep, which are at prefent known in this kingdom 
to be admirable, and, indeed, unexceptionable, for 
(keep that carry long combing wool. How per- 
fcftly well fatisfied the gentlemen of France rmuH 
be with rheir fheep, their pradlice, and their know- 
iedge, to write as if no fuch difcoveries, no fuch ex- 
periments, or efforts had been made. In the defcrip- 
tioTi of wools, not a fyllable on the diftindion (y£ 
combing and cloathing wool, without which, v<jhsi- 
ever is written on the fubjeifl muft be incomplete: 
an almoft undiftinguifhed recommendation pf higk 
iheep (de haute taiUe)^ without one v/ord of drivii:ig 
to fold, as a circumftance to regulate the breed. 
Nothing of the points of form that promife a dif- 
polition to fatten quickly j or that are chara6berifl:ic 
of other effential circumftances. Do the gentle- 
men of Frafice never hear of England and its 
fheep ? or of fyftems very contrary to their owfi, 
deduced from abundant pradice, and reiterated 
experiment ? 

My Jheep muji travel three or four miles a day % 
they miifi be driven f^r to fold, cr far to a common f 
My land is very rich, and I want no folding'^ My 
land is good, dry^ and yields a Jweet fine bite -, but 
my Jheep muji travel from the downs to fold '^ d 
mountain-fide farm, with broken ground, hog, and 
gullies ? A poor bleak cold expojure ? A poor, dry^ 
barren Jand? What breed am I to chufe in thefe 
aad many other cafes ? Are thefe queftions of no 

confeqijejicc ? ' 



4P ANNALS OF 

confequence ? Certainly Mr. Daubenton thinks fo^ 
or his book would have anfwered fontie of them. 

The fifth leflbn is upon pafturing fheep, and 
contains few obfervations that are of confequence j 
but omits many that are eflential to the manage- 
ment of thefe animals. Nor is it entirely free 
from grofs errors } tlie method prefer i bed for feeding 
an enclofed pafture where the herbage is abundanti 
is by penning them on portions, exaftly as we prac* 
tice with turnips, which is a miferable condud, 
utterly contradidted by all the enlightened prafticc 
of Great Britain. Sheep would not fatten ib, with* 
out a greater wafle than it is intended to efcape j 
and a common flock ought to have a fhort frefli 
bite on a large breadth of ground. 

The fixth leflbn is upon the nourifhment of 
fheep : he here declares much againfl dry forage, 
which he thinks agrees very badly with their tem^ 
peramentj recommends the pimprenelle {burnet) 
and the paftel {woad) as green winter-food. But 
how ftrange it is, to take not the finalleft notice 
of the experiments that have been made on the 
former as the food of fheep in England ! though 
the refult contains circumftances of great confe- 
quence to the health of that animal. Can it be 
pofHble that the French know nothing of thefe 
experiments! Cabbage and cole-Jeedt being watery 
plants, would hurt /heep if it was not for dry forage 
given night and morning! The fadt is dirtdtly the 

reverfc j 



AGRICULTURE. 4J3 

reverfe j for we have thoufands of (heep in Eng- 
land that live for months together on cole-feed, 
and fo far from being hurt by it, they fatten, or 
yield plenty of milk on it, and yet never touch dry 
forage : but the theory is as unphilofophical as the 
fa6t is erroneous; for the nature of the plant decides 
its wholefomenefs to (heep, its being of a hot, pun- 
gent, or a vitriolic quality : broom, burnet, parfley, 
for the one, and why not cabbage for the other ! 
feeing that few plants abound fo much with iron, 
and the water of a blackfmith's forge will cufc the 
rot. 

In his lift of plants for (heep, ray-grafs is placed 
for Jirong and cold lands I Again, let me refer Mr. 
Daubenton to the pradlice of England. 

The 7th lelTon is upon feeding and giving fait. 
He fays, a (heep of a moderate fize will eat 5 lb, 
of cabbage in a day \ and that i \ lb. is a proper 
repaft when they have dry food morning and night; 
or 3 lb. of carrots, if lb. of turnips, or i| lb. po- 
tatoes or topinambours ; all which is but wild 
work, and indeed co,ntradi6ts experiments that have 
been made in England with great attention. Mr. 
I.egrand's large (heep eat 16 lb. of carrots, and 
4 lb. of hay per diem*. Mr. Baker's fheep, of 
20 lb» a quarter, eat 20 lb. of turnips a day f. 

* See my Eaftern Tour. 

t Baker's experiments for 1764, p. 49. 

Vol. I. No. 6. Hh I found '^ 



4J4 • ANNALS OF 

I found that fheep of 131b. a quarter, eat 11 lb* 
daily of carrots *. By many trials in this kingdotlria 
it has been found that carrots are a more nouriih- 
ing food, and go further than cabbage or turnip. 
Mr. Daubenton reverfes this, and gives double 
the weight of canot that he does of cabbage. At 
all events, it was incumbent on him, to take no~ 
lice of fimilar enquiries made in England -, and 
not take it for granted that every effential to that, 
or any other fubjed, was to be found only in 
France, 

He orders 2 lb. of hay a day to a fheep of a mo- 
derate fize, which was the quantity he found, by 
experiment, one would eat. He is a friend to 
giving fait to fheep j the quantity i lb. every 
eight days to twenty. As a cure for the rot, he 
only hints at fome experiments that might be 
madis on that and other bodies j but feems to be 
quite unacquainted with the trials that have been 
made in England. 

The eighth leflbn is upon breeding j and there 
we find, that if a ram is to be preferved from 
weaknefs, and the lambs are to be flrong, there 
fhould be but from fifteen to twenty fheep for him. 
"What fay our Englilh breeders to keeping fixty 
rams to a flock of 1000 flieep I Many of the ob- 
fervations in this lefTon are juft, but. fo common 
and obvious, as to be of little importance. The 

* Bath Society's Papers, vol, ii. p. 189. 

f"^ omiffions 



AGRICULTURE. 455 

omiflions are much more numerous : the fyftem 
of breeding is by no means fo regular as here 
dated ; much too little is allowed to variation of 
pafture j and throughout, it feems as if a large 
fheep with much wool was alone the objeft, 
whereas fliape and quality relative to a difpofitioa 
to fatten well, hardinefs, &c. &c. are to the full 
as important. 

The ninth lefTon is upon the attention to be paid 
to Iheep in lambing ; and the tenth on lambs. 
Contain fome very good obfervations for the ufe of 
young or inexperienced (hepherds and mailers. 

The twelfth lefTon is upon wethers ; in which 
he Obferves, that for fattening, lucerne is the mod 
nouriftiing, next clover, and next fainfoin j alfo 
fromental (quere the avena elatior) coquiole, ti- 
mothy, and ray-grafs. The reader will certainljr 
fmile at feeing timothy named, fince a worfe plant 
for fheep can hardly be found : and the fromental, 
which in another place (p. 86.) he fays, grows 
higher than any other herb of the pafture, is as 
bad ; the high growth is a fure proof of its being 
bad for flieep. If ray-grafs had been underftood 
in France, ic would not have been named ^<???ifr<«//}', 
fmce the m.erit is in fpring only. The inftrudion 
for fattening on turnips is not amifs, except in the 
expence j which fhews (French agriculture conH- 
dered) that it is theoretical j for he direcfls bran 
and oats, or barley-meal, to be given with therri- ^ 
H h 2 . every / 



/i^^^ 



*^* 



456 ANNALS OF 

every night : that the (beep would fatten the better, 
for it cannot be doubted, but we know, on mod 
ample experience, that it is not neceffary, and that 
corn mufl: be excefTively cheap for it to anfwer. 
■ Cabbages, he fays, fatten fafter than turnips, but 
he orders corn as with that root. Upon the pro- 
per arrangement of food of different forts to fol- 
low each other, through the winter and fpring, 
fuch as turnips, turnip rooted cabbage, boor-cole, 
cole- worts, rye, ray-grafs, winter -tares. Sec. per- 
haps the mod important objefl of all ; with the 
connection between the crops fo arranged, and the 
general courfe of the farm, on thefe points he fays 
not one word. Indeed the whole turn of the book, 
wherever green winter- food is mentioned, proves 
that the cultivation is very little underftood in 
France. 

The twelfth is upon wool : he recites an expe- 
riment on clipping lambs, made in I773> upon fix 
of which he clipped on one fide, and the year fol- 
lowing on both fides, and found that one clipping 
yielded very nearly as much in value as both. I 
have no doubt but it will generally be found fOf 
and that the praftice of clipping lambs (not at all 
general in England) is, for various reafons, a bad 
one. It appears to be the cuftom in France, for 
the farmers to wafh. the fleeces thoroughly after, 
as well as before clipping, which is not done in 
.England, to my knowledge. The lefTon concludes, 
r with 



- AGRICULTURE. 457 

with a very good defcription of the caterpillar 
moth, that breeds in and eats wool. This, as 
farming is managed in England, the hufbandman 
has nothing to do with, it belongs to the wool- 
man and manufafturer -, a farmer fliould not fpe- 
culate by keeping magazines of wool. 

The thirteenth is upon folding ; in which we 
learn a very remarkable circumftance, that the 
French fhepherds move their fold in the night 
once, and even fometimes twice, when the fli^ep 
are very well fed. Mr. Daubenton does not con- 
demn this trouble, which might be very eafily 
avoided, by making the fold larger. He men- 
tions alfo fainfoin being killed by folding, but the 
reafon certainly muft have been the flieep eating 
the plants into the crowns of the roots. The ob- 
fcrvations on folding are juft, and may be of ia"i- 
portance to French farmers. Wfr 

The fourteenth leflbn contains an explanation 
of various figures, the anatomical ones appear to 
have great merit. Plate 3, reprefents the form of 
the teeth at the different periods of the Iheep's age, 
with great accuracy j and plate 5, explains the 
fituation of the lamb, when a foetus, in the fheep's 
womb, in a manner that may be of ufe to every 
Ihepherd j the plates, however, in general, like 
thofe of many other works in France, defcend to 
ufelefs minutise. Annexed are fix memoirs, fome 
9f which were read to the Academy of Sciences by 
H h 3 Monf. 



>i'4^k 



453' ANNALSOF 

Monf Daubenton, on the fubjeft of fheep. The 
ift on ruminaiion, and is fcientific. The 2d on 
foldings in which Mr. Daubenton juftly contends 
for the uncovered fold, in preference to hot (lables. 
This connparifon is one of the leading features of 
the book, and is well fupported ; but no where 
gives any reafon for preferring the open fold to 
one, for winter, partially covered, in which the 
fheep may fhelter thennJelves exaftly in the degree 
they chufe; and v/hich is, indeed, the utmoft per- 
feftion of folding. Mr. Daubenton, in this me- 
moir is decidedly of opinion, that France may be 
made to produce as good wool as England or Spain, 
and probably better j but here a diflin6lion ought 
to be made -, what improvements they may make 
in fine cloathing wool (that is in rivalling Spain) 
1 know not ; but have not the leafl hefitation at 
declaring the utter improbability of their ever pro- 
ducing fuch long combing wool as our counties 
of Lincoln, Leicefter, Northampton, &cc. yield ^ 
which depends not only on the rich winter nutri- 
ment of a highly improved agriculture, but on the 
union of a rich and fertile foil, with a very humid 
climate, without being fo wet as necefTarily to en- 
tail diftempers on the animal. Ireland is much 
more moift, yet Iheep are healthy there. The 3d 
memoir is up©n the improvement of Iheep j in 
which Mr. Daubenton tells us, that he has, by 
merely crofTing breeds, brought his wool to be 
:>■ nearly 



AGRICULTURE. ^';g 

nearly equal to the beft of Spain j yet he fays his 
Iheep had not been favoured in their food. HencCj 
therefore, Mr. Daubenton's theory is, that chang- 
ing breeds will give France good wool. It will 
be well for her if this idea anfvvers in an enlarged 
pra6tice. Froin the author's comparifon being, 
with Spanifh wool, I take for granted that his ob- 
jeft was cloathing-wool ; but that ireeii will give 
him long combing wool, while his fheep in fummer 
feed upon land that is maigre^ and in winter his only 
rack- food pailles de toutes les Jortes^ is what he wifi 
perfuade no pradical man of. The 4th treats of 
two didempers ; one la chaleur, v/hich arifes from 
a violent fun ; the oiher the fcab. Bleeding he 
recommends for the firft, and takes occafion to 
point out a proper vein to bleed fheep in j which 
is the angular one on the cheek, juft above the tu- 
bercule formed by the root of the fourth grinding- 
tooth. At this place a fheep is eafily bled by one 
perfon, fafely, and the quantity of blood to be 
gained fufEcient. A plate is annexed, pointing 
out the vein. 

The next memoir is upon the food of fheep ; in 
which Mr. Daubenton recites an experiment made 
on two fheep of middling fize, confined within hur- 
dles, by which he found that each eat 8 lb. of green 
fodder, given in racks, every dayj alb. of hay; 
or 2 1 lb. of flraw j and he alfo found, what has been 
often tried in England, that it takes 8 lb. of grafs 
H h ^ t^ 



fii^ 



46o ANNALS OF 

to give 2 lb. of hay. The cabbage and boor-cole 
culture, is mentioned in terms rather of condem- 
nation than of praife ; but he tells us of a wonder- 
ful fort, the characters of which are of a nature 
that muft raife no flight curiofity j thefe are his 
words, " Whatever advantage may be drawn from 
cabbages as a food for fheep, I fhould not advife 
the ufe of that plant, if I had not met with a fpecics 
of it which may be had without fowing, tranf- 
planting, or watering : a fpecies equally unknown 
.to naturalifts and farmers. It refifts the froft as 
well as the chou-frange and the chou- cavalier, and 
is preferable to them for cattle, becaufe the cul- 
ture is very eafy. It may be propagated by flips. 
All that is neceflary, is to cut the lateral branches, 
v.'hich are in great numbers, and to place them in 
the earti>, for having immediately new plants for 
any extent of well- cultivated ground. The leaves 
are lefs in fize than thofe of other cabbages, but 
they are equally juicy; they would ferve equally 
well to feed the fliepherd as his flietp ; a handful of 
thefe leaves given to (beep, would correct the ill 
effefts of dry forage j " — and what is this wonder- 
ful cabbage ? Will the reader believe me, when T 
tell him, that there Mr. Daubenton leaves us in the 
dark ? He chufes to keep the fecrct : but when we 
learn, from other pafl!ages in his book, that he has 
trufted for his flock in bad weather, for many 

winters^, 



r 



AGRICULTURE. 461 

winters, to dry forage only, we fliall not conflder 
the lofs as very diftrefling. 

The laft mennoir is upon wool : and the princi- 
pal objedl of it is to propofe the ufe of a microme- 
ter in a microfcope for meafiiring the finenefs of 
wool. Then follows the lafl: leiTon, which is to 
inftrud the Ihepherd how to find a word in the in- 
dex, informing him that c. d. follow a. b. 

Mr. Daubenton's work is much eileemed in - 
France, and reckoned, as I am informed, the beil 
they have. The anatomical part of it is the only^ 
one in which an Englilh reader will find any in- 
fti uction ; and not much in that part that will be 
found of real confequence in pra(ftice. But as the 
author's reputation is great, admitted in his own 
country to be a very great naturalift, and as an 
Englifh tranflation has been advertifed fome timiC, 
I thought it beneficial to my countrymen to be 
particular in laying before the reader the contents 
of it. I cannot conclude without obferving, that 
the management of Iheep is infinitely better under- 
flood in England than in France, as far as I can 
judge from the remarks in this book j and confe- 
quently, that the merit of the_ work is not to be 
decided upon in England. The author has adapted 
it to his own country j let, therefore, the errors 
which I have pointed out, be confidered as thole 
neceflarily arifing from the ftate of French hul- . 
bandry, rather than from any want of talents or 

induftryity 



462 A N N A L S OF 

induflry in its celebrared author, who dtfervcs 
«cvery praife for his attention to iubjcds lb inti- 
mately conneded with the public good. 



tn«»«ac£5aBa»>- 



CONCLUSION. 

To the Reader. 

\ S the publication is arrived at the clofe of a 
. volunne, I think it neceffary to touch upon a 

few ^ircunnflances, which the purchafers of the 
-^ork^nnay juftly think they have a right to be ac- 
quainted with. 

In the firft nuinber, I promifed to lower the price 
per Iheet as loon as it would pay the expence of 
publilhingi and alfo that I Ihould add the illuftra- 
tion of plates, if they could be afforded : as I have 
neither funk the price, except giving a half fheet 
extraordinary in one or two numbers, nor given any 
plates, a word or two of explanation is neceffary. 

Some of my correfpondents have, in private 
poftfcripts, difapproved of my rejedbing all private 
profit j but, in doing fo, I knew much better what 
I was about. It was not that the advantage of a 
numerous fale was no objedto me; the mediocrity 
of my fortune allowed no fuch idea j but I knew 
perfedly well, that fuch a publication had been 
tried feveral times, and never fucceeded 5 I believe 



AGRICULTURE. 463 

never paid expences. I knew that nothing could 
be more decidedly advantageous to the national 
agriculture, than fuch a regular channel of informa- 
tion. I was well perfuaded that the public good 
was nearly concerned in fupporting fuch a work ; 
all which was fufficient to convince me, that it 
could not be attended with any great fuccefs, and 
that it was more likely fcarcely to be fupported at 
all. The vaft fuccefs attending the molt contemp- 
tible performances, would not permit me to expedl 
any thing more than a very moderate fale ; and "- 
that, to give any degree of popularity to the ^rk, 
it would be neceflary not only to exert every me- 
thod of contributing to its merit, but alfo of mak- 
ing that merit known. 

The following ftate of the expences and pro- 
du6l of the work, will fhew that I was not much 
miftaken. 

Mr. Goldney's Bill. 





Debtor. 


Printing & paper. No i , number 1 000, ;^. 1 7 19 


6 


Ditto — 2, do. 


do. 9 18 





Do. — 3, do. 


500, 1 1 2 


6 


Do. — 4, do. 


do. ^7 


6 


Do. — 5, do. 


do. 12 18 


6 


Stamp Office 5 numbers. 


2 9 


0^ 


Carried forward. 


6j IS 


"o^ 



46^^ A N N A L S O F 

£. s. d. 
Brought forward, - 63 1 5 o 

Carriage, poftage, and fundry fmall 

charges, - - 3 «5 3 

Commiflion, 4s. per cent. - -400 
Advertirements, this is but a fnnall parr, 
as the country accounts and part of 
the London are not come in, 19 4 o 

90 14 3 



J 



Creditor. 

Sold of No. I, 500 t at ^.4100 1.11 10 o 

a, 500 f at 2 16 o 14 o o 

3, 400 fat 4100 1800 

4, 300 -j- at 3120 10 16 o 

5, 300 fat 4 10 o 13 10 o 



Balance, befidcs advertifementSj 



Thus the reader fees how the. account ftands 5 
great exertions have been made on my part, in 

t The reader has the account juft as I received it from my 
printer. I do not underftand thefe even numbers } they look to 
me too much in the lumping way j it is impoffible that juft thefe 
even numbers can be fold. I fuppofe, however, it is near the mat- 
ttr, and that a man in bunnefs could not, on a fudden call, make 
. It more exail. 



78 

II 


16 
18 




3 


90 


14 


3 



^ procuring 



*-T 



AGRICULTURE.^! 

prociiring the mod refpedlabls correfpondence i 
and thefe are the thanks I receive. If I was to 
indulge my own feelings only, I would drop the 
work, and forfwear ever taking a pen in hand ^ 
again, on a fubjefl evidently of no importance ia 
the opinion of the public. But, in jufticc to feve- 
ral very ingenious gentlemen who promife mc 
their fupport, I will give it the further trial of an- 
other volume, and then, if I find the fame indif- 
ference to the caufe, which I have hitherto expe?J'^ 
enced, I will leave the fubjedt to fome abler editor, ^ ' 
who may have a pov,?er of commanding that attca- 
tion which I have failed to engage. But when I 
fee the encouragement given by the pviblic, to a 
variety of periodical pamphlets, the mod contemp- 
tible that can difgrace a national prefs, I own it is 
fome little confolation to my feelings, to be con- 
vinced that there were means by which fucceis 
might have been fecured^ but which I have dif- 
dained to purfue. 

To what can fo trifling a fale be owing ; not, I 
hope, to the condu(5l of the work. I am fure not 
to the contents, for the correfpondence has, in 
point of value, (though not in extent) equalled my 
moft fanguine expe<5tations. If the reader will -, 
take the trouble of turning over t:he Miijeum Ruf- 
ticum^ De Re Rujlica, and Foreign E//hys/l believe 
he will find more original and authentic comrsJH- 
nications in this one volume, than in thofe tea^ 



m^0^ 



4^1^' ANNALSOF 

But with much lefs merit than my correfpondence 
haspoflefledj the mere circumftanceofa repofitory 
that accepts only genuine papers, ought alone to 
demand a greater attention from the public. The 
regularity of a monthly publication, open to dif- 
feminate information from one part of the kingdom 
to the other j and in which, if inftrudion is afl^ed, 
it will not come from A. B. or Q^ or Z ; but 
from real farmers, who praflice what they write, 
...jnerited a reception it has not met with. This is 

•' the reafon why I have not been able yet, either to 
fink the price, or give plates of machines, fome of 

• which are drawn ready for the engraver. Low, 
howevef; as the fale is, compared with other pe- 
riodical works, yet it fhall not be dropped hj me, 
while it pays its own expences. I v/ill do every 
thing in my power to fupport it, and exert myfelf 
in the caufe, as ftrenuoufiy as if it was for my own 
perfonal advantage. I fhall reap the only reward 
I expedled, the confcioufnefs of having done the 
litde that w|s in my power to ferve the public. 

I have re'ceived intelligence from only ten coun- 
ties in fifty-two, befides all Scotland and Ireland. 
The extent of the correfpondence is therefore fmall. 
What are the means which country- gentlemen and 
refident farming reftors, take to be of ufe to the 
public ? Did they receive an education from their 
pjJTents, in order to eat, drink, lleep, live, die, 

^^nd rot in oblivion ? The horfe in their ftable can 

f do 



. AGRICULTURE. \^ 

do all this. Or to caroufe, to give and receive en- 
tertainments, to vifir, to game, to pafs their lives v 
in fenfual gratifications ? The favage that prowls 
the defert can do all t.hat. Do they conceive that *^ 
to plough, to ibvv, to reap, to threlli, and to get 
money, ought to be the objcds of their agricul- 
ture ? The (lupideft clown that fcratches his head 
at a veftry, can do thefe. And even the exertions 
ofafpirited hufbandry, if they aim no further than 
to unite the receipt of the landlord with the profiSi^ 
of the farmer, is but a paltry intention, tliat man^i- ^• 
fefts rather an illiberal than a refpeftable pijuciple. 
What then ought to dignify the fields of a country ^ 
gentleman ; to throw a luflre over his ^^^frWrs-j to 
raife him above the pitiful exertions ot common 
life J to mark him for a friend of mankind j and 
to give reafon for the community to fay, that man. 
adorns his Jiation? Will courfing, (hooting, hunt- 
ing, do this ? What comparifon is there at prefenc 
betv/een Gabriel Platts, ftarved in an age that 
doubtlefs patronized and penfioned Jts pimps, 
puppies, and buffoons, and thofe fcofis of coun- 
try gentlemen with their 5000I. and their io,oool. 
a-year, to difcover whofe exiflence, we muft, half 
buried in dufl, kick alide the bundles of cob-webs 
and parchm^ents to come at the only records of their 
adlions, their mortagesor their wills ! It is not tha^ 
men are all to turn authors — But he who, tryfn|^ 
an experiment in his fields, feels no inclination^tc 

communicat 



t^) 



W"**\ 



ANNALS, &c. 

communicate to others the rcfulr, has little of that 
phlogifton in his veins which prompts, by public 
a6ls, to the decoration of- private life. The re- 
cital of an experiment is given in a few words, and 
with very little trouble, and the man who writes 
it, how much foever he merits, makes no peculiar 
claim upon the public attention, while fuch a 
channel as this is open to him. He communicates 
his knowledge without oftentation or vanity. If 
^efe obfervations are applicable to country gentle- 
men of fortune, how much ftronger is the call to 
the refident clergy who farm their glebes, and are, 
by tythes or compofitions, fupported by that public, 
who have a claim for their exertions to fcrve it in 
return, by fomething more than preaching. 



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